• Rate transient analysis and completion optimization study in Eagle Ford shale

      Borade, Chaitanya; Patil, Shirish; Inamdar, Abhijeet; Khataniar, Sanatanu (2015-08)
      Analysis of well performance data can deliver decision-making solutions regarding field development, production optimization, and reserves evaluation. Well performance analysis involves the study of the measured response of a system, the reservoir in our case, in the form of production rates and flowing pressures. The Eagle Ford shale in South Texas is one of the most prolific shale plays in the United States. However, the ultra-low permeability of the shale combined with its limited production history makes predicting ultimate recovery very difficult, especially in the early life of a well. Use of Rate Transient Analysis makes the analysis of early production data possible, which involves solving an inverse problem. Unlike the traditional decline analysis, Rate Transient Analysis requires measured production rates and flowing pressures, which were provided by an operator based in the Eagle Ford. This study is divided into two objectives. The first objective is to analyze well performance data from Eagle Ford shale gas wells provided by an operator. This analysis adopts the use of probabilistic rate transient analysis to help quantify uncertainty. With this approach, it is possible to systematically investigate the allowable parameter space based on acceptable ranges of inputs such as fracture length, matrix permeability, conductivity and well spacing. Since well spacing and reservoir boundaries were unknown, a base case with a reservoir width of 1500 feet was assumed. This analysis presents a workflow that integrates probabilistic and analytical modeling for shale gas wells in an unconventional reservoir. To validate the results between probabilistic and analytical modeling, a percent difference of less than 15% was assumed as an acceptable range for the ultimate recoverable forecasts. Understanding the effect of existing completion on the cumulative production is of great value to operators. This information helps them plan and optimize future completion designs while reducing operational costs. This study addresses the secondary objective by generating an Artificial Neural Network model. Using database from existing wells, a neural network model was successfully generated and completion effectiveness and optimization analysis was conducted. A good agreement between the predicted model output values and actual values (R² = 0.99) validated the applicability of this model. A completion optimization study showed that wells drilled in condensate-rich zones required higher proppant and liquid volumes, whereas wells in gas-rich zones required closer cluster spacing. Analysis results helped to identify wells which were either under-stimulated or over-stimulated and appropriate recommendations were made.
    • Ray tracing applications for high-frequency radar: characterizing artificial layers and background density perturbations in the ionosphere

      Theurer, Timothy E. (2012-08)
      In this thesis a numerical method of calculating ground-scattered power from the results of a ray tracing analysis is presented. The method is based on a conservation of energy approach and offers advantages over an alternative method derived from the radar equation. The improved numerical method is used to investigate two different physical phenomena by comparison with measured ground-scattered power observed by a high-frequency (HF) radar located in Kodiak, AK that is part of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). First, the effects of artificial electron density layers on observed ground scatter is studied through a comparison of simulated and measured power profiles. The results demonstrate that the location and spatial dimensions of artificial layers may be estimated by a comparison of the location and amplitude of simulated and measured power enhancements. Second, a Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to characterize the temporal distribution of ground-scattered power. Random processes including background electron density perturbations, polarization, noise, and sample correlation are modeled in simulation and used to estimate statistical moment profiles. The simulated statistical moment profiles are compared to measured profiles as a means of model verification and to roughly approximate background electron density perturbations in the ionosphere.
    • Rayleigh lidar studies of mesospheric inversion layers at Poker Flat Research Range, Chatanika, Alaska

      Irving, Brita K. (2012-08)
      Rayleigh lidar observations at Poker Flat Research Range, Chatanika, Alaska (65°N, 213°E), have yielded density and temperature measurements from 40-80 km. These measurements have been made under clear nighttime skies since November 1997. This thesis presents a study of Mesospheric Inversion Layers (MILs) and lidar performance at Chatanika. MILs are identified and characterized in the 40-70 km altitude region on 55 of the 149 wintertime observations over two periods, November 1997-April 2005 and November 2007-March 2009, using a new detection algorithm. Investigation of the MILs compared with planetary wave activity as observed by satellite finds a strong correlation between the presence of MILs and the structure of the planetary waves. These two periods are marked by strong planetary wave activity and sudden stratospheric warming events. MILs are found to occur more frequently than previously reported at Arctic sites, but less frequently than at lower latitudes. In spring 2012 the existing lidar system was extended by incorporating a larger aperture telescope and higher power laser and field trials were conducted. The results from these field trails are presented and the ability of the new lidar system to extend the scope of future studies at Chatanika is assessed.
    • Rayleigh lidar studies of the Arctic middle atmosphere

      Cutler, Laura Jeanette (2000-12)
      Rayleigh lidar allows us to measure density and temperature structure of the atmosphere at heights from approximately 35 to 80 kilometers. A Rayleigh lidar was installed at Poker Flat Research Range in November of 1997 and has been operated routinely since. This thesis presents an engineering analysis of the lidar system performance and a scientific analysis of the data obtained. The engineering analysis considers the receiver and transmitter alignment of the lidar system and the signal quality of the lidar data. The scientific analysis considers the retrieval of density and temperature profiles under a range of geophysical conditions. This study uses a three-year data set that includes 38 nights of data.
    • Reading Comprehension Strategies In Children With High-Functioning Autism: A Social Constructivist Perspective

      Cotter, June Ann; Richey, Jean (2011)
      Individuals with autism see the world, by definition of the diagnosis, in a very different way than the typical student. Communication, both verbal and non-verbal, is a defining characteristic of this disability. Students with autism both can and need to learn to comprehend when reading to be successful in school and in life. This study evaluated the reading comprehension abilities of three students with autism and using a strength-based approach targeting comprehension strategies. These strategies also appear to have increased the students' communication skills. All participants were medically or educationally diagnosed with autism. All had an educationally-defined label of autism and had been identified as having difficulty with reading comprehension. The study is presented as a case study with limited participants. The author investigated the reading comprehension abilities of each student and through direct instruction provided support for the skills the student already possessed. Additional skills were then introduced thereby increasing the students' abilities to comprehend. An additional effect of increasing student personal communication skills was also noted.
    • Reading the text right: Robert Browning and iconoclasm

      Baker, Kasey D.; Dupras, Joseph A. (2003-05)
      This thesis explores Robert Browning's revolutionary, iconoclastic poetry. Browning utilizes revisionist methodology to approach individualistic truth. Using the idols Francis Bacon outlines in 'Novum Organum' as a means by which to assess Browning's iconoclasm, the paper is organized according to the 'Idols of the Theatre, ' philosophical iconoclasm; 'Idols of the Cave, ' cultural iconoclasm; 'Idols of the Market-Place, ' linguistic iconoclasm; and 'Idols of the Tribe, ' perceptual iconoclasm. It includes analysis of Browning's philosophical iconoclasm in Paracelsus and 'Fra Lippo Lippi;' his cultural iconoclasm in 'Statue and the Bust, ' 'Bishop Blougram's Apology, ' and 'Saul'; his linguistic iconoclasm in 'An Epistle ... of Karshish, the Arab Physician' and 'A Death in the Desert'; and his perceptual iconoclasm in 'Caliban upon Setebos.' Browning, while not overtly political, was revolutionary-minded in the way he viewed his art and the world. Breaking apart the idols of his readers, Browning incites the individual to revolution.
    • Real-time comparisons of ionospheric data with outputs from the UAF eulerian parallel polar ionosphere model

      Kotipalli, Nagaprasad V. (2007-05)
      The UAF theoretical polar ionospheric model (UAF EPPIM) solves 3D equations of mass, momentum, and energy balance for multiple ion species to determine ion and electron parameters in the polar ionosphere region using a parallel numerical code on an Eulerian grid. Real time operation of the model is very important because users are interested in current space weather conditions. Real-time validation of this model with available experimental data is an important task for the following reasons. (1) Real-time validation can provide much information about the model quality and define the directions of improvement. (2) Real-time comparisons help to determine trusted intervals for the model parameters for future data assimilation tasks. In this work, we have developed an operational real-time comparisons capability which assimilates HAARP (High frequency Active Auroral Research Program) experimental data for the model validation purposes. Software has been developed to emulate Total Electron Content (TEC). Results are then compared with real-time data from HAARP. Further, we have developed a Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (ClT) model which provides ionosphere tomography images covering five different stations in Alaska along the geomagnetic latitude (50-78 degrees). Then these images are compared with real-time ionosphere tomography images obtained at the HAARP website.
    • A reason for being: a memoir

      Hoppough, Jennifer A.; Farmer, Daryl L.; Coffmann, Chris; Harney, Eileen (2017-05)
    • Reasons you trust a giant

      Bauer, Aaron (2012-05)
      The following poems investigate giants--literary giants, historical giants, pop-culture icons--and concepts surrounding them. The nature of pseudepigraphic writing, in which writers attempt to tell stories related to but not already told by biblical or historical texts, has influenced the construction of this work, which also attempts to expand upon unrepresented perspectives and give ancient stories relevance to modern readers by combining several myths into one or placing ancient characters out of context. Many of the names and situations concerning giants are derived from the pseudepigraphical. The Book of Giants, which elaborates an obscure biblical passage in Genesis, which introduces a race of giants, the Nephilim, who are the offspring of angels and human women.
    • Recent changes in plant and avian communities at Creamer's Refuge, Alaska using field and remote sensing observations

      Tauzer, Lila Maria; Powell, Abby; Bret-Harte, Syndonia; Sharbaugh, Susan; Prakash, Anupma (2013-05)
      Plant communities in the north are being profoundly altered by climate warming, but our understanding of the extent and outcomes of this ecosystem shift is limited. Although it was assumed local vegetation changes will affect avian communities, few data exist to investigate this relationship. In an interior Alaska boreal forest ecosystem, this study capitalized on available resources to assess simultaneous change in plant and avian communities over 35 years. Biological changes were quantified in summer avian community data (species composition, diversity, and richness) and in vegetation using archived field data, and supplemented this data with remote sensing observations for a similar time period to assess the validity of this method for documenting environmental change. Field and remote sensing data both documented successional changes resulting in denser, more coniferous-dominated habitats. Birds responded accordingly, which indicates a rapid avian response to habitat change and that they are good indicators of environmental change. Information gained provides more accurate evaluations of habitat dynamics throughout the interior boreal forest and highlights the importance of considering successional change in all long-term climate studies. It allows for better predictions of future habitat change and acts as a strong baseline for future environmental monitoring.
    • Reconstruction Of Neets'Aii Gwich'In Land Use: A Methodological Study.

      Peirce, John Carl, Jr. (1995)
      This thesis attempts to determine to what extent land use patterns for the Neets'aii Gwich'in of Alaska can be spatially reconstructed from existing sources. Written narratives are reviewed, such as those related by explorers, missionaries, traders and prospectors, for information on land use. Also reviewed are data that give a broad array of subsistence, demographic, geographical or other relevant information concerning land use, including biological and geological reports, economic studies, census reports, Neets'aii Gwich'in oral narratives, archaeological studies, ethnographic studies, place name studies and maps, and land use and occupancy studies. Methodological models for gathering land use data are reviewed to establish a foundation from which the land use data discussed in this thesis can be compared. Finally, an analysis of the extent to which Neets'aii Gwich'in land use can be reconstructed using historic sources is applied to various conceptual levels of understanding Northern hunter and gatherer land use. <p>
    • A reconstruction of steppe bison mobility in the Yukon-Tanana uplands and implications for prehistoric human behavior

      Glassburn, Crystal L.; Clark, Jamie L.; Potter, Ben A.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Wooller, Matthew J. (2015-08)
      This study seeks to characterize steppe bison (Bison priscus) behavioral ecology in interior Alaska during the Pleistocene for the purpose of understanding how bison may have moved about the landscape on a seasonal basis and how this behavior could have influenced prehistoric human settlement and subsistence patterns. Steppe bison were present in Alaska and other circumpolar regions during the Pleistocene but became extinct during the late Holocene. Archaeological evidence from the Tanana River Basin in interior Alaska indicates that bison were an important component of human subsistence economies for at least 10,000 years, but aspects of steppe bison behavioral ecology including location of habitat area, seasonal movement patterns, and responses to environmental change remain largely unexplored in Alaskan archaeology or paleoecology. This study applies strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotopic analyses to 14 sequentially-sampled and AMS radiocarbon dated steppe bison teeth from two locales in the Yukon-Tanana Uplands in order to reconstruct steppe bison behavior on a seasonal basis. This study is the first of its kind for any prehistoric species in Alaska, and the results indicate that steppe bison did not migrate great distances, but instead, moved between different ecotones seasonally, spending summers in higher elevation regions and winters in lower elevation regions. The results also indicate that steppe bison had greater mobility during periods of warmer climate, including Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) and during the Late Pleistocene. Bison would have represented a large-bodied and predictable source of food for prehistoric peoples, and these results suggest that human landuse patterns likely incorporated the use of upland regions during the summer and fall, and lowland regions during the winter and early spring. Additionally, the results suggest that bison movement on the landscape would have been more predictable during the Late Pleistocene than during the Holocene. As such, settlement and subsistence patterns may have shifted from a more residentially-organized pattern during the Late Pleistocene to greater logistical mobility during the Holocene as bison population became more mobile.
    • Reconstruction of the damaged central nervous system and spine

      Helm, Gregory Anthony (1996)
      The field of neuronal transplantation has received a great deal of interest since the 1970's and is currently considered a possible treatment option for both neurodegenerative diseases and spinal cord injury. In this dissertation, fetal neostriatal transplants grafted into the lesioned striatum were studied in both the rat and rhesus monkey. Golgi-impregnation and immunohistochemical techniques were extended to the light and electron microscopic levels to determine the detailed anatomy of the developing striatal implants. Choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive and substance P-like immunoreactive neurons within the rat striatal transplants were morphologically and ultrastructurally similar to normal striatal neurons. When the striatal grafting studies were extended into the rhesus monkey, normal neuronal maturation was demonstrated three months postoperative, both at the light and electron microscopic levels, using various neuroanatomical techniques. From these studies it can be concluded that fetal striatal grafts may be a useful treatment option for Huntington's disease, although numerous difficulties including neuronal degeneration and transplant rejection need to be addressed before this approach is applied in the clinical setting. In a second group of experiments, various approaches to improve autologous bone spinal fusions were studied. Specifically, the utilization of demineralized bone matrix, Type I collagen gel, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins were evaluated for their effects on autologous bone spinal fusions in canines. The study demonstrated that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein has a strong effect on the amount of bone deposition at the fusion site and, in addition, increases the number of vertebral levels which solidly fuse. The Type I collagen gel appeared to improve the interface between the autologous bone grafts and the host bone, while the demineralized bone matrix had a strong negative effect on the autologous bone graft fusions. Spinal fusion operations in the future will be much more successful if these various methods to improve spinal arthrodesis are utilized to their full potential. It is now clear that reconstruction of the central nervous system and its bony coverings is a real possibility in the very near future, although extensive clinical studies need to be performed before they are widely used in the neurosurgery community.
    • Recovery of rare earth elements from Alaskan coal and coal combustion products

      Gupta, Tushar; Ghosh, Tathagata; Akdogan, Guven; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Misra, Debasmita (2016-12)
      Owing to the monopolistic supply and rapid demand growth of Rare Earth Elements (REEs), cost effective and eco-friendly technologies for extraction of REEs from coal and coal byproducts are being widely explored. Physical separation tests, like magnetic separation, float-sink and froth flotation, were conducted at a laboratory scale, for identification and characterization of REEs in two Alaskan coal samples. The studies revealed that the samples are enriched in critical REEs, and have elevated REE concentrations as compared to average world coal estimates. The selected coal samples from Healy and Wishbone Hill regions were found to possess an overall concentration of 524 ppm and 286 ppm, respectively, of REEs in coal on ash basis and some density fractions have total REE concentrations as high as 857 ppm. Based on the characterization studies, detailed investigations were conducted to enrich the REEs and produce a concentrate for downstream extraction. A three-factor three-level Box-Behnken design for modeling and optimization of froth flotation revealed that the optimum flotation conditions for maximum REE Enrichment in the froth fraction was independent of collector dosage for both coal samples. The response variable was maximized at 4.2% solids and 32.7 ppm of frother dosage for Healy Coal sample and 10% solids and 37.9 ppm of frother dosage for Wishbone Hill Coal sample. A processing flowsheet for REE enrichment in clean coal is proposed, which aims at concentrating REEs in lower density fractions by a combination of dense medium separation and froth flotation processes. The overall REE recovery of the process is calculated to be 76% for Healy and 60% for Wishbone Hill with clean coal fractions enriched in REE concentrations above the cut-off value required for the commercial exploitation. The coals are bound to possess the potential to be used as a REE resource under favorable socio-economic and geo-political scenarios.
    • Recreation

      Alfaro, Alex; Johnson, Sara Eliza; Reilly, Terence; Brightwell, Gerri (2018-05)
      This collection was the result of a "happy accident" which occured while watching late night tv and writing poetry. It felt odd at the time to be doing something so mundane and contemporary while also creating something as ancient and steeped in culture and tradition. My life has always seemed varied, almost random, and that's the basic premise of this collection. From such randomness do these poems find purpose: from absurdity comes destiny, from insignificance comes enlightenment and everything in between is a just a privilege--but art, that's where this collection can live.
    • Recruitment mechanisms of tanner crab in the eastern Bering Sea

      Richar, Jonathan; Kruse, Gordon; Mueter, Franz; Eckert, Ginny; Zheng, Jie (2014-08)
      Influences of biophysical conditions on survival of zoeal and early stages of eastern Bering Sea Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi, were investigated using simple linear regression modeling, and a combination of hydrodynamic modeling and spatial and geostatistical methods. Linear regression analyses indicated that estimated reproductive female crab abundance, age 3-7 Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) abundance and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) total biomass were statistically related to estimates of recruitment to the 30-50 mm carapace width size interval of juvenile crab. Analysis of output from a Regional Ocean Modeling System simulation model indicated considerable capacity of the Bering Sea oceanography to retain zoeae at regional and local scales. Major transport patterns corresponded to long-term mean flows, with a northwesterly vector. Retention may be a significant recruitment process, particularly in Bristol Bay, which is effectively oceanographically isolated from other source regions of crab larvae. Periods during which conditions may have favored juvenile crab survival were observed at the model-estimated larval endpoints during the early 1980s and mid to late 1990s. While environmental conditions at model-estimated endpoints were highly variable, crab recruitment was positively correlated with endpoint locations either within the periphery of the cold pool, or outside of it, and SST >2° C after allowing for autocorrelation in the juvenile recruitment series. However, limitations of the model, gaps in knowledge of Tanner crab life history and ecology, and the possibility of spurious correlations complicate interpretation of these results.
    • Recurrence analysis methods for the classification of nonlinear systems

      Graybill, Mark; Wackerbauer, Renate; Chowdhury, Ataur; Newman, David (2014-05)
      Recurrence is a common phenomenon in natural systems: A system enters and leaves a state, but after a given period of time, passes near that same state again. Many complex signals, such as weather cycles, heartbeats, or neuron firing patterns, all show recurrence. The recurrence plot (RP) displays all times j where a system returns near a state it has occupied at time i, giving rise to upward-sloping diagonal lines where a system follows a recurrent path, orthogonal lines when the system changes very slowly, or many disconnected points where a system's behavior is unpredictable. Investigation of the RP can then proceed through recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). Three new measures for RQA were developed: diagonality, quantifying diagonal lines, verticality, quantifying vertical lines, and periodicity quantifying the arrangement of recurrence points in periodic structures. These new measures were applied alongside classical recurrence measures to explore trends in random data, identify periodicity and chaotic behavior in the logistic map, estimate the dimensionality of the Lorenz attractor, and discriminate between persistent data signals. In collaboration with biologist Dr. Michael Harris, RQA methods were applied to the discrimination of two neuron types: serotonergic cells are believed to stimulate respiration, while nonserotonergic cells are implicated in respiratory inhibition. Typical discrimination methods compare mean and standard deviation of firing rates to a reference line, which correctly classifies serotonergic cells but incorrectly classifies many nonserotonergic cells. Voltage signals from such cells were converted into inter-spike intervals. Convergence required trials containing over 300 spikes for biological methods, and over 1000 for full investigation using RQA. Whether such cells can be discriminated from baseline firing patterns remains an open question.
    • Red King Crab Hatchery Culture And Ecological Requirements: Applications For Stock Enhancement

      Daly, Benjamin J.; Eckert, Ginny; Konar, Brenda; Kruse, Gordon; Stoner, Allan (2012)
      The ecologically and commercially important red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) is depleted throughout much of the North Pacific and thought to be recruitment limited, making it an appropriate candidate for stock enhancement efforts. This research addresses bottlenecks associated with hatchery production and lays the groundwork for developing release strategies. I investigated effects of diet, stocking density, and size grading on survival, growth, and shell coloration of recently-settled juvenile red king crabs in large-scale hatchery experiments. I also conducted laboratory experiments with fish predators to determine if red king crab predator responses could be enhanced with experience. Finally, I tethered hatchery-cultured red king crabs of two sizes in the field for 24 h trials and used underwater video cameras to identify predators and predation susceptibility. In hatchery experiments, dietary astaxanthin supplementation improved survival and shell coloration suggesting that red king crab coloration is plastic and that astaxanthin may provide nutritional or immune system benefits. Size grading strongly influenced survival and growth in the hatchery. Generally, small crabs had higher survival than large and ungraded crabs, but large and ungraded crabs had higher growth, likely from cannibalism. In laboratory experiments, halibut exposure enhanced red king crab crypsis and survival suggesting that cryptic behavior is plastic and may be enhanced with experience. In the field experiment, I identified specific predators of recently-settled red king crabs in a nearshore habitat and showed that survival did not vary with body size or deployment month during the first juvenile instar stages. My research provides an important step for developing a responsible red king crab stock enhancement program by demonstrating that hatchery production can be improved with specific advances in rearing technology, hatchery-cultured red king crabs are morphologically and behaviorally plastic, hatchery-cultured red king crabs tethered in the field show no obvious behavioral deficiencies that may exacerbate predation, and that differences in predation susceptibility during the first juvenile instar stages are subtle and may be ecologically inconsequential for post-release survival. As bottlenecks in hatchery production and survival of released juveniles are overcome, stock enhancement will become increasingly feasible for red king crabs in Alaska.
    • Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) ecology during spruce cone failure in Alaska

      Smith, Michael C. T. (1967-05)
      Observations were made on a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) population in a mature white spruce (Picea glauca) forest near Fairbanks, Alaska, during two years of spruce cone crop failure (July, 1964, to April, 1966). An adequate supply of old spruce cones, cached in previous years, was available during the first winter. A 67% drop in numbers of the squirrel population followed the second crop failure with the remaining squirrels utilizing spruce buds as their primary food during the winter. Stomach analyses revealed that when present, spruce seed is the major constituent in the diet. In its absence, heavy utilization of mushrooms in summer and spruce buds in winter occurs. Feeding trials conducted with captive red squirrels in March, 1965, and April, 1966, showed that about 194 old cones per day were necessary to sustain a squirrel, approximately 35% more than for cones from the current year's crop. Three squirrels survived for eight days on a diet of only white spruce buds. Analysis of old spruce cones showed that 31% of the seed was potentially viable (filled), but that only 1.4% of the seed germinated. Calorimetric determinations of old seed (minus coat), spruce buds, and mushrooms yielded values of 5,976, 4,986, and 4,552 cal/g respectively. Excavation of middens revealed up to 8,518 old, cached cones per midden, despite a crop failure. In years of normal cone production, squirrels may cut and cache 12,000 to 16,000 cones; the excess accrues each year and eventually a sufficient supply exists to maintain the squirrels through a winter following a cone crop failure.
    • Refined liquid smoke: a potential antilisterial supplement to cold-smoked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

      Montazeri Djouybari, Naim; Oliveira, Alexandra; Himelbloom, Brian; Crapo, Charles; Leigh, Mary Beth (2011-12)
      Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis can contaminate cold smoked salmon (CSS) and make it a high-risk ready-to-eat food product. Due to the lack of a critical control point in the cold-smoking process, a post-process elimination is essential to ensure product safety. The goal of this project was to improve safety of vacuum-packaged CSS supplemented with commercially refined liquid smoke (LS). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis showed the LS were high in carbonyl containing compounds and low in phenol derivatives. The LS (AM-10 and AM-3) producing the greatest inhibition against L. innocua in a paper disk diffusion assay were applied to the CSS strips at 1% (v/w). The CSS were inoculated with L. innocua, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4°C. Addition of LS imparted a listericidal effect with a 2-log reduction by day 14, and no growth up to 35 days of storage. For the sensory evaluation, AM-3 was selected for its slightly stronger listericidal activity. A simple difference sensory test including 180 untrained assessors showed the overall sensorial quality of CSS was not influenced by the addition of the LS. The present study recommends refined LS as a suitable antilisterial supplement to CSS.