• Plasma irregularity production in the polar cap f-region ionosphere

      Lamarche, Leslie; Makarevich, Roman; Bristow, William; Conde, Mark; Zhang, Hui (2017-05)
      Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characterics near a largescale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on the asymmetry of the irregularity growth rate across the gradient reversal. Directional dependencies on the plasma density gradient, plasma drift, and wavevector are analyzed in the context of the recently developed general fluid theory of the gradient-drift instability. In the ionospheric F region, the strongest asymmetry is found when an elongated structure is oriented along the radar's boresight and moving perpendicular to its direction of elongation. These results have important implications for finding optimal configurations for oblique-scanning ionospheric radars such as SuperDARN to observe gradient reversals. To test the predictions of the developed model and the general theory of the gradient-drift instability, an experimental investigation is presented focusing on decameter-scale irregularities near a polar patch and the previously uninvestigated directional dependence of irregularity characteristics. Backscatter power and occurrence of irregularities are analyzed using measurements from the SuperDARN radar at Rankin Inlet, Canada, while background density gradients and convection electric fields are found from the north face of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar. It is shown that irregularity occurrence tends to follow the expected trends better than irregularity power, suggesting that while the gradient-drift instability may be a dominant process in generating small-scale irregularities, other mechanisms such as a shear-driven instability or nonlinear process may exert greater control over their intensity. It is concluded from this body of work that the production of small-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F-region ionosphere is controlled both by global factors such as solar illumination as well as local plasma density gradients and electric fields. In general, linear gradient-drift instability theory describes small-scale irregularity production well, particularly for low-amplitude perturbations. The production of irregularities is complex, and while ground-based radars are invaluable tools to study the ionosphere, care must be taken to interpret results correctly.
    • Plastic Alaska

      Namey, Jason; Brightwell, Gerri; Mellen, Kyle; Carr, Rich (2018-05)
      The stories in Plastic Alaska depict characters losing--often literally--their own identities. Whether it be a young boy who believes that an Alaskan theme park ride transformed him into a different person, or a woman who finds herself compulsively imagining murdering her husband after watching a Terrence Malick film, or a desperate man who assumes the identity of his former best friend so he can get a job on a reality TV show, these characters find themselves thrown--sometimes reluctantly, sometimes willingly--into situations where they must leave their former selves behind just to survive the unwelcome intrusions of an absurd, demanding reality. Plastic Alaska shows--in worlds that range from the real to the fantastical--the dread, uneasiness, and occasional joy that accompanies metamorphosis.
    • Playacting happiness: tragicomedy in Jane Austen's Mansfield Park and Elizabeth Gaskell's Cranford

      Udden, Meryem A.; Carr, Rich; Heyne, Eric; Reilly, Terence (2020-05)
      This thesis examines tragicomedy in two 19th Century British novels, Jane Austen's Mansfield Park and Elizabeth Gaskell's Cranford. Both narratives have perceived happy endings; however, tragedy lies underneath the surface. With Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream as a starting point, playacting becomes the vehicle through which tragedy can be discovered by the reader. Throughout, I find examples in which playacting begins as a comedic act, but acquires tragic potential when parents enter the scene. Here, I define tragedy not as a dramatic experience, but rather seemingly small injustices that, over time, cause more harm than good. In Mansfield Park, the tragedy is parental neglect and control. In Cranford, the tragedy is parental abuse. For both narratives, characters are unable to experience life fully, and past parental injuries cannot be redeemed. While all the children in the narratives experience some form of parental neglect, the marginalized children are harmed more than the others. In addition, I find that lifelong loneliness is a common theme in both narratives, showing that tragedy can lead to grief experienced in isolation.
    • Playing with color

      Hollensbe, Sharon; Mollett, David; Sherman, Todd; Jones, Zoe; Mason, Charles; Woodward, Kesler (2018-04)
      This paper is a description of the history of my study of art for my Masters of Fine Art program, focusing mainly on painting, that were influenced by various artists and mentors over a 19 year period. I was accepted into the University of Fairbanks Art Department MFA program in 1999, withdrew in 2002, and re-applied and was accepted back into the program in 2015. My program concluded with a verbal presentation with PowerPoint, and a show of my paintings at the Well Street Art Company on April 6, 2018.
    • Poker flat incoherent scatter radar investigations of the nighttime E-region

      Whittier, Robin L.; Makarevich, Roman; Conde, Mark; Newman, David; Zhang, Hui (2014-05)
      Plasma within the ionosphere affects technology, such as long distance communications and satellite navigation, by scattering and altering the propagation of radio waves sent through the ionosphere. Understanding the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere that may interfere with modern technology is therefore an important aspect of Space Weather research. In this thesis, the average characteristics and dynamics of the nighttime E-region (90-150 km in altitude) are investigated during auroral disturbances and near extreme solar minimum. The near-continuous data on electron density obtained with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) near Fairbanks, Alaska are utilized. A number of correlation analyses between E-region electron content and AE index are performed in order to examine the influence of geomagnetic conditions on the E-region in relation to time of the day as well as seasonal and solar cycle effects. It is shown that E-region electron content and AE index exhibit significant positive correlation, particularly near local magnetic midnight, with greater correlation generally occurring in spring and autumn. The midnight feature is interpreted as an indication that the electrojet system near midnight is mostly controlled by electric conductance. The presented statistical results on the current-conductance relationship utilizing a new dataset strengthen conclusions derived from previous studies. The extent of E-region contribution to the total electron content (TEC) is also estimated and investigated for various conditions for the first time using the full altitude profile of PFISR. The estimates ranged between 5%-60% and more active periods generally displayed a more significant contribution from the E-region to TEC. Additionally, using the AE index as an indicator of auroral disturbance onset, the evolution of auroral density enhancements is explored using the superposed epoch analysis technique. The behavior of E-region electron content, peak density, height of peak density, and layer thickness is considered and three discernible phases in response of the thick E-layer to auroral disturbances are found. The observations are consistent with a scenario in which an initially soft and broad auroral electron energy spectrum quickly hardens and narrows during the main response and then slowly softens and becomes more broad during recovery.
    • Police culture: does culture prevent proper policing?

      McGuffin, Michael; Duke, J. Robert; May, Jeff; Boldt, Frank (2018)
      This project is about identifying the key issues that police officers face in today's society. There is an emphasis on community policing and to adjust police training to account for the strong pull of the police subculture. The main purpose of this project is to strengthen the bonds between the police and the community and changing how officers approach their interactions within the community. The end goal is to alleviate community concerns that police officers are out to get them while also alleviating the concerns officers have that the community hates them. This project will attempt to quell those concerns while proposing a solution that benefits both officers, the police department, and the community.
    • Policy And Market Analysis Of World Dogfish Fisheries And An Evaluation Of The Feasibility Of A Dogfish Fishery In Waters Of Alaska, Usa

      Gasper, Jason R.; Kruse, Gordon; Greenberg, Joshua; Fong, Quentin; Miller, Marc (2011)
      Spiny dogfish is a valuable commodity on the world market and has a global capture distribution. There are three chapters evaluating dogfish markets and fisheries in this dissertation; Chapter 2 evaluates the spatial distribution of dogfish in the Gulf of Alaska; Chapter 3 provides an overview of world markets and evaluates conditions that have led to a decline in dogfish product demand in Europe; and Chapter 4 uses the information from the previous 2 chapters to provide and policy and market overview of dogfish fisheries in Alaska. Results from this study provide a comprehensive world overview of the modern dogfish fisheries and market segmentation using an evaluation of trade and price statistics. These results indicate that the dogfish market is adulterated, supplied by both sustainable and non-sustainable dogfish sources. Media attention resulting from overfishing has reduced demand for dogfish products in Europe due to the adulterated market. Overcoming the loss of market share will require eco-labeling to inform consumers about sustainable dogfish stocks. The impact of eco-labeling in Asian countries is less clear due to unknown inter-Asian market channels for fins and meat and little information on consumer attitudes towards labels. Alaska products could leverage either Asian or European consumers, but a profitable fishery will likely require regulatory changes and improved stock assessment to allow a directed fishery. In addition, pending regulatory changes, establishing robust market channels between Alaska and Europe will likely require some form of eco-labeling; especially given current eco-labeling efforts in Canada and the Atlantic US.
    • Polishing The Mirror: A Multiple Methods Study Of The Relationship Between Teaching Style And The Application Of Technology In Alaska's Rural One To One Digital Classrooms

      Ledoux, Larry S.; Monahan, John; Covey, Jerry; Richey, Jean; Smiley, Scott (2012)
      This mixed method survey study examined the inter-relationships between teaching styles and the depth of classroom-based technology applications used by teachers participating in 1:1 digitally enhanced classrooms in thirteen of Alaska's rural school districts. The promise of technology to catalyze the transformation of schools into learner centric environments preparing students to be 21st century learners has not been realized. Significant first order barriers have limited the digital learning resources necessary to systemically affect pedagogical change. During the last six years, various entities have sponsored digitally enhanced learning environments to stimulate the process of education reform. These initiatives, labeled as one-to-one (1:1), brought teachers face-to-face with the challenges related to second order education reform while creating an opportunity to study changes in instructional philosophy and practice as a result of teaching in an environment rich in technology. This study explored three questions formulated to probe the relationship between pedagogical philosophy and the application of 1:1 technology to support learning: • "What is the relationship between instructional philosophy and the way teachers use technology to support learning in Alaskan high school 1:1 laptop programs?" • "How does access to a 1:1 classroom affect a teacher's instructional philosophy or practice?" • "Does access to a 1:1 digitally enhanced teaching environment facilitate the use of instructional practices consistent with Alaska Native and 21st century learner outcomes?" Ninety-four rural high school teachers responded to a survey that assessed teaching styles on a continuum from transmission to constructivist. The level of technology adoption was examined using three indices that respectively measure the professional, personal and classroom use of technology by teachers. Information derived from open ended questions was triangulated with quantitative data to develop a meaningful understanding of the study questions. Quantitative and qualitative data suggested that the majority of responding teachers identified with constructivist beliefs over traditional transmission. Teachers noted a strong positive relationship between teaching and the application of technology, yet analysis showed that constructivist beliefs were attenuated by several challenges related to management of technology. While teachers were generally aware of the potential for digital learning technologies to support Alaska Native and 21st century methods, they were outweighed by operational concerns related to the integration of technology. These study questions are significant. Digitally enhanced instructional practices help to equip students with the skills expected of 21st century learners. Perhaps even more significant is the congruence between the teaching styles traditionally used by Alaska Natives and the digitally enhanced constructivist practices made possible when using technology to augment processes for acquiring knowledge.
    • The Political Economy of Corporate Social Responsibility and Community Development: A Case Study of Norway's Snøhvit Natural Gas Complex

      Klick, Matthew Thornton; Valcic, Branka; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Haley, Sharman (2008)
      This project uses stakeholder evidence from semi-structured interviews to analyze the relative effectiveness of an oil company’s stated “corporate social responsibility” (CSR) initiatives in a new, Arctic host community. Specifically, this project analyzes the outcomes of StatoilHydro initiatives to date in Hammerfest, Norway, where the Snøhvit (Snow White) natural gas project began production in 2007. It gauges the ability of “socially responsible” approaches to development to internalize negative externalities and promote positive “spin-offs.” Arctic countries are increasingly prioritizing petroleum development. The convergence of dramatic climate change, increasing energy demands, and high energy prices has made the Arctic an alluring frontier for the oil industry and Arctic governments. Small Arctic communities are increasingly playing host to large energy projects with the potential for dramatic cultural, social, environmental, and economic upheaval, but also economic growth and increased human capital. In this case study, CSR initiatives resulted in a broader accounting of social costs and benefits, an outcome that better internalized externalities, and pareto-improving trades between stakeholders and industry.
    • Pollination biology of the lingonberry, Vaccinium vitis-idaea subsp. minus L.

      Davis, Amy Nicole (2002-05)
      The pollination biology of lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea subsp. minus L.) was researched to determine possible modes of pollination and methods to enhance pollination for increased fruit set. A viability experiment showed that pollen germinates best in a nutrient solution with 10.5 g sucrose per 100 ml. Exposing lingonberry flowers to wind speeds up to 22 km per hr resulted in little pollen release and negligible fruit set. Vibration of flowers at 170-730 Hz showed ample pollen release at all frequencies but negligible fruit set by self pollination. Although honeybees and bumblebees frequently visited lingonberry flowers, addition of hives to wild stands did not influence fruit set. Insect visitors were examined for lingonberry pollen; those with more than 1000 tetrads per insect included: Apis millifera, Bombus terrestris, B. sylvicola, B. flavifrons flavifrons, Andrena sp. and Dialictus? (Halictidae). Entomogamy is the primary method of pollination for lingonberries.
    • Polygamists in love: a screenplay

      Carter, Stephen; Kamerling, Len; Soos, Frank; Bird, Roy (2004-05)
      This screenplay sets out to clear the path for a more interesting, nuanced treatment of polygamists. I chose the romantic comedy form because polygamy always brings up strong emotions in people. Writing a hard hitting drama about the subject, therefore, would probably merely alienate me from a wider audience, and leave me preaching to a very small choir. The romantic comedy has the advantage of being able to approach a difficult subject with grace and light-heartedness. The story does not have to take a hard stand on an issue, it is left free to explore. The action of the story takes place in Utah, 1879, and centers on a convict at the Utah State Penitentiary who falls in love with the youngest wife of his polygamist cell mate. Each character starts the story pretty much stuck in his or her beliefs, but finds them challenged by the events of the story. Each character must perform a decisive act by the end of the film in order to reconcile these challenges.
    • Polyploidy, base composition bias, and incomplete lineage sorting in fish phylogenetics

      Campbell, Matthew A.; López, J. Andrés; Takebayashi, Naoki; Rhodes, John; Wolf, Diana (2014-08)
      Understanding the evolutionary relationships between organisms is of fundamental importance in biology. Originally based on overall similarity in morphological traits, depiction of evolutionary relationships is now often pursued by constructing trees based on molecular data- molecular phylogenetics. Molecular phylogenetic inference uses variation in molecular data in a variety of frameworks to produce hypothetical relationships between organisms. As with many practices making use of biological data, the inherent noise and complexity challenges phylogeneticists. In this dissertation, I examine three empirical datasets while addressing three possible issues in phylogenetic inference: polyploidy, base composition bias and incomplete lineage sorting. Polyploidy leads to incorrect genes (paralogs) being analyzed, since it is often impossible to distinguish between gene copies generated as a result of polyploidization. My analysis indicates that incorrect assumptions of orthology have led to incorrect conclusions being drawn from phylogenetic studies including the polyploid salmons (Salmoniformes). Results indicate that pikes (Esociformes) and the polyploid salmons are not only sister taxa, but that the graylings (Thymallinae) and whitefishes (Coregoninae) are most closely related to each other. Base composition bias misleads inference through the overall similarity between sequences being a result of changes in base composition, not shared evolutionary history. Incomplete lineage sorting refers to the fact that the reconstructed relationships of different genes do not agree. Genetic variants may persist through speciation events and are not completely "sorted" between lineages, and require a methodology to reconcile the different genealogies. In two chapters I focused on base composition bias and incomplete lineage sorting in a detailed study of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) origins. A major issue in fish phylogenetics is the question of whether flatfish are monophyletic with poor support from both morphological and molecular data. Often it appears that cranial asymmetry is the only characteristic uniting the group. I found very little evidence for a single evolutionary origin of the extant flatfishes. Base composition bias appears not to be a major contributor to flatfish non-monophyly; however incomplete lineage sorting likely results in the inability to generate robust statistical support for inferred relationships of flatfishes and relatives. Results of my work indicate that more care should be exercised in phylogenetics in determining orthology of genes. I also find that not acknowledging the presence of paralogs does indeed mislead analyses. With increased data availability and computational capabilities, non-neutral models of nucleotide evolution should be developed and included in further studies. Presenting the heterogeneity of datasets and actively accounting for incomplete lineage sorting will definitively improve the field of phylogenetics as well.
    • Population and habitat analyses for Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve

      Terwilliger, Miranda Lilian Naeser (2005-08)
      We summarized and statistically analyzed historical fixed-wing aerial surveys (1949-2002) and harvest records (1983-2002) of Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalIi) from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST). Among survey units there were significant differences in observed densities, hunter-reported harvest, horn lengths of harvested rams, and horn length residuals from the regression of length on age. There was no consistent evidence of net change in WRST-wide sheep density, even though some survey units showed trends in density. Reported harvest in WRST declined linearly during 1973-2003 from 376 to 139 rams per year. We estimated the relationships among population and habitat characteristics with multiple linear regression. We standardized all variables and evaluated all 1, 2, and 3 variable models using Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample sizes (AICc) for model selection. The best model for sheep density showed a positive correlation with median NDVI (relative vegetation greenness) and terrain ruggedness. The same model resulted from examining adult and Iamb cohorts separately. Approximately 50% of horn length was explained by age. The habitat variables estimated did not explain a significant amount of the variance observed in reported harvests or horn length residuals from the regression of length on age.
    • Population biology and ecology of the North Pacific giant octopus in the eastern Bering Sea

      Brewer, Reid; Norcross, Brenda L.; Seitz, Andrew C.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Ormseth, Olav A.; Tamone, Sherry L. (2016-08)
      The North Pacific giant octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is an important member of pan-Pacific coastal ecosystems and represents a large incidental catch in Alaska; however little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, which hinders management. To improve our understanding of E. dofleini biology, I conducted a multiyear tagging study in a 25 km2 study area in the eastern Bering Sea (EBS). I used Visible Implant Elastomers to determine growth and movement patterns for E. dofleini and sacrificed octopus were examined to determine seasonal and sex-specific reproductive characteristics. Using tagging data and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models, I estimated survival and study-area abundance for E. dofleini and expanded the abundance estimates to neighboring areas where most of the incidental catch of octopus occurs. In this three-year study, a total of 1,714 E. dofleini were tagged and 246 were recaptured. In autumn when temperatures were warmest, E. dofleini had higher growth rates, moved more and both sexes were predominantly mature when compared to colder winter months. Size also played a role in E. dofleini ecology, with smaller octopus growing faster than larger octopus and larger, mature octopus moving more than smaller, immature octopus. The abundance estimate for octopus in the study area was 3,180 octopus or 127 octopus per km2, and annual survival was 3.33%. Using 20 years of data from the federal groundfish observer program, I estimated that the biomass for E. dofleini in the area where most of the incident catch occurs was 20,697 mt of octopus, an order of magnitude larger than the current biomass estimate for the entire EBS. Though the study area and the scale of the mark-recapture effort were limited, the survival and abundance estimates are from the same area where most of the octopus are in incidentally captured and represent an important first step in enhancing octopus management. However, the large estimates of biomass suggest the current management is too conservative and the estimates of survival suggest that management estimates of mortality are too low.
    • Population Characteristics, Ecology, And Management Of Wolverines In Northwestern Alaska (Gulo-Gulo)

      Magoun, Audrey J. (1985)
      A radiotelemetry study of wolverines was initiated in 1978 as part of a larger research program sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in northwestern Alaska. The primary goal of this research was to determine aspects of wolverine behavior and ecology that are important to the management of wolverines in northwestern Alaska. Between April 1978 and May 1981, 26 wolverines were captured, 12 males and 14 females; 23 were radiocollared. Nine wolverine kits in five litters were produced by three of the radiocollared females between March 1978 and May 1982. The average rate of reproduction for the study population was 0.6 kits/female/year. Birth of kits occurred in early March. Kits grew rapidly, reaching adult size by November. Resident female wolverines maintained home ranges that were exclusive of other females except their offspring; average summer home range size was 94 km('2). Data were insufficient to determine if adult male home ranges overlapped; overlap did occur between adult and juvenile males. Summer home range size for adult males averaged 626 km('2). Data were insufficient to determine annual home range size. Denning and raising young had a major influence on the movement patterns of adult females. Movements of males were influenced by breeding behavior from late winter through summer. Wolverine social structure appeared to be typical of the intrasexual territoriality of solitary carnivores. Wolverines scentmarked frequently using urine and secretions from the ventral gland and anal sacs. Caribou and ground squirrels were the most important foods. Food was apparently limited during the winter months and influenced wolverine movements and productivity. The presence of caribou and moose may be the most important factor influencing wolverine populations in northwestern Alaska. Wolverines do not appear to be overexploited at this time, but an attempt should be made to obtain more accurate harvest statistics and baseline data to establish wolverine population size and structure in northwestern Alaska.
    • Population continuity or replacement at ancient Lachish? A dental affinity analysis in the Levant

      Dicke-Toupin, Clarissa R. (2012-05)
      Are material culture changes between late Bronze and early Iron Age inhabitants of Lachish, in modern day Israel, the result of immigrants settling the region, or an in situ evolution of practices by the same indigenous peoples? The research objectives are to: 1) assess dental affinity of an Iron Age Lachish sample relative to its Bronze Age predecessor, and 2) compare data in both groups with European and North African comparative samples to estimate biological affinity within the Mediterranean area. In the process, two competing hypotheses are tested; one postulates continuity and the other population replacement between the Bronze and Iron Age. Using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, dental trait frequencies were compared to determine inter-sample phonetic affinities. The results suggest: 1) biological continuity between the Lachish Bronze and Iron Ages, and 2) a marked level of heterogeneity with closer affinity to some Egyptian and Phoenician groups within the Mediterranean Diaspora. These findings lend support to one of many competing theories identifying the ancient Lachish peoples, while providing an increased understanding of the Bronze and Iron Age transition in the Levant, which is often considered one of the most intriguing and volatile periods in the Near East.
    • Population dynamics and ecology of yellow-cheeked voles (Microtus xanthognathus) in early post-fire seres of interior Alaska

      Lehmkuhl, Karin Linnaea (2000-05)
      Yellow-cheeked voles occupy early successional habitats in boreal regions, but specific factors influencing the species' distribution and population dynamics are not well known. Yellow-cheeked voles were studied in three early post-fire habitats in interior Alaska to relate population parameters to habitat characteristics. Voles were live-trapped during June, July, and August of 1997 and 1998, and habitat components were measured withing trapping grids. Capture data were analyzed using the robust design to estimate vole abundance, density, survival, and recruitment. Yellow-cheeked voles were most abundant in the floodplain white spruce, where survival was stable and recruitment was high. The white spruce habitat had the greatest cover of preferred forage species, while grasses, large diameter logs and snags provided escape cover. Observed differences in habitat quality may be related to unique successional processes in black and white spruces communities.
    • Population dynamics of Pacific herring and humpback whales, Sitka Sound, Alaska 1981-2011

      Liddle, Joseph B.; Quinn, Terrance II; Hillgruber, Nicola; Adkison, Milo; Straley, Janice (2015-08)
      Humpback whales are a major predator in Sitka Sound, possibly consuming as much as a half-ton of Pacific herring per day. These large migratory baleen whales congregate in Sitka Sound to feed on schools of Pacific herring which spawn in April. In recent decades humpback whale abundance has increased tremendously in Sitka Sound after recovering from near extinction due to commercial whaling. In order to assess the long-term impact on herring by humpback whales, I estimated humpback whale abundance from 1981 to 2011. To do so I developed a Bayesian mark-recapture method for small sample sizes. I also modified a multi-strata Hilborn model to account for sporadic availability of whales in Sitka Sound. The multi-million dollar sac roe fishery in Sitka Sound is managed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) with an Age-Structured Assessment model (ASA). I modified the standard ASA model by including the humpback whale abundance estimates as a covariate for herring natural mortality. I found that there is no significant effect of humpback whales on herring mortality. In fact, both Pacific herring and humpback whale abundance have increased together, reaching their maximum values in 2011. This suggests that some other factor, perhaps better marine survival for both species, is driving their upwards trend.