• Putative pheromones in the urine of male moose: evolution of honest advertisement?

      Whittle, Chris Linda (1999-12)
      I tested hypotheses about how olfactory communication is related to mating behavior in Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas). Males dig rutting pits where urine is deposited to which females strongly respond. Consequently, male urine may contain primer pheromones that synchronize estrus of females. Urine samples were collected from captive moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Samples included those from the mating season and from the nonrutting period for two adult males, one yearling male, and one male and one female calf. After pH adjustment, samples were extracted with methylene chloride to yield 3 fractions (acidic, neutral, and basic), which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Putative pheromones include unsaturated alcohols and homologs of tetrahydro-6-methyl pyranone, and 2-nonen-4-one. I hypothesize that these compounds are related to hypophagia and catabolism of body reserves by rutting males, and thereby provide an honest advertisement of body condition in moose.
    • Qik'rtam Litnauwistai (island's teachers)

      Deal, Kitty L.; Leonard, Beth; Renes, Susan; Drabek, Alisha; Montague, Caitlin (2019-05)
      Qik'rtam Litnauwistai (Island's Teachers) was a multi-tiered, community-based, participatory action research project initiated as a direct response to both community and institutional recommendations to "grow our own" Alutiiq educators. The study (a) examined current departmental practices in teacher education at Kodiak College, (b) sought community feedback through interviews regarding recruiting and retaining Alaska Native pre-service teachers on Kodiak Island, and (c) analyzed successful eLearning course completion data, based on synchronicity. The examination and focus of improvement was on the educational system and program delivery model to meet the needs of all teacher candidates, especially our future Alutiiq educators. Interview participants overwhelmingly felt it was important to "grow our own" Kodiak teachers who could (a) provide a role model, (b) have teachers who possessed and could share a high level of cultural understanding, (c) who could understand the local environment in which they worked, and (d) provide a way to strengthen the community in which they live. Based on a review of literature, interviews, and data from UAA, recommendations or considerations for changes are suggested for (a) the Kodiak College Education faculty, (b) Kodiak College, (c) the University of Alaska Anchorage, and (d) Kodiak Island Borough School District.
    • Qikertarmiut nunat apertaarait anirturluki: preserving the indigenous place names of the Kodiak Archipelago

      Schmidt-Chya, Dehrich A.; Ramos, Judith; Black, Jessica C.; Kaplan, Lawrence D. (2020-05)
      This project explores Indigenous place names from the Kodiak Archipelago toward the goals of exhibiting Indigenous identity, increasing pride in Indigineity, and to document Indigenous knowledge. Sugpiaq/Alutiiq people have lived on Kodiak Island for at least 7500 years, while the first foreign contact didn’t come until about 260 years ago, in either 1761 or 1763. Within the past 257 years, Qikertarmiut (Kodiak Alutiiq) place names have been in a continuous state of jeopardy due to the linguistic and cultural assimilation of Indigenous people into Western cultures. In order to preserve the place names of the Kodiak Archipelago, I compiled and documented place names from prior researchers, historic maps, and Elders to create an interactive place names resource that is accessible to community members available on ArcGIS. Using Indigenous names instead of the English alternatives helps to reclaim Indigenous land stewardship, document Indigenous knowledge, and exhibits local Indigenous identity. I compiled and documented 289 place names from around the Kodiak Archipelago from various sources.
    • Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with nutrition educators identifies challenges and strategies for serving Alaska Native clients

      Standlee-Strom, Ronald Edward; Bersamin, Andrea; Greenberg, Joshua; Luick, Bret (2016-08)
      Alaska Native people experience disproportionate occurrence of diet and behavior related health disparities and have been recognized as a population in need of effective nutrition education. It is, however, unclear whether and to what extent nutrition education programs have been effective for improving the diets and health of Alaska Native People. The objective of this study is to understand nutrition educators’ perceptions of challenges and most effective strategies for improving diet quality and health of Alaska Native people to inform program development. Nutrition educators serving Alaska Native Clients (n=20) were asked: What are the challenges their clients face to improving diet quality? What challenges do educators face to improving clients’ diet quality? And, What are the best strategies for improving clients’ diet quality? Interviews were in-depth and open ended. Qualitative analysis of interview texts showed that nutrition educators perceived challenges regarding subsistence foods and lifestyles, the need for cultural competence, and the benefits of employing local knowledge. Specifically, access to subsistence foods and lack of client knowledge regarding nutritional value, procurement, and processing of subsistence foods were identified as challenges to improving health. Cultural competence was identified as necessary for overcoming barriers associated with language, psychosocial issues, and client responsiveness. Working with a local contact/mentor was a recommended as a source of information and means of increasing access to community members. Education which addresses the context of subsistence foods and lifestyles, is committed to cultural sensitivity and familiarity with clients, and seeks local input to guide programs and access audiences is an important means of improving effectiveness of nutrition programs for Alaska Native people.
    • A qualitative analysis of the relationship between religion and women's self development

      Rodarte, Bertha Elia; Hazel, Kelly; Adams, Angela; Basham, Charlotte (2000-12)
      This study explored women's spiritual experiences and the effects of patriarchal religions on women's lives. To understand how patriarchal beliefs affect women, a sample of twenty-one women answered open-ended questions about their self-perceptions, images of God, discrepancies between religious education and beliefs in feminist ideology, and views of other women. The participants' experiences describe their spiritual self as Explorers, Adherents, or Liberated women. The research revealed that seventy-one percent of the women categorized as Explorers had a discrepancy between their religious and feminist belief systems. To cope they used emotion focused/avoidance, problem-oriented/avoidance and problem-oriented/active coping strategies. Both the Adherent and Liberated women avoided discrepancies between belief systems. Furthermore, the Adherent and Explorers' religious role models were their mothers suggesting their religious beliefs were generational. Conversely, Liberated women found spiritual guidance in female ministers and other women in their lives. These women transcended generational patriarchal religious beliefs.
    • A qualitative approach to understanding the everyday difference between acquaintanceship and friendship: how western organizational members discriminate these concepts through communicative interaction

      Hines, Bobby A. (2006-05)
      Stewart & Bennett posited the term 'friend, ' used by members of U.S. American culture, 'may refer to anyone from a passing acquaintance to a lifetime intimate' (p. 100-101). Although American use of the term illustrates broad applicability as acceptable, Americans describe the label as having different meanings depending on those to whom they apply it. This qualitative research study utilizes narrative inquiry to gain a better understanding of the everyday lived experience of U.S. American organizational members' friendships and acquaintanceships within the organizational setting and how they perceive the way they discern between friends and acquaintances inside an organization in comparison to those interpersonal relationships in their everyday social world. Through thematic analysis of capta from the conversational interviews of seven co-researchers, two themes arose: American organizational members have difficulty identifying 'friend, ' and differentiate 'friend' from 'organizational friend' by whether the relationship is primarily based in an infra or supra-contextual setting.
    • A qualitative study of the women and children's residential treatment center substance abuse treatment program

      Gilbert, Phillip Elwyn (2000-12)
      This thesis presents the results of a formative process evaluation of the Fairbanks Native Association Women and Children's Residential Treatment Center abuse program using interviews, participant observation, and grounded theory methods of qualitative research. Eight clients and eight staff were interviewed across the domains of culture, spirituality and family. A theory of program operation emanated from and was grounded in the data: program functioning was significantly affected by the relationship perceived by the clients to exist between themselves, (their needs, values, desires, goals and world view) and the program's goals and priorities.
    • Quality assessment of weathervane scallop (Patinopecten caurinus) and purple-hinge rock scallop (Crassadoma gigantea) from Alaska

      Brenner, Kathryn A.; Oliveira, Alexandra; RaLonde, Ray; Crapo, Charles; Bechtel, Peter (2011-08)
      In Alaska, the Pacific weathervane scallop (Patinopecten caurinus) is the only species commercially harvested. In the Eastern Gulf of Alaska, harvesters report occurrences of poor quality and difficult to market scallops from some fishing areas, designating the product 'weak meat' scallops. The purple-hinge rock scallop (PHRS, Crassadoma gigantea), has aquaculture potential. A recent grow-out study in Alaska was promising, verifying this potential. Our goal was to assess the quality of Alaskan scallops using physical and chemical analyses to understand the perceived differences in meat quality. 'Weak meat' (WS) and standard quality (SS) whole weathervane scallops from Yakutat, two batches of scallop muscle from Kodiak (KS1, KS2) and a group of whole PHRS from Southeast Alaska were sampled. Compared to KS1, KS2 and SS, muscle condition was lower (P<0.05), moisture content was higher (P<0.05) and glycogen content was below the detection limit (<0.62%) in WS. There were no differences (P>0.05) in proximate composition between PHRS and Kodiak scallops, however, PHRS had higher (P<0.05) levels of [omega]-6 fatty acids. Results confirmed anecdotal information from harvesters that WS was inferior in quality when compared to either SS or KS. Furthermore, we concluded that PHRS meat was of high quality, similar to Kodiak scallops.
    • Quality characterization and process design of salmon oil production for human consumption

      Huang, Jiaqi (2007-08)
      Salmon oil is an abundant source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Finding more lucrative markets for this unpurified fish oil requires well designed purification steps to reduce impurities such as free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative components, moisture, minerals, and trace metals. The temperature dependency of the rate constants for lipid oxidation and rheological properties of unpurified oil were measured and modeled using the Arrhenius equation. Performances of chitosan and/or activated earth as adsorbents were investigated to remove impurities from the oil. Activated earth was found more effective in adsorbing primary oxidation products than chitosan. Neither chitosan nor activated earth was effective in reducing FFA from the unpurified oil. Oils purified using activated earth adsorption, neutralization process, and/or combined neutralization and activated earth adsorption processes were characterized for peroxide value (PV), FFA, color, minerals, tocopherols, insoluble impurities, thermal properties, and viscosity. The neutralization process reduced FFA in the unpurified oil but PV increased. The combined method was more effective in reducing impurities than each individual process. The research findings from this study will provide a good model for purifying oil produced from salmon byproducts.
    • Quality of life for Alaskan individuals with FASD and their families

      Dow, Brenda S.; Ehrlander, Mary; Boylan, Brandon; Anahita, Sine; Rivkin, Inna (2019-05)
      Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong disability caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The effects of FASD include a range of physical, mental, behavioral, and learning disabilities. These disabilities impact quality of life, not only for the affected individual, but for family members. The effects from FASD ripple into schools, the correctional system, and throughout rural and urban communities. Although there are no reliable statistics available on FASD in Alaska, many professionals in the field believe Alaska to have the highest rate of FASD in the United States. This research has explored the ways in which prenatal exposure to alcohol affects quality of life for Alaskan individuals and their families. For this study, I have defined quality of life as the multi-faceted evaluation of the individual's personal experiences and life satisfaction, including health, psychological and social indicators. Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and FASD, many studies have analyzed the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as possible interventions. Few studies have investigated how prenatal alcohol exposure affects the individual's quality of life and even fewer studies have analyzed how raising one or more children with FASD affects the family. To address the gap in the literature, this research applied social constructivist theory and employed a qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews to explore individuals' and parents' life stories and perceptions on how FASD has affected their lives. I interviewed eight individuals with FASD and 14 adoptive or long-term foster parents. Findings indicate that FASD impacts almost every facet of the lives of both the individuals affected and their families. All individuals with FASD interviewed for this project suffered serious adverse childhood experiences in addition to their prenatal exposure to alcohol. All encountered academic and social difficulties at school. Individuals struggled in their transitions to adulthood, with some individuals needing assistance from parents or social services throughout their lifespan. Parents expressed their ongoing need for structure within the home and the continual need to advocate for suitable services for their children. They described how the ongoing stress of raising their child(ren) with FASD affected their social lives, employment and even their marriages. The perspectives and insight of these individuals with FASD and their parents can provide other family members, service providers and legislators a better understanding of how FASD affects quality of life and assist decision makers in making informed choices on how to best provide expanded or improved supportive services to these individuals and families whose everyday struggles go largely unrecognized by the general public.
    • Quantifying fisher responses to environmental and regulatory dynamics in marine systems

      Watson, Jordan T.; Mueter, Franz; Haynie, Alan C.; Sigler, Michael F.; Sullivan, Patrick J. (2017-12)
      Commercial fisheries are part of an inherently complicated cycle. As fishers have adopted new technologies and larger vessels to compete for resources, fisheries managers have adapted regulatory structures to sustain stocks and to mitigate unintended impacts of fishing (e.g., bycatch). Meanwhile, the ecosystems that are targeted by fishers are affected by a changing climate, which in turn forces fishers to further adapt, and subsequently, will require regulations to be updated. From the management side, one of the great limitations for understanding how changes in fishery environments or regulations impact fishers has been a lack of sufficient data for resolving their behaviors. In some fisheries, observer programs have provided sufficient data for monitoring the dynamics of fishing fleets, but these programs are expensive and often do not cover every trip or vessel. In the last two decades however, vessel monitoring systems (VMS) have begun to provide vessel location data at regular intervals such that fishing effort and behavioral decisions can be resolved across time and space for many fisheries. I demonstrate the utility of such data by examining the responses of two disparate fishing fleets to environmental and regulatory changes. This study was one of "big data" and required the development of nuanced approaches to process and model millions of records from multiple datasets. I thus present the work in three components: (1) How can we extract the information that we need? I present a detailed characterization of the types of data and an algorithm used to derive relevant behavioral aspects of fishing, like the duration and distances traveled during fishing trips; (2) How do fishers' spatial behaviors in the Bering Sea pollock fishery change in response to environmental variability; and (3) How were fisher behaviors and economic performances affected by a series of regulatory changes in the Gulf of Mexico grouper-tilefish longline fishery? I found a high degree of heterogeneity among vessel behaviors within the pollock fishery, underscoring the role that markets and processor-level decisions play in facilitating fisher responses to environmental change. In the Gulf of Mexico, my VMS-based approach estimated unobserved fishing effort with a high degree of accuracy and confirmed that the regulatory shift (e.g., the longline endorsement program and catch share program) yielded the intended impacts of reducing effort and improving both the economic performance and the overall harvest efficiency for the fleet. Overall, this work provides broadly applicable approaches for testing hypotheses regarding the dynamics of spatial behaviors in response to regulatory and environmental changes in a diversity of fisheries around the world.
    • Quantifying upland boreal forest successional pathways near Fairbanks, Alaska

      Kurkowski, Thomas Andrew (2005-08)
      Previous studies have suggested that post-fire forest succession in Interior Alaska can occur in two different ways. Self-replacement occurs when pre-fire dominant species immediately replace themselves as the canopy dominants after fire. Species-dominance relay occurs when, after simultaneously establishing themselves after fire, deciduous trees relinquish canopy dominance to conifer species as the stand ages. The relative importance of these different successional processes at landscape scales in Interior Alaska is unknown. To test for the importance of these two trajectories, we built a multinomial logistic regression model explaining the relationship between classified vegetation type and topographic variables. We also determined the relative occurrence of species-dominance relay by comparing aged stands to known successional patterns. The model correctly predicted 78% of spruce distribution, and the majority of stands are not following the species-dominance relay pattern, implying that most of the study area appears to be following a self-replacement trajectory with only a small proportion of sites capable of supporting both deciduous and spruce species. These results have important implications for modeling forest succession in Interior Alaska because of the importance of these dynamics in determining the fire regime, carbon storage, and global warming scenarios.
    • Quantifying Variability In The Alaskan Black Spruce Ecosystem: Linking Vegetation, Carbon, And Fire History

      Hollingsworth, Teresa Nettleton; F. Stuart Chapin, III; Marilyn Walker (2004)
      The boreal forest is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in North America, one of the least disturbed by humans, and most disturbed by fire. This combination makes it an ideal system to explore the environmental controls over species composition, the relative importance of abiotic factors and floristic composition in governing ecosystem processes, and the importance of legacy effects at a large regional spatial scale. In the boreal region of interior Alaska, Picea mariana (black spruce) is the predominant tree species and spans a wide range of habitats, including north-facing slopes with permafrost, lowland bogs, and high dry ridge-tops. This research uses a combination of site description and analysis from both locally near Fairbanks (54) and across a large region and number of sites (146) to answer questions about the regional variability and biodiversity of the black spruce forest type. Based on the relationships between species composition and environmental factors, topography and elevation were the most important gradients explaining species composition locally in the Fairbanks region, and mineral soil pH was the overriding environmental gradient across interior Alaska. To describe the floristic variability, I separated the black spruce forest type into three floristically-based community types and five community subtypes. Variability in ecosystem properties among black spruce stands was as large as that documented previously among all forest types in the central interior of Alaska. The variability in plant community composition was at least as effective as environmental or abiotic factors and stand characteristics as a predictor of soil C pools in the black spruce forest type of interior Alaska. The variability in species composition at the community subtype-level was related to a combination of environmental factors and fire history. Together, these results provide a foundation for future work in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska, and contribute to our understanding of the regional variability and biodiversity of the black spruce forest type.* *This dissertation is a compound document (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following system requirements: Adobe Acrobat.
    • Quantity and quality of freshwater rearing habitat in relation to juvenile Pacific salmon abundance in the Kulukak River, Alaska

      Coleman, Jesse M.; Sutton, Trent; Zimmerman, Christian; Adkison, Milo (2012-12)
      Monitoring of freshwater habitat and its influence on stream-rearing fish is essential for recognizing and mitigating the impacts of human- and climate-induced changes. For the purposes of developing a monitoring program in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, densities and habitat relationships of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch and sockeye salmon O. nerka were estimated in two tributaries of the Kulukak River, Alaska, in July 2010. Multiple-pass depletion electrofishing was used to estimate density in a random sample of habitat units belonging to one of four categorical habitat classes. Regression methods were also used to quantify the physical habitat associations of juvenile coho and sockeye salmon density in the study areas. Densities of juvenile coho and sockeye salmon ranged from 0.22 fish-m⁻² in West Fork riffles and 0.05 fish·m⁻² East Fork riffles to 2.22 fish M⁻² and 1.32 fish-m⁻² in East Fork eddy drop zones (EDZ), respectively. The largest proportions of freshwater habitat were comprised of run (71 %) and EDZ habitats (44%) in the East Fork and West Fork, respectively. Regression coefficients for coho and sockeye salmon densities were positive with respect to proportional areas of in-stream overhanging vegetation (0.78 and 0.74, respectively), large wood (0.99 and 0.97, respectively), and undercut banks (0.99 and 0.02, respectively). Conversely, coho and sockeye salmon density was negatively related to depth ( -1.45 and -0.52, respectively) and velocity ( -2.45 and -1.67, respectively). Although substrate size was negatively related to sockeye salmon density ( -0.40), this variable had a weak positive relationship with coho salmon density (0.08). These findings suggest that EDZ habitats are important for juvenile coho and sockeye salmon during summer rearing and in-stream cover is an essential component of these rearing habitats.
    • Questing for friendship: a conversation analysis of Dungeons and Dragons

      Greenstreet, Brandon J. (2012-05)
      This study addresses the doing, of friendship, the dynamic, continuous, unpredictable and emergent process of relating, as described by the Dialectics of Friendship. Examining, segments of the talk among a small group of male friends playing, the role-playing game Dungeons and Dragons using the approach of conversation analysis, this study sought to determine the ways in which these friendship dialectics are evident in their utterance by utterance micro-level talk-in-interaction. The resources and practices they employ in interactionally achieving a number of different conversational actions as their talk unfolds were revealed and can be understood or interpreted as enactments of one or more of the contradictory poles of six dialectics, demonstrating empirically dialectical contradictions, the tensions between their polarities, and their interdependence and interaction with other dialectics arises emergently out of talk-in-interaction, and is taken up and negotiated by participants.
    • Quikscat measurements of the wind field over the Bering and Chukchi Seas

      Mull, Jeremy M.; Johnson, Mark; Weingartner, Tom; Simmons, Harper (2008-12)
      The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic wind field and resulting ocean circulation patterns in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. This region forms an important link in global ocean circulation as Bering Strait is a major conduit for water flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic has been identified as an area sensitive to climate change; thus it is vital to understand how water and energy flow through this region. We first quantify the differences between the winds measured in this region by the Quik Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) and those modeled by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although the data sets are well correlated, we find significant discrepancies between these data sets and use linear regressions to correct the NCEP data. The magnitudes of the NCEP wind components are greater than the magnitudes of the QuikSCAT wind components. This creates directional differences between the two data sets at low wind speeds and NCEP speeds that are greater than QuikSCAT speeds at high wind speeds. We next challenge the assumption that the wind field is spatially uniform over the Bering and Chukchi shelves. We produce mean monthly maps of the wind field, surface Ekman transport, and wind variance based upon the 12-hourly QuikSCAT data from July 1999 – May 2007. These maps reveal that the winds are spatially and temporally dynamic in this region. There are several areas and times in which surface Ekman transport is onshore or offshore near the coasts and may engender coastal downwelling and upwelling, respectively. There are also several instances when surface Ekman convergence and divergence may lead to Ekman pumping and suction. We use the entire NCEP record (January 1948 – May 2007) to examine patterns of surface Ekman transport across the shelf break. There was a significant increase in the amount of onshelf surface Ekman transport that coincided with the regime shift that occurred in the Bering Sea in the mid-1970s. We attempt to correlate the time series of surface Ekman cross-shelf transport with several climate indices but find only very weak correlations. The annual surface Ekman freshwater fluxes across the shelf break are iii calculated and found to be very small compared to the total annual freshwater fluxes calculated by Aagaard et al. (2006) and Kinney et al. (2008). To resolve the dominant modes of wind variability we compute hourly, monthly, and annual Complex Empirical Orthogonal Functions (CEOFs) with the QuikSCAT and NCEP data sets. The first modes in each analysis account for more than 60% of the variance. Different aspects of the mode amplitude time series are cross-correlated with climate and indices to produce small but significant correlation coefficients. Finally we calculate Ekman pumping and suction at four locations in the Bering Sea during the spring and summer months of seven years (2000 – 2006). We identify regions and times when Ekman pumping and suction were particularly strong, and perform several runs of a one-dimensional Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP) vertical mixing model with the QuikSCAT winds, the QuikSCAT winds and a wind-stress-curl term, and the NCEP winds. The results suggest that Ekman suction might facilitate subsequent vertical mixing while Ekman pumping might inhibit subsequent vertical mixing when the winds are generally weak and wind-stress-curl is moderate or strong. The temporal resolution of the QuikSCAT data set is too low to resolve inertial motions at high latitudes. The NCEP data set has higher temporal resolution and is adequate for running the model within this region. We propose interpolating the hourly NWS data collected at St. Paul Island (station PASN) to the QuikSCAT grid using the complex amplitudes and phases from the complex cross-correlations between the two data sets to produce a data set of high temporal and spatial resolution. This would enable researchers to accurately resolve inertial motions and compute wind-stress-curl.
    • Quliangnanek litnauwilita - Let's teach through stories

      Branson, Candace; Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Thorne, Steve; Drabeck, Alisha (2015-12)
    • Quliriuralta (Lets keep telling stories): pace model with traditional Yup'ik storytelling in a second grade dual language classroom

      Wassilie, Irene M.; Siekmann, Sabine; Martelle, Wendy; Patterson, Leslie; Samson, Sally (2019-12)
      This research was conducted in a setting where the students are losing their Indigenous language. It is centered around the retention and revitalization of the Yugtun language. The goal of the research was to gain insights into how second graders in a dual language enrichment school constructed meaning and focus on form in their classroom. The instructional model employed as part of this investigation is the PACE Model, which is a story-based approach to teaching grammar through focus on form with an emphasis on meaning making. The model is consistent with Indigenous oral storytelling, cultural values, traditions and expectations. The study involves myself and fourteen second graders in Napaskiak, Alaska. ZJW Memorial School is one of 28 schools in the Lower Kuskokwim School District. Of these fourteen students, only one spoke Yugtun as his first language. The others were immersed into Yugtun as a second language. I implemented the PACE approach over the course of 25 days. Data was gathered through field notes, student artifacts, video and audio recordings. The data reveals that meaning making and building background knowledge can be a challenge for both teacher and students. It also reveals that the teacher should be implementing multimodal approaches to build comprehensible input so that students may produce output in the target language.
    • Quliriyaraq: storytelling using the pace model

      Strunk, Dora Emma Apurin; Martelle, Wendy; John, Theresa; Siekmann, Sabine (2015-12)