• Life, Auto, Fire

      Divers, Gregory Robert (1980)
    • Life-History Patterns Of North American Elk: Effects Of Population Density On Resource Partitioning, Reproduction, And Plant Productivity

      Stewart, Kelley Merlet; Bowyer, R. Terry (2004)
      I examined density dependence in North American elk (Cervus elaphus ) and effects of density dependent processes on resource partitioning, physical condition, reproduction, and ecosystem processes. Specifically, I examined spatial, temporal, and dietary niche partitioning among elk, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and cattle (Bos taurus ). I tested hypotheses related to density-dependent processes in elk by creating populations at high (20.1 elk/km2) and low (4.1 elk/km2) density. I hypothesized that physical condition and fecundity of females would be lower in an area of high population density than in the low-density area. Simultaneously, I tested hypotheses relating to herbivore optimization in response to varying levels of herbivory. I observed differences among elk, mule deer, and cattle in diets and use of space, particularly elevation, slope, and use of logged forest. Those 3 herbivores showed strong avoidance over a 6-h temporal window, but that effect was weaker for the previous 7 days. Changes in habitat use by elk and mule deer in response to addition and removal of cattle indicated competitive displacement. Results of the experiment to examine density dependence in elk indicated reduced physical condition and reproduction in the high-density population compared with low-density population. Pregnancy rates were most affected by body condition and mass of females. Density dependence in elk also had strong effects on plant communities; net aboveground primary productivity (NAPP) increased from no herbivory to moderate grazing intensity, and then declined as grazing intensity continued to increase. Compensatory responses by plants likely are more difficult to detect when responses to herbivory are subtle and occur at relatively low grazing intensity. I observed strong effects of density dependence on physical condition of elk and reductions in NAPP of plant communities with high levels of grazing intensity. At high-population densities resources for elk declined and NAPP was reduced. At low-population density elk were in good physical condition with high rates of reproduction, and NAPP increased, indicating compensatory responses by plants. Density-dependent feedbacks in populations of large herbivores help regulate population dynamics, and those same processes have substantial effects on ecosystem functioning.
    • Light adaptations of plants: a model based on seagrass Zostera Marina L.

      Dennison, William (1979-12)
      Adaptations to light by a temperate seagrass, Zostaro: marina L. (eelgrass), were investigated along a depth transect representing a gradient of plant development. Various light adaptive strategies are proposed in a conceptual model and tested along the natural gradient and under in situ light manipulation experiments. The major light capturing strategy which Zostera employs is that of changing leaf area. Chlorophyll a to b ratios and amounts, measures of adaptation to light quality and quantity, demonstrated little or no adaptive trends when integrative samples were used. The altered light experiments did not affect chlorophyll content but did affect leaf production rates. Although the relative vertical distribution of leaf area is constant along the transect, the absolute leaf area varies, as measured by leaf area index (LAI = area of leaves/area of bottom). A measured maximum LAI of 17 is higher than other aquatic and most terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Liitukut Sugpiat'Stun (We Are Learning How To Be Real People): Exploring Kodiak Alutiiq Literature Through Core Values

      Drabek, Alisha Susana; Barnhardt, Ray (2012)
      The decline of Kodiak Alutiiq oral tradition practices and limited awareness or understanding of archived stories has kept them from being integrated into school curriculum. This study catalogs an anthology of archived Alutiiq literature documented since 1804, and provides an historical and values-based analysis of Alutiiq literature, focused on the educational significance of stories as tools for individual and community wellbeing. The study offers an exploration of values, worldview and knowledge embedded in Alutiiq stories. It also provides a history of colonial impacts on Alutiiq education and an in-depth study of the early colonial observers and ethnographers who collected Alutiiq oral literature, clarifying the context in which the stories have been retold or framed. Collections of traditional Indigenous literatures are valuable on many levels. This collection is of historical and personal significance for local Kodiak Alutiiq tribal members' identity as it makes these resources more accessible for community members and educators, and therefore accessible to younger and future generations. The conclusion also provides recommendations for next steps for developing curriculum and revitalizing Alutiiq oral traditions. The book is intended to contribute to an understanding of the evolution of cultural traditions in Alaska, and to serve as a model for similar cultural reclamation and education efforts.
    • Lime treatment of Interior and South-Central Alaskan soils

      Billings, Matthew E.; Metz, Paul; Darrow, Margaret; Huang, Scott (2013-08)
      Lime treatment of soil is the practice of introducing lime to soil to improve subgrade conditions or to improve a soil's properties to meet construction aggregate qualifications. Lime treated soils commonly exhibit improvements in moisture-density, strength, and thaw performance. Although lime treatment has been practiced in many regions of the United States and Canada for several decades, it is not practiced in Alaska. The purpose of this study was to determine potential of improving commonly encountered Alaskan soils with lime treatment. The two soils analyzed during this study were a silt from the Fairbanks area and a silty gravel from the Anchorage area. These soils were analyzed due to their similarity with soils encountered within regions of Alaska that are currently developed, and have potential for future development. Several laboratory tests were conducted to analyze the effect lime has on the engineering properties of both studied soils. The properties analyzed included moisture-density, strength, frost susceptibility, and thaw strength. The results of this study show lime treatment has potential to improve the engineering properties of commonly encountered Alaskan soils. The results of this study also show potential to improve Alaskan soil with low concentrations of lime during cool and short construction seasons.
    • The limitations of service members' constitutional rights

      Leonard, Dene Ray (2003-12)
      This thesis reviews the constitutional rights of service members and how they are limited by the military. These affected rights include the First Amendment's rights to free speech, religious exercise and the ability to petition the government for redress of grievances; the Fifth Amendment's due process clause; and the Sixth Amendment's right to a jury of one's peers. The discussion section of this thesis argues two justifications used by the military for limiting service members' rights. The first justification is in support of good order, discipline and morale. The second justification is in support of uniformity. The latter discussion also identifies the U.S. Supreme Court's treatment of the military as a separate community and how the military is guided by a different standard. To support the separate community justification the U.S. Supreme Court has deferred most of its rulings on the rights of service members back to military leaders. At the conclusion of the discussion section an application of previous U.S. Supreme Court cases and military court cases is used to anticipate the future of the military's body art policy.
    • The limnology of Lake Clark, Alaska

      Wilkens, Alexander Xanthus (2002-12)
      This study gathered baseline limnological data to investigate the thermal structure, water quality, phytoplankton, and zooplankton of Lake Clark, Alaska. Results indicate Lake Clark is oligotrophic and mixes biannually, but stratification is weak and thermoclines are deep. Longitudinal gradients were seen in measurements of temperature, suspended solids, turbidity, light penetration, algal biomass, and zooplankton density. Wind and tributary inputs determine the thermal regime. Glacially-influenced tributaries drive turbidity and light gradients by introducing suspended solids to the inlet end of the lake. Suspended solids likely create the algal biomass gradient by limiting the light available for photosynthesis in the inlet basin. Algal biomass and turbidity gradients may interact to create an area of high productivity and low predation risk, causing high zooplankton concentrations in the central basin. Oxygen supersaturation was discovered in the hypolimnion but remains unexplained. Because tributaries are glacially influenced, Lake Clark could be sensitive to global warming.
    • Linay'sdulkaas de': let's start sewing

      Shaginoff-Stuart, Sondra; Ts'akae, Kaggos; Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Tuttle, Siri (2016-12)
      This paper proposes Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) as a teaching method for Ahtna language learners. TBLT focuses on engaging learners in meaningful activities or tasks which they accomplish through using the target language, learning Ahtna in the process. TBLT incorporates deeper understandings and meaning by teaching students the language in a cultural context. For this paper, the focus activity will be making a beaded necklace. Beading has been an important activity for me, from the time of learning about my culture and people from my Aunt Katie Wade. The website accompanying the project and be found at: http://www.ourlanguagecameback.com/.
    • Linear partial differential equations and real analytic approximations of rough functions

      Barry, Timothy J.; Rybkin, Alexei; Avdonin, Sergei; Faudree, Jill (2017-08)
      Many common approximation methods exist such as linear or polynomial interpolation, splines, Taylor series, or generalized Fourier series. Unfortunately, many of these approximations are not analytic functions on the entire real line, and those that are diverge at infinity and therefore are only valid on a closed interval or for compactly supported functions. Our method takes advantage of the smoothing properties of certain linear partial differential equations to obtain an approximation which is real analytic, converges to the function on the entire real line, and yields particular conservation laws. This approximation method applies to any L₂ function on the real line which may have some rough behavior such as discontinuities or points of nondifferentiability. For comparison, we consider the well-known Fourier-Hermite series approximation. Finally, for some example functions the approximations are found and plotted numerically.
    • LingitX Haa Sateeyi, We Who Are Tlingit: Contemporary Tlingit Identity And The Ancestral Relationship To The Landscape

      Martindale, Vivian F.; Barnhardt, Ray (2008)
      Divergent views on the Tlingit ancestral relationship to the landscape of Southeast Alaska often leads to conflicts between Western-orientated government agencies, public entities, and the Tlingit people themselves. To better understand this subject, I collected nine personal narratives from research participants from within the Tlingit nation. The narratives provide insight into the dynamics at the intersection of conflicting worldviews, and the role this plays in shaping contemporary Tlingit identity. The results of exploring these diverging worldviews has illuminated three factors influencing contemporary Tlingit identity: the loss and struggle with maintaining the Lingit language, implementation of subsistence regulations and resultant conflicts, and diminishment of the ceremony called a koo.eex' (a memorial party). In addition, within the Tlingit worldviews there are oral histories, traditional values, and concepts such as balance, respect, and at.oow, which define ancestral relationships and identity. These findings also reveal that the means of imparting cultural knowledge and worldviews have changed. The narratives are organized into themes reflecting common factors: Residing in the ancestral landscape, Lingit language and thinking, the Tlingit artist and the ancestral relationship to the landscape, and contemporary Tlingit identity. The results demonstrate the significance of identity markers, such as the Lingit language, as a means for healing social trauma. Moreover, the lives of the Tlingit artists illustrate that maintaining an ancestral relationship utilizes both traditional and contemporary methods. In addition, the narratives provide documentation concerning the changes in a subsistence lifestyle that affect the social lives of the Tlingit in contemporary society.
    • Linkages between protein ubiquitination, proteasome activity and the expression of oxygen-binding proteins in Antarctic notothenioid fishes

      Oldham, Corey A.; O'Brien, Kristin; Dunlap, Kriya; Taylor, Barbara (2015-12)
      Antarctic icefishes lack hemoglobin (Hb), and some species lack cardiac myoglobin (Mb). As iron-centered proteins, Hb and Mb can promote the formation of reactive oxygen species that may damage biological macromolecules. Consistent with this, we find higher levels of oxidized proteins in some tissues of red-blooded notothenioids than in icefishes. Oxidized proteins are marked for degradation by the conjugation of the protein ubiquitin. I hypothesized that levels of ubiquitinated proteins and 20S proteasome activity (which degrades oxidized proteins) would be higher in +Hb and +Mb notothenioids than icefishes lacking the proteins. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins and rates of proteasome activity were measured in the heart ventricle, pectoral adductor, and liver of six species of notothenioids differing in Hb and Mb expression. Previous studies in notothenioids suggest that oxidative stress declines following acclimation to 4°C. I also hypothesized that levels of ubiquitinated proteins and 20S proteasome activity would decline in response to acclimation to 4°C. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins and rates of proteasome activity were measured in the heart ventricle, pectoral adductor, and liver of the red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps held at ambient temperature and acclimated to 4°C for 3 weeks. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins were higher in tissues of the red-blooded N. coriiceps compared to icefishes, but the activity of the 20S proteasome did not follow a similar trend, suggesting that icefishes do not incur an energetic benefit resulting from reduced rates of protein degradation. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins were equivalent in heart ventricle and oxidative skeletal muscle, and proteasome activities were equivalent in all tissues between acclimated N. coriiceps and those held at ambient temperature, suggesting that protein damage and rates of protein degradation are not altered in notothenioids by long-term exposure to 4°C.
    • Linked disturbance interactions in South-Central Alaska: implications for ecosystems and people

      Hansen, Winslow D. (2013-05)
      Communities and ecosystems in the Alaskan boreal forest are undergoing substantial change. People contribute to this change. They are also impacted by the consequences. For example, wildfire and spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks have increased in frequency and severity due to warming trends, affecting the ecosystem and services important to people. I conducted a study to explore the social and ecological implications of changing natural disturbances. I evaluated how the occurrence of spruce bark beetle outbreak has altered the probability of wildfire between 2001 and 2009 on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Modeling the effects of bark beetle outbreak on the probability of large wildfire (> 500 ha) and small wildfires (<500 ha), I found that the influence of the outbreak differed as a function of wildfire size. The occurrence and length of outbreak increased large wildfire probability. Small wildfires were mediated by human influence and less so by bark beetle outbreak. I also used spatial econometric techniques to estimate how wildfires and the bark beetle outbreak affected property values on the Kenai Peninsula in 2001 and 2010. I found that wildfires> 3.3 ha and the bark-beetle outbreak increased property values. Wildfires <3.3 ha decreased property values.
    • Linking climate history and ice crystalline fabric evolution in polar ice sheets

      Kennedy, Joseph Huston; Pettit, Erin; Truffer, Martin; Bueler, Ed; Newman, David; Szuberla, Curt (2015-08)
      An ice sheet consists of an unfathomable number of ice crystallites (grains) that typically have a preferred orientation of the crystalline lattices, termed fabric. At the surface of ice sheets, the microstructural processes that control the grain structure and fabric evolution are influenced by climate variables. Layers of firn, in different climate regimes, may have an observable variation in fabric which can persist deep into the ice sheet; fabric may have 'memory' of these past climate regimes. To model the evolution of a subtle variation in fabric below the firn-ice transition, we have developed and released an open-source Fabric Evolution with Recrystallization (FEvoR) model. FEvoR is an anisotropic stress model that distributes stresses through explicit nearest-neighbor interaction. The model includes parameterizations of grain growth, rotation recrystallization and migration recrystallization which account for the major recrystallization processes that affect the macroscopic grain structure and fabric evolution. Using this model, we explore the evolution of a subtle variation in near-surface fabric using both constant applied stress and a stress-temperature history based on data from Taylor Dome, East Antarctica. Our results show that a subtle fabric variation will be preserved for ~200ka in compressive stress regimes with temperatures typical of polar ice-sheets. The addition of shear to compressive stress regimes preserves fabric variations longer than in compression-only regimes because shear drives a positive feedback between crystal rotation and deformation. We find that temperature affects how long the fabric variation is preserved, but does not affect the strain-integrated fabric evolution profile except when crossing the thermal-activation-energy threshold (~-10°C). Even at high temperatures, migration recrystallization does not rid the fabric of its memory under most conditions. High levels of nearest-neighbor interactions between grains will rid the fabric of its memory more quickly than low levels of nearest-neighbor interactions. Because FEvoR does not compute flow, an integrated fabric-flow model is needed to investigate the flow-fabric feedbacks that arise in ice sheets. Using the open-source Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) and FEvoR, we develop a combined flow-fabric model (PISM-FEvoR). We provide the first integrated flow-fabric model that explicitly computes the fabric evolution and includes all three major recrystallization processes. We show that PISM-FEvoR is able to capture the flow enhancement due to fabric by modeling a slab-on-slope glacier, initialized with a variety of fabric profiles. We also show that the entire integrated fabric-flow history affects the final simulated flow. This provides a further, independent validation of using an integrated fabric-flow model over a constant enhancement factor in ice-sheet models.
    • Linking freshwater growth to size-dependent marine survival of sockeye salmon: interactions between processes of climate, density, and natural selection

      Ree, Marta Elizabeth; Westley, Peter; Finkle, Heather; Beaudreau, Anne (2019-05)
      Due to the mediating role of body size in determining fitness, the 'bigger is better' hypothesis still pervades evolutionary ecology despite evidence that natural selection on phenotypic traits varies in time and space. For Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus), the size at which juveniles migrate to sea (i.e., smolts) has been linked to survival during the early marine period, where larger smolts typically survive at a higher rate than their smaller counterparts. However, the relationship of smolt size and survival becomes more ambiguous when considering confounding factors of age, ocean entry timing, and environmental variability. Despite equivocal results, smolt size appears to be a key trait and therefore changes in freshwater conditions may have consequences for population productivity. Furthermore, due to differences in site-specific habitats, trophic dynamics, and population traits the response of specific populations to these changes is likely to be context specific. The objective of this thesis was to 1) quantify the direction and magnitude of natural selection on smolt size for three age classes of sockeye salmon in a small watershed on Kodiak Island, AK and 2) explore stock-specific effects of temperature and conspecific density on smolt size over a multi-decade time-series to understand historic and possible future trends. To address our first objective, we calculated standardized selection differentials by comparing observed size distributions of out-migrating juvenile salmon to back-calculated smolt length from the scales of surviving, returning adults. Results reveal the magnitude of selection on size was very strong and consistent among years. However, the direction of selection on size consistently varied among age classes. The absolute magnitude of selection was negatively correlated to apparent marine survival and positively correlated to late mean ocean entry timing. To address our second objective, we back-calculated smolt size from returning adult scales to reconstruct a time-series of smolt length of two stocks within a small Alaska watershed on Kodiak Island. Using a dynamic linear model framework, we detected evidence that for one stock, temperature was important in explaining smolt length, and density effects influenced both stocks utilizing the same lakes. Furthermore, forecasts of smolt length showed highly variable responses under scenarios of increasing temperature and high and low densities. Collectively, these results demonstrate that interactions between processes of climate, density, and natural selection are highly context-specific in terms of both inter- and intra- population variability.
    • Linking local knowledge and fisheries science: the case with humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschian) in Interior Alaska

      Robinson, Melissa Anne (2005-05)
      Humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschian) are the main subsistence fish for the residents of the Athabascan village of Northway. Local residents' concerns over whitefish and gaps in knowledge in the scientific community about whitefish basic ecology provided a basis for collaboration between fisheries scientists, social scientists, and Northway Village. Through semi-directed interviews and participant observation, I documented and linked local and scientific knowledge about whitefish. Trust, formed in part by my engagement with the community, was essential to meaningful collaboration between local and scientific experts. Through collaboration, insights emerged about the long-distance migrations of whitefish (up to 230 km), their small-scale use of creek channels, annual site fidelity, and repeated long-term use of seasonal habitats. Partially due to gendered fishing roles, women and men differed in their knowledge about whitefish. Women observed seasonal and annual variation in the prevalence of parasite-infected whitefish, while both men and women observed increased sedimentation in area lakes. Questions surfaced about the behavioral response of whitefish to increasing water temperatures and the effects of siltation on their health. I argue that the fusion of local and scientific knowledge, gained through collaboration, enhanced the information required to make management decisions regarding whitefish in the Upper Tanana drainage and the resilience of this social-ecological system.
    • Linking proteomics to microbial kinetics

      Cherian, Suraj (2008-08)
      Oligobacterial physiology is mostly unstudied due to cultivation difficulty. New isolation techniques such as extinction culture have produced cultivable representatives of the aquatic environment namely Sphingopyxis alaskensis. Attempts were made to grow the bacterium in batch cultures using glucose and tyrosine as ideal substrates as determined from growth studies. Differential protein expression from cytoplasmic and membrane fractions of the putative culture were compared so as to identify key proteins involved in substrate uptake and metabolism followed by incorporation of protein quantities into mathematical models of oligotroph growth. However artifactual results from two dimensional gel electrophoresis led to the question of culture purity, which was eventually confirmed by light microscopy, flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This research gives better insight into the possible problems that can crop up while working with hard to culture marine oligobacteria. I demonstrate the rationale used to identify the contaminant, which was difficult to detect because its slow growth was similar to the target organism. A major achievement was successful cell fractionation as it has never been attempted in oligobacteria due to culturing difficulties and the procedure is different from the routine methods adopted in bacteria and fungi. Also the research demonstrates a complete protocol for eliminating uncertainties in culture purity.
    • Literacies and engagement: incorporating Yup'ik literacies in a language arts classroom

      Gehman, Michael J.; Hogan, Maureen; Leonard, Beth; Siekmann, Sabine (2017-05)
      The use of culturally relevant teaching practices and local literacies has been shown to increase student engagement in other studies. To observe the impact of Yup'ik literacies on student engagement, I designed and implemented a teacher, action research study that asked students to create a yuraq song to demonstrate their mastery of this topic. I spoke with members of the community to ensure the study was culturally acceptable and seen as beneficial, as well as to gain understanding about yuraq because I am an outsider to the culture. Students were observed and recorded throughout eight class periods while writing an academic essay and creating a yuraq song. Their actions in the classroom were analyzed to create an operational definition of engagement from a Yup'ik perspective, which was used, in conjunction with discussions with community members and students as well as student journals to determine if the yuraq task was able to foster deep, meaningful engagement. Their actions were also analyzed using James Paul Gee's work on "Big D" Discourse to identify the impact a local literacy had on their school Discourse. The data were able to illuminate a clear definition of Yup'ik engagement consisting of collaboration, physical action, and intense listening; deep student engagement similar to concept of Csikszentmihalyi's flow was observed in some but not all students; and the use of Discourse that matched the task and setting, but did not attempt to alter the power structure of the dominant Discourse in the school. The findings held a large degree of local validity for the participants, and were used to adjust teaching strategies to benefit this class.
    • Lithic analysis at the Mead Site, Central Alaska

      Little, Allison A.; Potter, Ben; Irish, Joel; Plattet, Patrick (2013-08)
      The purpose of this study is to understand chipped stone technological behaviors at the Mead Site located in central Alaska. Lithics from each cultural occupation ranging in age from 11,460BP to 1420BP were analyzed and compared. Specific objectives include (1) characterization of variability in raw material and use for each cultural component, (2) description of lithic stages of reduction represented in each component, (3) description of the basic lithic industries represented. and (4) the identification and characterization of spatial organization and lithic behaviors. Results indicate (1) the tools and debris from Cultural Zone (CZ) lb and CZ2 show preferential use of local materials, while the tools from CZ3b and CZ4 are largely manufactured using nonlocal materials, and the debitage assemblage is dominated by locally available material, (2) CZ1b was a long term occupation, while CZ2, CZ3b, and CZ4 were short term camps, and (3) CZ4 is characterized by intensive primary reduction of a local quartz, while CZ2 is characterized by biface production. These patterns suggest similar technological strategies were employed at Mead in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene with an increase in tool form diversity and greater reliance on higher quality locally available materials during the Mid Holocene.