Now showing items 2039-2058 of 3496

• #### New instrumentation for the detection of sulfur dioxide in the remote atmosphere

Sulfur gases are an important chemical component of the atmosphere. Gaseous sulfur compounds effect the acidity of rainwater and are important precursors to aerosol particles which affect public health, climate and visibility of scenic vistas such as the Grand Canyon. Sulfate aerosols are also known to participate in ozone catalysis in the stratosphere. A vast majority of the gaseous sulfur cycling through the atmosphere will exist as sulfur dioxide (SO2) at some time during its atmospheric lifetime. Since SO 2 is a primary component of the atmospheric sulfur cycle, quality measurements of this gas are important to understanding the cycling of sulfur through the atmosphere. The mixing ratio of SO2 in the atmosphere can be as low as a few 10's of parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv) in unpolluted areas and as high as 100's of parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) near industrial centers. Obtaining SO2 measurements with mixing ratios that can differ by 105 in magnitude is a difficult task, especially for mixing ratios less than a few hundred pptv. The Diffusion Denuder/Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (DD/SCD) was developed further and tested in a rigorously blind comparison under controlled laboratory conditions. The DD/SCD exhibited excellent sensitivity and little-to-no interference from other trace gases. The DD/SCD performance was comparable to that of other state-of-the-art instruments developed for measuring SO 2 in the remote atmosphere. The Continuous SO2 Detector was developed to overcome the limitation of long sampling times (4 to 90 minutes) inherent in the DD/SCD and other state-of-the-art techniques. The Continuous SO2 Detector (CSD) was developed based on the design of the DD/SCD, but has been optimized for sensitive, high-time resolved measurements of SO2 in air. Sensitive, high-time resolved measurements would be beneficial for studying atmospheric SO2 over large geographical areas from a moving sampling platform such as an aircraft. The current prototype of the CSD is capable of measuring SO2 at mixing ratios of less than 100 pptv on the order of seconds. The DD/SCD, CSD and an automated, computer controlled dynamic dilution system described in this thesis represent a suite of instruments for the measurement of SO2 in the remote atmosphere.
• #### New microfabrication method for prototyping integrated microfluidic modules with SR-3000 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

This thesis presents the first work on the fabrication of microfluidic modules with SR-3000 Rayzist photoresist paper and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Chapter 1 of the thesis is on the analysis of elemental composition of SR-3000. By using the X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer we found the SR-3000 sheet is enriched with silicon, the key element for forming covalent bonding to PDMS. Chapters 2, 3,and 4 of the thesis is focused on the characterization of both the hydrophilicity of the plasma-treated SR-3000 surface and the bonding strength between SR-3000 and PDMS. Unfiltered air was used as the process gas for plasma-assisted bonding of SR-3000 to PDMS. Pressure rupture tests were conducted to measure the strength at the bonding interface, which can be as high as 57.7 psi, strong enough to hold the fluid pressure for typical microfluidics applications. The hydrophilicity of SR-3000 is mainly governed by the plasma treatment time. Chapter 5 demonstrates how to use the developed microfabrication method to prototype microfluidic modules for typical microfluidic applications, which include manipulation of laminar flow, mixing of miscible fluids, and production of oil droplets in a stream of water flow.
• #### A new model for the substorm growth phase

The physics of geomagnetic substorms has been under debate for a long time. In particular, the formation of a thin current sheet (CS) is a central unresolved problem because it provides the magnetotail conditions for the expansion phase onset. This dissertation presents a new CS thinning mechanism based on midnight magnetic flux depletion (MFD), which is caused by sunward convection to balance dayside reconnection during periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field. The results demonstrate that MFD is a highly efficient mechanism to generate a very thin CS in the near-Earth tail. This study also examines CS formation under the influence of adiabatic lobe compression in combination with MFD and proposes a double-current sheet evolution at distinct locations in the near-Earth region and mid-tail region. The results suggest that substorm expansion onset is associated only with near-Earth onset of magnetic reconnection, while mid-tail reconnection causes bursty bulk flows. In addition, this dissertation investigates the changes of the auroral morphology associated with the magnetotail evolution. An ionospheric map is constructed based on Tsyganenko 96 magnetic field model corrected by magnetic flux conservation. By employing MFD, the mapping results such as the equatorward expansion of the open/closed field boundary, the convergent motion of strong field-aligned currents, and the location of electron and ion isotropy boundaries are consistent with typical ionospheric observations. These results demonstrate that MFD is the first model that can consistently explain and predict the typical magnetotail and ionospheric evolution during the substorm growth phase and shed light on the physics of the growth phase aurora.

• #### A new sensitivity analysis and solution method for scintillometer measurements of area-average turbulent fluxes

Scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length l₀ and refractive index structure function C²n allow for the retrieval of large-scale area-averaged turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. This retrieval involves the solution of the non-linear set of equations defined by the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. A new method that uses an analytic solution to the set of equations is presented, which leads to a stable and efficient numerical method of computation that has the potential of eliminating computational error. Mathematical expressions are derived that map out the sensitivity of the turbulent flux measurements to uncertainties in source measurements such as l₀. These sensitivity functions differ from results in the previous literature; the reasons for the differences are explored.
• #### Nicotine exposure in the developing bullfrog: influences on neuroventilatory responses to CO₂

Developmental exposure to the neuroteratogen nicotine may affect ventilatory responses to hypercapnia. Developmental changes in normocapnic and hypercapnic neuroventilation of the isolated bullfrog brainstem preparation have been previously characterized. I investigated the effect of 3- and 10-wk chronic nicotine (30 [mu]g/L) exposure on lung burst frequency exhibited by early and late metamorphic bullfrog tadpoles during normocapnia (1.5 % CO₂) and hypercapnia (5.0 % CO₂). Chronic nicotine exposure impairs the hypercapnic neuroventilatory response of early metamorphic tadpoles following both 3- and 10-wk exposure. Late metamorphic tadpoles demonstrated an impaired hypercapnic neuroventilatory response only after 10-wk exposure. Chronic nicotine exposure had no effect on normocapnic neuroventilation. Brainstem preparations from early and late metamorphic tadpoles and juvenile bullfrogs were exposed acutely to 18 [mu]g/L nicotine. Acute nicotine had no effect on normocapnic or hypercapnic neuroventilation of early metamorphic tadpoles. Late metamorphic tadpoles and juvenile bullfrogs demonstrated depressed normocapnic neuroventilation in response to acute nicotine exposure, while late metamorphic tadpole brainstems responded significantly to hypercapnia during acute exposure. This suggests that bullfrogs have a differential response to acute nicotine exposure that increases with development. Collectively these data suggest that the consequences of developmental nicotine exposure differ between acute and chronic exposure and throughout bullfrog development.
• #### Nietzsche in a train station

Although Nietzsche in a Train Station is referential, the poems are not written for the scholar with a pen in hand, but are for the average reader with a laptop by his or her side. The "Mr. Everidge" poems attempt to capture the frenetic pace and fragmented consciousness of the information age, while maintaining a core identity. Although some poems directly take the narrative aspect of the short story and compress it as much as possible, using the sound of the language as much as the literal meaning to tell the story, every poem is a self-contained narrative. Many of the poems in this collection follow traditional forms and subjects, such as Shakespearian sonnets that explore kinds of love; however, a majority of the poems explore less traditional forms and rhythms. Stylistically, the poems tend to use long, complex sentences, with the occasional willful rebellion against traditional grammar. The poems drive toward a resolution, and everything structurally serves this purpose. Each poem is in essence a question about the things existing outside of everyday experience, the constructions created for and by the individual, constructions that both sustain and limit a life.
• #### Nitrogen cycling at treeline: latitudinal and elevational patterns across the boreal landscape

We studied spatial and temporal patterns of soil nitrogen pools and fluxes at treeline and forested sites within three Alaskan mountain ranges along a latitudinal transect of 785 km during 2001- 2002. We measured soil temperatures, pools of soil mineral (ammonium and nitrate) and organic (amino acid and microbial biomass) nitrogen, in situ rates of net mineralization, net nitrification, and net amino acid production, conducted a decomposition experiment at all sites using common litter, and studied soil carbon turnover in a laboratory incubation experiment. Soils at treeline were colder than forested soils, particularly during fall and over winter, and had reduced rates of nitrogen cycling and litter decomposition relative to soils in forested stands. During incubation, treeline soils had lower respiration rates per unit carbon, suggesting lower soil organic matter quality relative to forested soils. 70% of annual net nitrogen mineralization occurred from August-May, suggesting that fall and winter are critical periods for soil nitrogen transformations in forested and treeline ecosystems. Among mountain ranges, nitrogen pools and fluxes were similar, despite variation in growing season length and mean annual temperatures. Soil moisture and organic matter quality may have stronger effects on variation in nitrogen cycling than temperature at our sites.
• #### Nitrogen dynamics in primary successional soils on the Tanana River of interior Alaska

As succession determines the patterns of ecosystem development, it also provides a temporal framework in which to investigate the controls of nitrogen-cycling. The object of this study was to examine patterns of nitrogen-cycling within primary successional soils. Estimates of N mineralization, nitrogen fixation, and denitrification were made within open shrub, alder, and white spruce stands, representing early, mid-, and late successional stages, respectively. Net NH$\sb4\sp+$ mineralization and net nitrification, measured using the polyethylene bag technique, were significantly different between sites and among forest floors and mineral soils. The alder forest floor had the highest observed mineralization rates, $<$1-21 ug N $\cdot$ g dry soil$\sp{-1}$ $\cdot$ d$\sp{-1}$, with the white spruce forest floor exhibiting rates of $<$1-2 and mineral soils $<$1. Seasonal patterns of N mineralization were more pronounced in the alder forest floor: high net NH$\sb4\sp+$ mineralization in early summer and high net nitrification in late summer. Immobilization of nitrogen was observed at all sites. Laboratory studies indicate temperature as a limiting factor of N mineralization in early and mid-successional stages, while both temperature and moisture were limiting in later succession. Laboratory studies suggest heterotrophic nitrification may be important in the alder forest floor. Denitrification activity was low to undetectable at all sites, the highest observed rate was in alder forest floor samples, 220 g N $\cdot$ ha$\sp{-1}$ $\cdot$ d$\sp{-1}$. Potential denitrification was low, the alder forest floor exhibited the highest rate, 3.4 Kg N $\cdot$ ha$\sp{-1}$ $\cdot$ d$\sp{-1}$. Laboratory studies indicated denitrification was more limited by carbon and NO$\sb3\sp-$ than temperature or moisture. Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation was low to undetectable and highly variable. The highest observed nitrogenase activity was associated with alder root nodules, 163 Kg N $\cdot$ ha$\sp{-1}$ $\cdot$ yr$\sp{-1}$.
• #### Nitrogen Dynamics Through The Forest Floor Of Two Interior Alaska Black Spruce Ecosystems

Nitrogen flow in the forest floor of two interior Alaska black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) ecosystems was investigated and related to environmental constraints unique to the area, specifically temperature, moisture, and organic matter quality (C/N ratio). Pools examined were NH(,4)-N, NO(,3)-N, soluble organic N, total (Kjeldahl) and residual organic N. Low addition levels of high enrichment isotope (< 1% of the total nitrogen pool wth 99 atom percent excess ('15)N) were used to describe nitrogen dynamics through pools of selected forest floor components of permafrost-free and permafrost-dominated black spruce sites. A thick carpet of mosses, made up primarily of the feather moss species Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (B.S.C.) Mitt. played a vital role in the nitrogen economy of the forest floor. Nitrogen, quickly immobilized in the moss layers (green, brown) and retained there, was released very slowly and sequestered in the fermentation and humus layers (021 + 022) where most of the vascular plant roots were located. Vascular understory ('15)N uptake was minimal as was ('15)N export via the soil solution. Periodic mineralization episodes, more frequent and dynamic at the permafrost-free site (where C/N ratios were lower), were largely restricted to the moss layers since available N pools in deeper forest floor layers incorporated little label over the three year period. It proved difficult to separate the effects of rainfall events from that of forest floor temperature fluctuations upon seasonal nitrogen dynamics. In the lower layers of the forest floor temperature and/or moisture rather than organic matter quality appeared to be the overriding factor controlling N flow. The dominance in pool size of NH(,4)-N over NO(,3)-N is discussed with reference to current theories of ecosystem strategy.
• #### Nitrogen fertilization of smooth bromegrass in Interior and Southcentral Alaska

Although forage crops occupy the majority of agricultural land in Alaska, best fertilizer management practices to maximize forage yield and quality in Alaska are not well established. The objective of this study was to determine optimum time and rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications to produce high yields of high quality forage in interior and Southcentral Alaska from smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermus). Nine N fertilization treatments, differing in rate and time of application, were applied at four sites. Forage samples were harvested twice per season in 1999 and 2000 to obtain yield and quality values. Nitrogen applied at 225 kg ha⁻¹ produced greater yields than N applied at 125 kg ha⁻¹, but there were no significant differences between single and split applications. Yield and crude protein content of the control were significantly lower than plots receiving N treatment. Midseason application of N increased crude protein percentages in second cuts at most sites. Acid and neutral detergent fiber were not affected by N treatment. N fertilizer use appeared to be more efficient for split applications, but no significant differences were found. This study showed potential for the production of high yielding, good quality grass forages in Alaska under a variety of N fertilizer strategies.
• #### Nitrogen flux in the northern Bering Sea

Much of the primary production occurring over the Bering Sea continental shelf is thought to be associated with both ice edge and spring blooms. The nature of summer production over the shelf is now being addressed. A general model is presented for summer phytoplankton production along the Bering Sea shelf break front and subsequent transport of phytodetritus into the northern Bering Sea. Production associated with the shelf break front is estimated to be 200 g $\cdot$ C $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2}$ over a 120-day growing season and is supported by nutrients from the Bering Slope Current. A portion of the biomass accumulating over the front is advected into the Chirikov Basin, supplying 26% of the daily carbon demand of the benthos. The Bering Slope Current bifurcates at Cape Navarin and one branch, referred to as the Anadyr Current, flows north through Anadyr and Bering Straits. Nutrients in the Anadyr Current support an intense surface bloom over the western Chirikov Basin where total nitrogen uptake rates are $>$6.0 mg-at N $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2} \cdot$ h$\sp{-1}$ and nitrate contributes up to 50% of the total nitrogen uptake. Modified Bering Shelf water contains phytoplankton at two depths: both a surface accumulation and a deep layer. Nitrate contributes $<$35% to total nitrogen uptake rates of 1.80 mg-at N $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2} \cdot$ h$\sp{-1}$ in this water. Nitrogen productivity is lowest in Alaskan Coastal water (1.0 mg-at N $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2} \cdot$ h$\sp{-1}$) where nitrate uptake averages only 15% of the total. A simple nitrogen budget suggests that 29% and 62% of the annual nitrogen productivity in modified Bering Shelf and Anadyr waters, respectively, is exported through Bering Strait into the southern Chukchi Sea for deposition. Improved estimates of the rates of urea production and uptake by phytoplankton in the northern Bering Sea were made after determining the change in $\sp{15}$N-atom % enrichment of urea during incubations. Estimates of uptake rates increased by up to 83% using a $\sp{15}$N accumulation model and by $>$210% using a $\sp{15}$N disappearance model. However, a discrepancy exists between the $\sp{15}$N-urea removed from the aqueous phase and the $\sp{15}$N accumulated in the particulate phase. The ability to find in the particulate fraction the $\sp{15}$N removed from solution as $\sp{15}$N-urea was improved by 72% following removal of the $>$20-$\mu$m particulate fraction.
• #### Nitrogen oxide photochemistry in high northern latitudes during spring

The transport of NOy reservoir species from midlatitudes into the Arctic and the thermal and photochemical breakup of these species has been proposed to be the most important NOx source during spring, and may have an important influence on the ozone budget. This has not yet been shown to be correct. The objective of this research is to understand the sources of NOx and ozone in high latitudes during spring. To measure NOx, a high sensitivity chemiluminescence NO detector and a photolytic converter for NO$\sb2$ were constructed. The detection limits for NO and NO$\sb2$ were 1.70 and 5.67 part per trillion (pptv) in a one-hour average, respectively. Springtime NOx measurements were carried out concurrently with measurements of ozone, PAN, J(NO$\sb2$), and other species during 1994 at the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, and during 1993 and 1995 at Poker Flat, Alaska. The median mixing ratios of NOx, PAN and ozone at Svalbard were 23.7, 237.0 pptv, and 39.0 parts per billion (ppbv), respectively. During a few ozone depletion events in the Arctic marine boundary layer ozone and NOx mixing ratios were as low as 4 ppbv and 0.9 pptv, respectively. Halogen chemistry is probably responsible for both effects. The median NOx, PAN and ozone mixing ratios at Poker Flat were 79.5 pptv, 85.9 pptv, and 40.6 ppbv, respectively. During April and May diurnal cycles of PAN, ozone and temperature were observed and anticorrelated with the water mixing ratio. We interpret this to be the result of mixing with higher layers of the troposphere during the day. At both locations thermal PAN decomposition was an important NOx source. At Svalbard PAN decomposition was small, and the in-situ ozone production rates are an insignificant contribution to the ozone budget. Because of the higher temperatures, PAN decomposition rates, NOx mixing ratios, and in-situ ozone production rates are higher at Poker Flat. A contribution from this production to the overall ozone budget was visible during some periods. These results indicate that stable ozone precursors which are transported into the Arctic from anthropogenic sources can influence the ozone budget in high latitudes.
• #### Nitrogen oxide photochemistry in marine air over the eastern Pacific

Models predict that photochemistry is the primary contribution to the observed spring surface ozone maxima in the Northern Hemisphere. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the limiting reagents for photochemical ozone production. This fact leads to an apparent paradox, because the short lifetime of NOx should lead to a low mixing ratio of NOx far from source regions. However, chemical reservoirs of NOx such as peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) may provide a transport pathway for delivering NOx to 'clean' marine Pacific air masses. A coastal site in Washington, was chosen to investigate the relationship of NOx, PAN and ozone in marine air from the Pacific during two consecutive spring campaigns in 1997 and 1998. In this work, we develop a simple PAN decomposition model and comparie the modeled to the measured PAN mixing ratios. We estimate ozone formation using the deviation in the measured NO to NO₂ ratio, from the Leighton cycle.
• #### Nitrogen oxides in the arctic stratosphere: Implications for ozone abundances

In the high latitude winter stratosphere, NO$\sb2$ sequesters chlorine compounds which are extremely efficient at destroying ozone. During the nighttime, NO$\sb2$ reacts with ozone to form $\rm N\sb2 O\sb5$ which acts as a reservoir of NO$\sb2$. Under heavy aerosol loading, $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ may react with water on aerosol surfaces to form HNO$\sb3$, a reservoir more resistant to photolysis. This heterogeneous reaction results in reduced NO$\sb2$ concentration when the sun returns at the end of the winter. A spectrograph system has been developed to measure scattered zenith skylight and thereby determine stratospheric NO$\sb2$ slant column abundance. Conversion of the measured slant column abundance to vertical column abundance requires dividing by the air mass. The air mass is the enhancement in the optical path for the scattered twilight as compared to a vertical path. Air mass values determined using a multiple scattering radiative transfer code have been compared to those derived using a Monte Carlo code and were found to agree to within 6% at a 90$\sp\circ$ solar zenith angle for a stratospheric absorber. Six months of NO$\sb2$ vertical column abundance measured over Fairbanks during the winter 1992-93 exhibited the daylight diminished and increased as the sunlight hours lengthened. The overall seasonal behavior was similar to high-latitude measurements made in the Southern Hemisphere. The ratios of morning to evening column abundance were consistent with predictions based on gas-phase chemistry. The possible heterogeneous reaction of $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ on sulfate aerosols was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer measurements of $\rm HNO\sb3$ column abundance and lidar determinations of the aerosol profile. Using an estimated $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ column abundance and aerosol profile as input to a simple model, significant $\rm HNO\sb3$ production was expected. No increase in $\rm HNO\sb3$ column abundance was measured. From this set of data, it was not possible to determine whether significant amounts of $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ were converted to $\rm HNO\sb3$ by this heterogeneous reaction. Better estimates of the $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ and aerosol profile, and a more continuous set of $\rm HNO\sb3$ measurements, are needed to determine if $\rm HNO\sb3$ was actually produced.
• #### Nitrogen oxides in the Arctic troposphere

Nitrogen oxides play a critical role in tropospheric photochemistry. In order to characterize these compounds in the arctic troposphere, ground-level concentrations of total reactive nitrogen (NO$\sb{y}$) and NO were determined over an extended period at a site near Barrow, Alaska. A high-sensitivity instrument developed for this purpose was used in three measurement campaigns: summer 1988, spring 1989, and March-December 1990. During the 1990 campaign, the detection limit for NO was 3-10 pptv (depending on averaging period), and the NO$\sb{y}$ uncertainty was $\pm$26%. A screening algorithm was applied to the data to eliminate effects from local (Barrow) sources, and the remaining data were divided into "background periods" (unaffected by local or regional NO$\sb{x}$ sources), and "events" (periods when emissions from a regional NO$\sb{x}$ source--the Prudhoe Bay oil-producing region--apparently impacted Barrow). These measurements revealed a sharp seasonal cycle of background NO$\sb{y}$ concentrations, with high values in early spring (median 560-620 pptv) and $\sim$70 pptv (median) during summer. This cycle is similar to that of other compounds in arctic haze but is partially attributed to a reduction in NO$\sb{y}$ lifetime due to organic nitrate decomposition as temperatures and insolation increased. Evidence indicates that the springtime arctic NO$\sb{y}$ reservoir was primarily composed of stable removal-resistant species, including PAN and other organic nitrates. PAN decomposition as temperatures rose in late spring likely caused an observed pulse of NO to $\sim$35 pptv (maximum hourly average); hourly-average NO concentrations were otherwise generally $<$8 pptv. NO$\sb{x}$ production from PAN decomposition due to the onset of spring or southward advection may affect springtime O$\sb3$ levels both in the Arctic and in the northern mid-latitudes. NO$\sb{y}$ and O$\sb3$ concentrations were positively correlated during summer, possibly indicating long-range transport of both and/or the presence of a mid-tropospheric NO$\sb{y}$ reservoir combined with a stratospheric O$\sb3$ source. A number of events with substantially elevated NO$\sb{y}$ concentrations (to 16 ppbv) were observed in air not impacted by emissions from the town of Barrow. Substantial evidence indicates that these events were a result of NO$\sb{x}$ emissions from the Prudhoe Bay region ($\sim$300 km to the ESE), which is also expected to affect measurements of other compounds at the Barrow site.
• #### Nitrogen resource analysis and modelling of an eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadow in Izembek Lagoon, Alaska

Nitrogen limitation in beds of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., was examined by correlating plant standing stock and sediment nitrogen supplies, by measurement of nitrogen uptake in eelgrass roots and leaves, and by experimental manipulation of plant-nitrogen interaction. Eelgrass standing stock and sediment nitrogen across an eelgrass meadow were analyzed. Correlation was found between the integrated interstitial ammonium pool and shoot density and other morphological characteristics. A model of eelgrass growth predicted the effect of nitrogen utilization on biomass production and growth rates; nitrogen limitation controlled growth throughout the summer in ammonium-poor eelgrass beds but only at the peak growth periods in ammonium-rich areas. Prediction of nitrogen enrichment effects similar to literature findings confirmed the impact of nitrogen limitation. Simulation of the spatial and seasonal influences of nitrogen and light as controls on eelgrass growth demonstrated the recurrent effects of dominant environmental limitations within an eelgrass meadow.
• #### Nitrogen retention in the riparian zone of watersheds underlain by discontinuous permafrost

Riparian zones function as important ecotones for reducing nitrate concentration in groundwater and inputs into streams. In the boreal forest of interior Alaska, permafrost confines subsurface flow through the riparian zone to shallow organic horizons, where plant uptake of nitrate and denitrification are typically high. Two research questions were addressed in this study: 1) how does riparian zone nitrogen retention vary in watersheds underlain by discontinuous permafrost, and 2) what is the contribution of denitrification to riparian zone nitrogen retention? To estimate the contribution of the riparian zone to watershed nitrogen retention, I analyzed groundwater chemistry using an end-member mixing model. To assess the importance of denitrification as a mechanism of nitrogen retention, I conducted field denitrification assays using the acetylene block technique. Over the summer, nitrogen retention averaged 0.75 and 0.22 mmol N m⁻² d⁻¹ in low and high permafrost watersheds, respectively. Compared with the fluvial export of nitrogen, the retention rate of nitrogen in the riparian zone is 10 - 15% of the loss rate in stream flow. Denitrification accounted for a small proportion (3%) of total nitrogen retention in the riparian zone. Variation in nitrogen retention between watersheds did not account for differences in stream nitrate concentration between watersheds.
• #### Nitrogen utilization during spring phytoplankton bloom development in the southeast Bering Sea

Interactions between a high latitude, continental shelf, spring phytoplankton bloom and water column physics and chemistry were studied using measured rates of nitrogen uptake. Peak bloom conditions commenced when the mixed layer shallowed and minimized respirational losses. Integrative light-mixing growth models were accurate during early bloom stages. An advection-diffusion model associated peak bloom nitrate uptake with pycnocline mixing rates of 2.1 m d * in an 18 m mixed layer. The accumulation of surface buoyancy was a reliable index of peak bloom temporal and spatial "patchiness" since mixing rates influenced both respirational losses and nutrient supply. Maximum nitrogen specific uptake rates (h r .- 1 ), unlike those of carbon, coincided with peak bloom conditions. Although species com positions among peak bloom periods were similar, particulate C/N ratios were not. Apparently, both intercellular factors and prevailing mixing conditions influence specific uptake rates and cell composition. A large proportion of new (nitrate) to total productivity was associated with the dominance of the early bloom forming diatoms in the mixed layer. In the absence of these net plankton the residual nanoplankton dominated community exhibited a greater dependence on regenerated nitrogen. Nitrate uptake averaged 700 mg-at m during the spring bloom and 1 g-at m-2 year-1 The yearly f factor was 0.40. Nitrogen uptake based carbon productivity was 188 g C m -2 year -1 A mass balance of the inorganic carbon system indicates that nitrate uptake alone cannot account for all the carbon leaving the surface layer. The correspondence between 1SN0~ uptake measurements and nitrate decreases suggests the diffusion of slope water into the middle shelf is slow. Large scale meteorological patterns may be responsible for the inter annual variability observed in production. Frequent May storm activity prolonged peak bloom periods, while calm conditions promoted extensive Chijl layers. The passage of atmospheric low pressure system s was also associated with the cross shelf "pumping" of water masses.
• #### Niugneliyukut (We Are Making New Words): A Community Philosophy Of Language Revitalization

The Alutiiq language on Kodiak Island (Alaska) is severely threatened, with only 37 resident speakers. The Alutiiq communities of Kodiak are engaged in a multifaceted heritage revitalization movement, which includes cultural education, revitalization of arts, and language revitalization. The language revitalization effort includes education, materials development, documentation, and terminology development (creation of new words) as a means of making the language more viable. The Kodiak Alutiiq New Words Council began in the fall of 2007. This language revitalization strategy is new to the Alutiiq community, and little research has been done on Alaska Native or Indigenous terminology development as a form of heritage revitalization. There is a need to understand the New Words Council in terms of its role in the wider language and heritage revitalization efforts, as well as understanding the value of the council to its members. The Kodiak New Words Council is a contemporary heritage revitalization effort that entails development of new Alutiiq terms, and is part of a broader social movement to revitalize Alutiiq language and culture. Some past research on cultural heritage revitalization movements in Indigenous communities have focused on historical inaccuracies and 'inventedness' of new cultural forms, rather than the value and meaning of these efforts to their participants. Critiques of 'invention' scholarship counter that it denies Indigenous communities' agency and authority over their own cultural forms, and overlooks ongoing efforts for justice, sovereignty and healing. This study focuses attention on the social and historical context of heritage revitalization and its meaning to participants. Benefits of the council go beyond the formal goal of developing new words to modernize the language. Participants put great value on social benefits of the New Words Council, such as empowerment, connection to culture and identity, and healing. They further measure the success of the New Words Council in terms of participation, commitment, and continuity. Ultimately, this language revitalization effort is part of a broader effort of self-determination and community survival.