• Lesson plans for the seventh grade Alaska State standards in language arts

      Gieser, Kenneth E. (2014-04)
      The SBE (standards-based education) reform movement calls for clear, measurable standards for all school students. Rather than norm-referenced rankings, a standards-based system measures each student against the concrete standard. Curriculum, assessments, and professional development are aligned to the standards. However, many teachers find standards burdening and restrictive, and it has been challenging for teachers to infuse them with her, or his personal passions. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that not only can these new standards be taught effectively, but that teachers can find them accommodating enough for their passions. This project's outcome will include lesson plans, activities, and assessments, along with my personal reflection as to the efficacy of using these new standards without losing the passion for teaching with them.
    • "Let us die trying": a post-colonial reading of Velma Wallis

      Myers, Seth G. (2006-05)
      This essay explores the work of Velma Wallis from the perspective of post-colonial theory. Her works, Two Old Women and Bird Girl and the Man who Followed the Sun are read within this theoretical framework as volatile and resistant texts, in opposition to readings that might limit their meaning as ethnographic or otherwise. I outline the generalities of my theoretical framework with reference to Edward Said and Homi K. Bhabha, before I approach a discussion of Native American literature and Velma Wallis specifically. Within this theoretical framework, I find that Wallis resists, not only generic definition, but the larger structures of colonialism, through an exploration of resistance within so-called colonized groups. She performs this resistance by demonstrating the power of language, that survival is itself resistant, the resistance of feminism, and the importance of positive dialogue in a world of cultural contact.
    • Leveraging Alaska North Slope satellite oil field design with networked instrumentation and control systems architecture - Foundation Feldbus

      Chouinard, Brian A. (2000-05)
      Since 1988, oil production rates on Alaska's North Slope have faded. The West Sak oil field in the Greater Kuparuk Area was a satellite field targeted to help slow the production decline. The nature of West Sak oil made it prohibitively expensive to produce using conventional methods. Drastic changes in field production design and operational philosophy were required to make West Sak oil economically viable. The instrumentation and controls network architecture leveraged the implementation of this new design and philosophy. This paper examines the technological requirements, establishes evaluation criteria, compares competing options, outlines the design and implementation, and discusses future prospects. In addition, a functional description of the selected technology, Foundation Fieldbus, is presented from the users perspective.
    • Liberation dreamin’ (a good time holiday eight-track for the real American)

      Sanders, Craig S.; Brightwell, Geraldine; Farmer, Daryl; Schell, Jennifer (2016-05)
      The eight short stories that make up Liberation Dreamin’ follow protagonists who yearn to be heroes, saviors, caretakers, and liberators. These are characters fueled by the power of metaphor, lost in the idea of America as they expose the fabulism of reality itself through their absurd attempts to realize their often idealistic wishes and longings. They hunt treasure in the forest of northwestern Pennsylvania, shoot hot air balloons out of the sky, run major celebrities down with their cars on nights of blinded judgment, and even kidnap roadrunners. They stage protests for bigots’ funerals, wage strange wars with dairy farm animals, have misguided epiphanies in checkout lanes, and write urgent letters to Santa Claus himself. These pieces seek to render the biblical commonplace and highlight the profundities of everyday trivialities. As is suggested by the collection’s parenthetical subtitle, A Good Time Holiday Eight-Track for the Real American, these are stories that strive to be musical. In this book of satire and ridiculous narratives, imaginary human beings are at home in their preoccupation with holidays and anniversaries. A sociopolitical commentary on the American Dream and dreams in general, Liberation Dreamin’ runs on anger, humor, foreign policy, and ultimately hope.
    • Lichen Availability on the Range of an Expanding Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Population in Alaska

      Fleischman, Steven J.; Klein, David R.; Thompson, Steven K.; Viereck, Leslie A.; White, Robert G.; Regelin, Wayne L. (1990-05)
      Terrestrial lichen abundance, lichen availability as affected by snow, and winter fecal composition were investigated for the Delta Caribou Herd (DCH), which recently quadrupled in size and expanded its early winter range. Mean lichen abundance was relatively low (10-85 g/m2). However, even on heavily-used range, caribou ate only 7% of lichen standing crop annually. Snow affected lichen availability only slightly on peripheral tundra ranges, since lichens predominated on xeric sites with little snow. On traditional ranges, lichens were shorter and rarely found in high-density patches; disproportionate grazing and trampling of exposed lichens had caused reduced lichen availability. This was reflected in lower fecal lichen for caribou on traditional ranges, however DCH population growth or seasonal movements probably were not substantially affected. A model of caribou cratering energetics indicated that loss of potential foraging time may influence energy balance more than does cratering energy expenditure.
    • Lidar and radar studies of turbulence, instabilities, and waves in the Arctic middle atmosphere

      Li, Jintai; Collins, Richard L.; Newman, David E.; Simpson, William R.; Thorsen, Denise L.; Williams, Bifford P. (2019-08)
      This dissertation presents new studies of gravity waves and turbulence in the Arctic middle atmosphere. The studies employ lidars and radar to characterize wave activity, instability and turbulence. In the lidar-based studies, we analyze turbulence and wave activity in the MLT based on lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature, density and sodium density, temperature and wind. This combination of measurements provides simultaneous characterization of both the atmospheric stability as well as material transport that allow us to estimate the eddy diffusion coefficient associated with turbulence. We extend the scope of previous studies by developing retrievals of potential temperature and sodium mixing ratio from the Rayleigh density temperature lidar and sodium resonance density lidar measurements. We find that the estimated values of turbulent eddy diffusion coefficients, K, of 400-2800 m²/s, are larger than typically reported (1-1000 m²/s) while the values of the energy dissipation rates, ε, of 5-20 mW/kg, are more typical (0.1-1000 mW/kg). We find that upwardly propagating gravity waves accompany the instabilities. In the presence of instabilities, we find that the gravity waves are dissipating as they propagate upward. We estimate the energy available for turbulence generation from the wave activities and estimate the possible turbulent energy dissipation rate, εGW. We find that the values of εGW are comparable to the values of ε. We find that the estimate of the depth of the layer of turbulence are critical to the estimate of the values of both ε and εGW. We find that our method tends to overestimate the depth, and thus overestimate the value of ε, and underestimate the value of εGW. In the radar-based study, we conduct a retrieval of turbulent parameters in the mesosphere based on a hypothesis test. We distinguish between the presence and absence of turbulence based on fitting Voigt-based and Lorentzian-based line shapes to the radar spectra. We also allow for the presence and absence of meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) in the radar spectra. We find examples of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) spectra showing both the presence and absence of turbulence and the presence and absence of MSPs in the upper mesosphere. Based on the analysis, we find that relatively few of the radar measurements yield significant measurements of turbulence. The significant estimates of turbulence have a strength that is over a factor of two larger than the average of the estimates from all of the radar measurements. The probability of true positives increases with the quality factor of the spectrum. The method yields significant measurements of turbulence with probabilities of true positives of greater than 30% and false positives less than 0.01%.
    • Life after CHOPS: the Alaskan heavy oil reservoir perspective

      Mathur, Bakul; Dandekar, Abhijit; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish (2017-05)
      The heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska offer major production challenges, including proximity to the permafrost layer, very high viscosity oil and low mechanical strength pay zones. The Ugnu deposits of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) hold more than 6 billion barrels of oil. The dead oil viscosity at reservoir temperature ranges from 1,000 to 1,000,000 cp1. In an effort to sustain well life, this research focuses on the unique set of challenges occurring in the Ugnu reservoir and presents the best possible way to maximize production. The present research accentuates observations derived from the field data, which shows that deliberate sand production with the hydrocarbon stream while employing a Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP) as an artificial lift method has a favorable effect on primary oil recovery. The developments have led to the advent of a technique called Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) as an initial production method for shallow heavy oil reservoirs. Sand production leads to the formation of high porosity channels or wormholes that can range up to hundreds of meters. The co-mingling of heavy oil and sand develops foamy oil by creating a bubbly flow inside the reservoir. The combination of these wormholes with the foamy oil behavior are the primary factors that result in enhanced production during CHOPS. One of the major hindrances to its successful application is the selection of the post-CHOPS production method, which is addressed in this study with the help of modeling and simulation. Alternative recovery techniques following the primary cold production include water flooding, polymer injection, miscible gas injection and thermal recovery methods. Water flooding is unviable because of the mobility contrast between the highly viscous oil and water. The high permeability zones provide a bypass for water, consequently producing elevated water cuts. Another aspect unique to Alaskan heavy oil reservoirs is the proximity to the permafrost layer, with the hydrocarbon bearing zone making thermal recovery methods unappealing. Polymer injection and miscible gas injection become the favorable non-thermal secondary and tertiary recovery methods in this case. This study is based on modeling one of the wells drilled into the M80 sands of the Ugnu formation followed by the analysis of post-CHOPS recovery for the well. The CHOPS well modeling is done with the help of a wormhole fractal pattern and a foamy oil model. Simulation of the polymer injection is then employed from a nearby well. The results indicate almost 12% increment in recovery with polymer flooding as compared to the natural depletion. The recovery obtained from the simulations have been analyzed to provide a basis for designing the polymer injection job as an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) method after CHOPS. With the promising results of this study, it can be determined that the Ugnu reservoir sands can be exploited for heavy oil with the help of polymer flooding. It can also be combined with miscible gas flooding or alkali-surfactant flooding to obtain even higher hydrocarbon recoveries.
    • Life history and management of the grayling in interior Alaska

      Wojcik, Frank J. (1955-04)
      Field work on the Arctic grayling was conducted from September, 1951, to May, 1953; data on movements, spawning, food habits, sex ratios, and population dynamics were obtained. Returns on 1,222 tagged grayling varied from 0 to 20 per cent with areas. No returns were obtained from 165 fin-clipped fish. Fish entered the streams in the spring as soon as water started flowing, the dates varying from March 15 to May 9, 1952. Spawning in the Little Salcha River during 1952 is believed to have occurred between June 12 and June 16, Of 262 grayling checked for maturity, 18.7 per cent were mature in their fourth summer, 45 per cent in their fifth summer, and all by their sixth summer. Sex ratios obtained for adults varied with areas. The average sex ratio found for all areas was 79 males per 100 fem ales. The rate of growth was determined for grayling from six areas. The average increment for class V fish varied from 2.7 to 4.6 cm. per year. Aquatic insects were the main food organisms taken by grayling. Some terrestrial insects, fish, fish eggs and vegetable, matter were also taken. In view of the findings made in this study, overfishing appears to be the major cause of the decline in the sizes of grayling populations along the highways in the Fairbanks area. A twelve-inch minimum size limit is apparently the best management procedure, although an area closure is advisable for overfished spawning runs.
    • Life history characteristics, management strategies, and environmental and economic factors that contribute to the vulnerability of rockfish stocks off Alaska

      Patt, Jacqueline; Criddle, Keith; Gharrett, Anthony; Love, Milton; Heifetz, Jonathan (2014-12)
      This study explored the extent to which variations in biological characteristics, environmental and economic factors, and management strategies have affected the tendency for rockfish to become overfished. The analysis used data on 5 species of rockfish that account for more than 95% of commercial catch of rockfish in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and Bering Sea and Aleutian Island (BSAI) management regions. These species are: Shortraker Rockfish (Sebastes borealis), Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus), Northern Rockfish (Sebastes polyspinis), Dusky Rockfish (Sebastes variabilis), and Shortspine Thornyhead (Sebastolobus alascanus). Fishery management models often treat BMSY, the biomass level that maximizes sustainable yield, as a critical reference point; whenever the biomass of a federally managed fish or shellfish stock is estimated at less than 0.5×BMSY, the stock is declared "overfished" and managers are required to develop a recovery plan that will restore stock abundance above BMSY within about one generation length. Because estimates of BMSY are unavailable for some GOA and BSAI rockfish stocks included in this analysis and because we were interested in developing a model that could be applied to data-poor stocks, we explored two proxies for BMSY. The mean of past estimates of exploitable biomass (avgExpB) was used as a proxy for BMSY for the better-studied stocks. The mean of past catch (avgC) was used as a proxy for BMSY for data-poor stocks. These values were used to scale time series estimates of exploitable biomass (ExpBt) or catch (Ct). A systems estimation approach, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR), was used to estimate parameters of linear and nonlinear models that included available numerical and categorical variables (biological, management, environmental, and economic factors) thought to contribute to increases or decreases in ExpBt / avgExpB or Ct / avgC. Goodness-of-fit statistics and tests of individual coefficients and groupings of coefficients were used to guide model refinement. The modeling approach worked well for better-studied stocks but not for data-poor stocks. The preferred 5-stock model (Pacific Ocean Perch in the GOA and BSAI, Northern Rockfish in the GOA and BSAI, and Dusky Rockfish in the GOA) had an excellent fit to the overall system (R² = 0.922, P << 10⁻⁶) and statistically significant coefficient estimates of the variables included. The model indicated that the past values of ExpBt / avgExpB can be accounted for through time and across stocks by nonlinear variation in: spawning biomass, intrinsic growth rates (k), maximum age, exploitation rates, habitat preferences, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and ex-vessel price. Because some of these factors are subject to management control and others are predictable, it should be possible to take account of anticipated changes in these factors when setting harvest targets and harvest limits, selecting spatial management strategies, or considering changes to harvest control rules or fisheries governance systems.
    • The life history of Effie Kokrine through personal recordings

      Freiburger, Annette J.; Schneider, William S.; Morrow, Phyllis; Mangusso, Mary C. (2013-08)
      This thesis is a combination of tape transcriptions and research to document the life history of Athabascan leader Effie Folger Kokrine. Effie Kokrine was well known in the Interior of Alaska, but her impact reached much farther, and in many directions, as she loved to travel and share her stories with people in many different states and in several other countries. Sharing stories was only one of her many talents. She was an Alaska Native culture educator, a champion dog musher, an expert seamstress, skin sewer and beader, hunter, fisher, cook and bottle washer. Effie stayed active and busy right until her sudden death from heart failure. She believed that every person should contribute to the well-being of the community, and she did her part by volunteering with the Junior Dog Musher's Association, the American Legion Post #11 Women's Auxiliary, the Badger Lion's Club, and speaking to almost every group that invited her, which was many. The only reason that she would turn someone down who invited her to speak was if she had a prior commitment. She was a favorite speaker of various groups, especially those involving children, because of her history, and because of her humor. The intent of this thesis is to attempt to capture some of that history and share some of the stories.
    • The life history of the intertidal barnacle, Balanus balanoides (L.) in Port Valdez, Alaska

      Rucker, Tami Louise (1983-09)
      The life history of the boreo-arctic barnacle Batanus balanoides was examined at three study sites in Port Valdez. Ovarian tissue development began in early summer. Fertilized eggs, evident by September, were brooded throughout the winter. Larval release was synchronous with the spring phytoplankton bloom. Settlement was observed in April and continued until June. Maximal shell growth occurred immediately subsequent to assimilation of organic material from the spring bloom. Seasonal fluctuations in body weight were noted and reflect feeding, spermatogenesis, and energy transfer to other biological processes (i.e., shell growth and reproduction). Mortality, greater for juveniles than adults, resulted from seasonal stresses (lowered salinity and heightened sedimentation), spatial competition, predation, and pollutants (hydrocarbons). Once life-history events were confirmed for barnacles in Port Valdez, comparisons of trends observed at the three sites were possible. Differences between populations were evident and were attributed to the unique micro-habitats of the study sites.
    • Life History, Demography, And Ecology Of The Spiny Dogfish "Squalus Acanthias" In The Gulf Of Alaska

      Tribuzio, Cindy A.; Kruse, Gordon; Fujioka, Jeff; Gallucci, Vince; Hillgruber, Nicola; Lowe, Chris; Woodby, Doug (2010)
      The spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a small, cosmopolitan shark species, common in sub-tropical and sub-arctic waters. The species is often targeted commercially in most areas of the world throughout its range, and in some cases it is overfished or the subject of conservation concern. In the Gulf of Alaska, spiny dogfish are not targeted and not generally retained, but incidental catches can be high for this schooling species. Previously, biological parameters for spiny dogfish in the Gulf of Alaska were assumed from estimates for this specie's neighboring areas, including British Columbia and Washington State. The purpose of this study was to examine spiny dogfish in the Gulf of Alaska and estimate important parameters for stock assessment in four stages: (1) general biology, distribution, and life history; (2) modeling age and growth; (3) population demographic modeling; and (4) ecological interactions revealed by diet analysis. Spiny dogfish are similar in length in the Gulf of Alaska to neighboring regions, but mature at larger sizes and have a greater fecundity than reported elsewhere. There is high natural variability in estimated ages for the species, which is reflected in the poor fit of the growth models, possibly owing to measurement error from using the dorsal fin spine as the aging structure. A two-phase growth model provided the statistical best fit. However, questions were raised about the biological interpretation of the model and whether more traditional models (e.g., von Bertalanffy and Gompertz) may be more appropriate. Using the life-history and growth data, Leslie matrix type age- and stage-based demographic models were created to estimate sustainable fishing mortality rates and to examine the risk of harvest scenarios. Female Gulf of Alaska spiny dogfish can support up to a 3% annual harvest rate; fisheries that target juveniles have the greatest risk of population decline below threshold levels. Spiny dogfish are generalist opportunistic feeders that feed on whichever prey is available, however shrimp are the most important prey type, followed by cephalopods. Results of this study will be used in future ecosystem modeling and stock assessments for this species. Taking into account the history of targeted fisheries for the species on the U.S. east coast and in British Columbia and Washington, as well as the susceptibility of the species to overfishing, fishery managers will need to take a cautious approach should a target fishery develop in the Gulf of Alaska.
    • Life on two continents: understanding different roles of Chinese grandparents who have grandchildren born in the U.S.

      Qiao, Tianyu; 乔天钰; DeCaro, Peter A.; Taylor, Karen M.; Kan, Rosalind (2014-05)
      The present research explored the roles Chinese grandparents play regarding their grandchildren born in the United States. Due to the differences in language, cultures and family values in China and the U.S., these Chinese grandparents balance their lives between two continents and experience possible disconnect in communication with their U.S.-born grandchildren. In order to understand the lived experiences of these Chinese grandparents and to develop co-constructed meaning of their intercultural interactions, this research employs qualitative narrative analysis as the primary method. Eight conversational interviews were conducted and four emergent themes were discussed. This research shows that Chinese grandparents do encounter difficulties, cultural conflicts and disconnect with their grandchildren because they split their time between living in China and the U.S. There are insights provided to mitigate these problems.
    • Life, Auto, Fire

      Divers, Gregory Robert (1980)
    • Life-History Patterns Of North American Elk: Effects Of Population Density On Resource Partitioning, Reproduction, And Plant Productivity

      Stewart, Kelley Merlet; Bowyer, R. Terry (2004)
      I examined density dependence in North American elk (Cervus elaphus ) and effects of density dependent processes on resource partitioning, physical condition, reproduction, and ecosystem processes. Specifically, I examined spatial, temporal, and dietary niche partitioning among elk, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and cattle (Bos taurus ). I tested hypotheses related to density-dependent processes in elk by creating populations at high (20.1 elk/km2) and low (4.1 elk/km2) density. I hypothesized that physical condition and fecundity of females would be lower in an area of high population density than in the low-density area. Simultaneously, I tested hypotheses relating to herbivore optimization in response to varying levels of herbivory. I observed differences among elk, mule deer, and cattle in diets and use of space, particularly elevation, slope, and use of logged forest. Those 3 herbivores showed strong avoidance over a 6-h temporal window, but that effect was weaker for the previous 7 days. Changes in habitat use by elk and mule deer in response to addition and removal of cattle indicated competitive displacement. Results of the experiment to examine density dependence in elk indicated reduced physical condition and reproduction in the high-density population compared with low-density population. Pregnancy rates were most affected by body condition and mass of females. Density dependence in elk also had strong effects on plant communities; net aboveground primary productivity (NAPP) increased from no herbivory to moderate grazing intensity, and then declined as grazing intensity continued to increase. Compensatory responses by plants likely are more difficult to detect when responses to herbivory are subtle and occur at relatively low grazing intensity. I observed strong effects of density dependence on physical condition of elk and reductions in NAPP of plant communities with high levels of grazing intensity. At high-population densities resources for elk declined and NAPP was reduced. At low-population density elk were in good physical condition with high rates of reproduction, and NAPP increased, indicating compensatory responses by plants. Density-dependent feedbacks in populations of large herbivores help regulate population dynamics, and those same processes have substantial effects on ecosystem functioning.
    • Light adaptations of plants: a model based on seagrass Zostera Marina L.

      Dennison, William (1979-12)
      Adaptations to light by a temperate seagrass, Zostaro: marina L. (eelgrass), were investigated along a depth transect representing a gradient of plant development. Various light adaptive strategies are proposed in a conceptual model and tested along the natural gradient and under in situ light manipulation experiments. The major light capturing strategy which Zostera employs is that of changing leaf area. Chlorophyll a to b ratios and amounts, measures of adaptation to light quality and quantity, demonstrated little or no adaptive trends when integrative samples were used. The altered light experiments did not affect chlorophyll content but did affect leaf production rates. Although the relative vertical distribution of leaf area is constant along the transect, the absolute leaf area varies, as measured by leaf area index (LAI = area of leaves/area of bottom). A measured maximum LAI of 17 is higher than other aquatic and most terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Liitukut Sugpiat'Stun (We Are Learning How To Be Real People): Exploring Kodiak Alutiiq Literature Through Core Values

      Drabek, Alisha Susana; Barnhardt, Ray (2012)
      The decline of Kodiak Alutiiq oral tradition practices and limited awareness or understanding of archived stories has kept them from being integrated into school curriculum. This study catalogs an anthology of archived Alutiiq literature documented since 1804, and provides an historical and values-based analysis of Alutiiq literature, focused on the educational significance of stories as tools for individual and community wellbeing. The study offers an exploration of values, worldview and knowledge embedded in Alutiiq stories. It also provides a history of colonial impacts on Alutiiq education and an in-depth study of the early colonial observers and ethnographers who collected Alutiiq oral literature, clarifying the context in which the stories have been retold or framed. Collections of traditional Indigenous literatures are valuable on many levels. This collection is of historical and personal significance for local Kodiak Alutiiq tribal members' identity as it makes these resources more accessible for community members and educators, and therefore accessible to younger and future generations. The conclusion also provides recommendations for next steps for developing curriculum and revitalizing Alutiiq oral traditions. The book is intended to contribute to an understanding of the evolution of cultural traditions in Alaska, and to serve as a model for similar cultural reclamation and education efforts.
    • Lime treatment of Interior and South-Central Alaskan soils

      Billings, Matthew E.; Metz, Paul; Darrow, Margaret; Huang, Scott (2013-08)
      Lime treatment of soil is the practice of introducing lime to soil to improve subgrade conditions or to improve a soil's properties to meet construction aggregate qualifications. Lime treated soils commonly exhibit improvements in moisture-density, strength, and thaw performance. Although lime treatment has been practiced in many regions of the United States and Canada for several decades, it is not practiced in Alaska. The purpose of this study was to determine potential of improving commonly encountered Alaskan soils with lime treatment. The two soils analyzed during this study were a silt from the Fairbanks area and a silty gravel from the Anchorage area. These soils were analyzed due to their similarity with soils encountered within regions of Alaska that are currently developed, and have potential for future development. Several laboratory tests were conducted to analyze the effect lime has on the engineering properties of both studied soils. The properties analyzed included moisture-density, strength, frost susceptibility, and thaw strength. The results of this study show lime treatment has potential to improve the engineering properties of commonly encountered Alaskan soils. The results of this study also show potential to improve Alaskan soil with low concentrations of lime during cool and short construction seasons.
    • The limitations of service members' constitutional rights

      Leonard, Dene Ray (2003-12)
      This thesis reviews the constitutional rights of service members and how they are limited by the military. These affected rights include the First Amendment's rights to free speech, religious exercise and the ability to petition the government for redress of grievances; the Fifth Amendment's due process clause; and the Sixth Amendment's right to a jury of one's peers. The discussion section of this thesis argues two justifications used by the military for limiting service members' rights. The first justification is in support of good order, discipline and morale. The second justification is in support of uniformity. The latter discussion also identifies the U.S. Supreme Court's treatment of the military as a separate community and how the military is guided by a different standard. To support the separate community justification the U.S. Supreme Court has deferred most of its rulings on the rights of service members back to military leaders. At the conclusion of the discussion section an application of previous U.S. Supreme Court cases and military court cases is used to anticipate the future of the military's body art policy.