• Salmon, cosmology, and identity in Elim, Alaska

      Raymond-Yakoubian, Julie M.; Schweitzer, Peter; Koester, David; Plattet, Patrick; Carothers, Courtney; Lowe, Marie (2019-05)
      This dissertation is the result of sociocultural anthropological research in and about the community of Elim, Alaska. Elim is a small community of approximately 330 (primarily Inupiaq and Yup'ik Eskimo) people in Norton Sound. This research began with a focus on the topics of salmon and identity in the community. The focus on salmon was particularly important because the communities of this region have often traditionally been understood in the social sciences through the lens of relationships with marine mammals. The research involved participant observation in the community, a variety of forms of ethnographic interviewing (free listing, structured, and semi-structured interviews), focus groups, storytelling sessions, and archival research. Over 80 adults in the community participated in the project through interviews. I also completed extensive photo-documentation of the community and various aspects of peoples' relationships with subsistence activities. Much of this work began with inquiries about the importance of salmon to people in Elim, as well as an examination of other things which were important to Elim residents, and how people come to understand themselves. In this I also examined and learned about aspects of Elim residents' relationships with fish and other animals, with the environment, with the spiritual world, and with each other. This process led me to insights not just about identity in Elim - what matters, what is meaningful and valued, how people understand and define themselves and their community, and so on - but it also led to me an understanding of how Elim residents think about the nature of the world in general (i.e., cosmology). My main argument in this dissertation is that my research in and about Elim revealed that identity and cosmology are co-created - and it revealed how this is the case. I discovered that salmon are 'good to think with' in order to see that. This co-creation of identity and cosmology occurs within a particularly visible hybrid cosmological landscape of (primarily) 'traditionally Indigenous' and Christian ideologies. This landscape in lived culture and context is marked by a patterned heteroglossic 'condition' which includes a dominant (and indigenized) Christian discourse. This heteroglossia is constituted, represented, and evidenced by a (markedly) heterogeneous multiplicity of discourse, practice, and belief. This cosmological landscape and its heteroglossic condition are visible, and made, in various respects in co-implicated, co-indexical, interlocking instantiations of human-animal relationships, spirituality, systems of proper behavior, place attachments, and identity processes and formations.
    • Salmonid Phenology, Microevolution, And Genetic Diversity In A Warming Alaskan Stream

      Kovach, Ryan P.; Tallmon, David; Lindberg, Mark; Milo, Adkison,; Gharrett, Anthony (2012)
      Climate change is a formidable challenge for fish and wildlife conservation because it will directly influence the ecology and evolution of wild populations. Though climate-induced temporal trends in phenological events are common in many populations, there remains considerable uncertainty in the patterns, mechanisms, and consequences of phenological shifts. To address this, and clarify how climate change has impacted salmonid migration timing and microevolution in a warming (0.34�C per decade) Alaskan stream, long-term demographic and genetic data were used to answer these questions: how has migration timing changed in multiple salmonid species; what sources of variation influence migration timing; are changes in migration timing a result of microevolution; and does migration timing and change in migration timing influence intra-population genetic variation? For most salmonid species, life stages, and life histories, freshwater temperature influenced migration timing, migration events occurred earlier in time (mean = 1.7 days earlier per decade), and there was decreasing phenotypic variation in migration timing (mean 10% decrease). Nonetheless, there were disparate shifts in migration timing for alternative life history strategies indicative of biocomplexity. Population abundances have been stable during these phenotypic changes (lambda ≈ 1.0), but adult salmon availability as a nutrient resource in freshwater has decreased by up to 30 days since 1971. Experimental genetic data spanning 16 generations in the odd-year pink salmon population demonstrate that earlier migration timing is partly due to genetic changes resulting from selection against late-migrating fish and a three-fold decrease in this phenotype. However, circadian rhythm genes hypothesized to influence migration timing in Pacific salmon showed no evidence of inter-generational selective change. Migration timing itself influences the distribution of genetic variation within pink salmon, as there were genetic differences between early- and late-migrating fish. Despite shifts in migration timing, genetic structure and the genetic effective population size were both stable across years, indicating that in the absence of demographic change patterns of genetic diversity are resilient to climate change. These findings indicate that climate change has significantly influenced the ecology and evolution of salmon populations, which will have important consequences for the numerous species, including humans, who depend on this resource.
    • Salt Lake speed seduction

      Ferguson, Dean A. (2000-08)
      This satirical novel is written in first person and alternates between two story lines: a present tense story and a past tense one. It follows characters who are living the Gen X. life: low paying jobs, lots of drugs, lots of sex, and an unearned sense of superiority. Their search for direction and meaning in a society that is increasingly voyeuristic and paranoid illustrates the futility of such a journey in late 20th century America. The main character's placement as the accidental leader of a cult makes him the target of governmental aggression. The opposition of religious institutions, local and state governments, and the media forces these characters to reject mainstream attitudes and assumptions.
    • Salt redistribution during freezing of saline sand columns with applications to subsea permafrost

      Baker, Grant Cody; Osterkamp, T. E. (1987)
      Laboratory experiments were designed to investigate salt redistribution during the freezing of saline sand columns and to obtain information on salt movement in saturated sands and reconstituted subsea permafrost samples. The results of these experiments were combined with results from field investigations of subsea permafrost at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to develop an improved understanding of salt redistribution during freezing and the movement of salt in the seabed sediments. These processes can produce soil solution salinities in the sediments greater than about 50 ppt. Comparison of spring and fall salinity profiles indicate salt movement with velocities of at least 2 m/year. Laboratory freezing (downward) tests of saline sand columns show significant salt redistribution at growth rates between 0.1 and 2 cm/day. Salt movement was observed with velocities of at least 2 cm/day. Salt movement in the unfrozen soil solution in partially frozen sand appears to be the result of gravity drainage. Freezing upward produced no significant salt redistribution. Salt fingering experiments showed that salt fingers could move with velocities of several cm/hr and suggest that it may be a major mechanism for rapid salt movement in subsea permafrost. Fingers (freshwater) at a thawing fresh ice boundary overlain by thawed saline soil solution displayed similar rapid movement behavior. Laboratory measurements of the hydraulic conductivity, K, of subsea permafrost samples yielded values that were 10$\sp2$ to 10$\sp3$ times greater than previously reported in-situ measurements. While it is difficult to apply the laboratory results to subsea permafrost under field conditions, these greater values for K and the large salt fingering velocities suggest that gravity-driven convection, in the form of salt fingering, should be considered as a primary mechanism for rapid salt transport in subsea permafrost.
    • Sand dune field paleoenvironment, paleoecology, and human environmental interaction in the middle Tanana River Valley near the Gerstle River, subarctic Alaska: the late glacial to the middle Holocene

      Bowman, Robert C.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Potter, Ben A.; Clark, Jamie L. (2017-08)
      This study was conducted to explore paleoenvironmental change within the Gerstle-Sawmill Dune Field (GSDF), located just west of the Gerstle River in the middle Tanana River valley, Interior Alaska from the late Glacial to the middle Holocene. Specifically, this study was undertaken to document human-environment interaction on the landscape. Geoarchaeological methods were used in order to determine the history of sand dune development across the area, how the local ecological systems changed through time, and determine prehistoric human use of environment and response to environmental and ecological change. The data collected from these locations was used to create a model for sand dunes and human land use regarding local ecological stability and dynamic sand dune deposition. Patterns of human land use within the GSDF were then compared with data collected from sites in proximity to the GSDF to determine how this portion of the environment operated within the larger geographic area. This geoarchaeological research aids in understanding ecological patterning within terrestrial lowland systems from the Late Glacial to the Middle Holocene, with regard to human land use dynamics within a changing geomorphological system.
    • Satellite evidence of physical features and processes in the Bering Sea

      Paluszkiewicz, Theresa (1982-05)
      Satellite infrared imagery is used to study temporal and spatial relationships of physical features and processes in the Bering Sea. A two-year collection of enhanced infrared imagery reveals that the maximum extent of the ice corresponds with the location of the Bering Slope current. Sea surface temperature patterns visually correlate with the 50-m and 70-m bathymetric contours. Processes which establish fronts in these regions are possible explanations for this correlation. Warm surface water extending from the Gulf of Alaska, through the Aleutian passes into the Bering Sea, is found simultaneously with warm surface water and eddies along the shelf break. Spatial and temporal relationships of these patterns imply surface circulation in the Bering Sea basin with inflow of Gulf of Alaska water through the Aleutian passes, cyclonic flow in the basin, and flow along the shelf by the Bering Slope current. Several generating mechanisms for the eddies are proposed.
    • Satellite remote sensing of active wildfires in Alaska's boreal forest

      Waigl, Christine F.; Stuefer, Martin; Prakash, Anupma; Verbyla, David; Ichoku, Charles (2017-12)
      This research addresses improvements to the detection and characterization of active wildfires in Alaska with satellite-based sensors. The VIIRS I-band Fire Detection Algorithm for High Latitudes (VIFDAHL) was developed and evaluated against existing active fire products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This new algorithm is based on VIIRS 375 m spatial resolution imagery and was tuned using fires in Alaska's boreal forest. It provides improved fire detection of low-intensity fires, especially during daytime and at sensor zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° off nadir. Low-intensity active fires, which represent residual combustion present after the passage of a high-intensity fire front, are not very well detected by existing active fire products. A second topic was fire remote sensing with ~30 m resolution imaging spectrometer (or hyperspectral instrument), the Hyperion sensor on NASA's EO-1 spacecraft, which was in use from 2000 to 2016. Hyperion had a much higher spectral resolution than VIIRS or MODIS, but no repeat imagery of the same active fire was available in Alaska. The investigation relied on absorption and emission features in the radiance spectra acquired at every pixel location. Three fire detection methods were evaluated using archived Hyperion data from three fires in interior Alaska from 2004 and 2009: A version of the Hyperspectral Fire Detection Algorithm (HFDI) produced excellent active fire maps; an approach that relies on a shortwave infrared carbon dioxide absorption feature and associated Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CO₂ CIBR) proved to be useful, but was affected by sensor noise and clouds; finally, a potassium emission feature from biomass burning was not detectable in the Hyperion data. Fire temperatures were determined using the Hyperion shortwave infrared spectra between 1400 nm and 2400 nm. The temperatures of active fire, the corresponding partial pixel areas, and the pixel areas occupied by unburned and already-burned vegetation, respectively, were modeled within each fire pixel. A model with two reflected background components and two temperature endmembers, applied to the same three study scenes, yielded an excellent fit to Hyperion spectral radiance data. Fire temperatures ranged from approximately 500-600 K to approximately 800-900 K. The retrieved lower fire temperatures are within the range of smoldering combustion; high-temperature values are limited by Hyperion's saturation behavior. High-temperature fire occupying 0.2% of a pixel (2 m²) was detectable. Sub-pixel fire area and temperature were also retrieved using VIIRS 750 m (M-band) data, with comparable results. Uncertainties were evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation. This work offers insight into the sensitivity of fire detection products to time of day (largely due to overpass timing), spatial distribution over the study area (largely due to orbital properties) and sensor zenith angle. The results are relevant for sensor and algorithm design regarding the use of new multi- and hyperspectral sensors for fire science in the northern high latitudes. Data products resulting from this research were designed to be suitable for supporting fire management with an emphasis on real-time applications and also address less time-sensitive questions such as retrievals of fire temperature and time series of fire evolution.
    • Satellite thermal remote sensing of the volcanoes of Alaska and Kamchatka during 1994-1996, and the 1994 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano

      Wyatt, W. Christopher (2001-05)
      The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers on the NOAA polar orbiting satellites were used to routinely observe the volcanoes of Alaska and Kamchatka from May 1994 to July 1996, as part of the monitoring effort of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. The largest eruption observed during this period occurred at Kliuchevskoi Volcano between September 8 and October 2, 1994. Radiative temperature measurements made during this eruption were used to develop quantitative methods for analyzing volcanic thermal anomalies. Several parameters, including maximum temperature, anomalous pixels, and total volcanic signal (TVS), were compared to viewing angle and date. A new quantity, TVS7, may most effectively monitor the temporal evolution of the eruption using thermal data. By combining several observations of the thermal state of the volcano, the general nature of the volcanic activity can be described. These observations may indicate an elevation in temperature twelve to 24 hours before an ash-producing event.
    • Satellite to model comparisons of volcanic ash emissions in the North Pacific

      Steensen, Torge S.; Webley, Peter; Beget, James; Dehn, Jonathan; Stuefer, Martin (2013-12)
      To detect, analyze and predict the movement of volcanic ash in real time, dispersion models and satellite remote sensing data are important. A combination of both approaches is discussed here to enhance the techniques currently used to quantify volcanic ash emissions, based on case studies of the eruptions of the Kasatochi (Alaska, USA, 2008), Mount Redoubt (Alaska, USA, 2009) and Sarychev Peak (Russia, 2009) volcanoes. Results suggest a quantitative approach determining masses from satellite images can be problematic due to uncertainties in knowledge of input values, most importantly the ground surface temperature required in the mass retrieval. Furthermore, a volcanic ash transport and dispersion model simulation requires its own set of accurate input parameters to forecast an ash cloud's future location. Such input parameters are often difficult to assess, especially in real time volcano monitoring, and default values are often used for simplification. The objective of this dissertation is to find a quantitative comparison technique to apply to satellite and volcanic ash transport and dispersion models that reduces the inherent uncertainty in the results. The binary 'Ash -- No Ash' approach focusing on spatial extent rather than absolute masses is suggested, where the ash extent in satellite data is quantitatively compared to that in the dispersion model's domain. In this technique, neither satellite data nor dispersion model results are regarded as the truth. The Critical Success Index (CSI) as well as Model and Satellite Excess values (ME and SE, respectively) are introduced as comparison tools. This approach reduces uncertainties in the analysis of airborne volcanic ash and, due to the reduced list of input parameters and assumptions in satellite and model data, the results will be improved. This decreased complexity of the analysis, combined with a reduced error as the defined edge of ash cloud is compared in each method rather than defined threshold or mass loading, will have important implications for real time monitoring of volcanic ash emissions. It allows for simpler, more easily implemented operational monitoring of volcanic ash movements.
    • Saxitoxins: role of prokaryotes

      Baker, Tracie Renee (2001-05)
      Saxitoxins, the toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), are synthesized by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, and possibly bacteria. The specific objectives of this study were to determine growth conditions that promote high and low levels of toxin accumulation in Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (cyanobacterium) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (bacterium). Putative saxitoxins of P. stutzeri identified by HPLC-FLD in this study, and previously by other laboratories, were determined to be 'imposters' based on their chemical and physical properties, suggesting that this bacterium may not synthesize PSP toxins. In the cyanobacterium, toxin production was enhanced under higher light intensities and temperatures. Toxin accumulation reached maximal levels when cellular nitrogen was from either (NO₃-+NH₄)-N or N₂-N, while urea-N drastically reduced toxin levels. These data will be used in future studies aimed at identifying the genes involved in saxitoxin synthesis via molecular technologies that rely upon expression of the 'saxitoxin genes' under different growth conditions.
    • Scaling laws in cold heavy oil production with sand reservoirs

      Robertson, Keith W. III; Awoleke, Obadare; Peterson, Rorik; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Liu, Jenny (2018-08)
      This thesis presents a rigorous step by step procedure for deriving the minimum set of scaling laws for Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) reservoirs based on a given set of physical equations using inspectional analysis. The resulting dimensionless equations are then simulated in COMSOL Mutiphysics to validate the dimensionless groups and determine which groups are more significant by performing a sensitivity analysis using a factorial design. The work starts simple by demonstrating how the above process is done for 1D single-phase flow and then slowly ramps up the complexity to account for foamy oil and then finally for wormholes by using a sand failure criterion. The end result is three dimensionless partial differential equations to be solved simultaneously using a finite element simulator. The significance of these groups is that they can be used to extrapolate between a small scale model and a large scale prototype.
    • School Connectedness: the benefits of a school-based peer-mentoring program for transitioning students in secondary education

      Murdock, Lucy Marie Rabold; Cook, Christine; Gifford, Valerie; Harrison, Lynn (2015)
      The transition to a new high school can disrupt social networks, cause anxiety, and hinder academic success for secondary students. School-based comprehensive peer-mentoring programs that focus on transitioning secondary students have the potential to alleviate the anxiety of a changing school climate by promoting school connectedness, building peer relationships, and being sensitive to the social, academic, and procedural concerns of transitioning secondary students (Cauley & Jovanovich, 2006). Students who feel connected to school feel personally accepted, respected, included, and supported by others in the school social environment, all of which may guard against student alienation, poor self-esteem, and other deviant behaviors for adolescent youth. The following research paper discusses how focused school-based peer-mentoring programs for adolescents may help to build school and peer connectedness; promote academic achievement, healthy development, and psychological health; increase protective factors; and decrease risky behaviors. A presentation and program guide for secondary administration and staff were developed based on the information found in the literature review.
    • School counselor's role in recognizing and addressing eating disorders in the Fairbanks Northstar Borough School District

      Widman, Joyce A.; Gifford, Valerie; Cook, Christine R.; McMorrow, Samantha (2020-05)
      Eating disorders are recognized as the deadliest mental-health illness. Eating disorder symptoms frequently appear in adolescents in middle school and high school, which is a time when school counselors are part of a teenager’s life. School counseling offers a solid platform to educate and collaborate with stakeholders such as parents, other school staff, and coaches. Fairbanks, Alaska, like other small communities, lacks resources for the treatment of eating disorders. However, there are dieticians, counselors, and doctors in the local community who are able and willing to work together on behalf of a student struggling with an eating disorder or eating disorder symptoms. They can help with treatment for mild cases and with locating an appropriate venue for in treatment care. Based on an examination of current literature on eating disorders and the roles that school counselors can play in recognition of and treatment for young people with eating disorders, a website and booklet have been developed specifically for school counselors in the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District.
    • School counselors: preparing transitioning high school students

      McGinty, Jolene M. (2016)
      Without preparedness for possible career avenues after graduation, many youth struggle with career paths they may want to investigate. even the considerably prepared students are uncertain what they are going to do after high school. having transition classes starting in middle school can further enhance students' career paths once they graduate from high school. this project focuses on rural school counselors helping to prepare high school students transition into possible career opportunities. rural school counselors often have additional advocate duties to help keep a positive connectedness between students and their schools. increased connectedness and transition classes can make the transition process much more manageable for students after they graduate from high school (Grimes, Haskins, & Paisley, 2013).
    • A school-based group counseling cirriculum for adolescent girls experiencing low self-esteem

      Doolittle, Amanda; Renes, Susan; McMorrow, Samantha; Dahl, Heather (2017-05)
      This project reviews the existing literature on adolescent development in females, and demonstrates the importance of school counselors facilitating small group counseling with students who experience low self-esteem. Although research suggests social-emotional development begins in childhood, and the American School Counselor Association requires a social-emotional component to school counseling programs, there are few resources available to secondary school counselors who see a need for an effective group counseling curriculum for females with low self-esteem. This project aims to provide secondary school counselors with such a curriculum.
    • A school-based intervention program for preadolescent girls experiencing body dissatisfaction

      Taylor, Chelsea; Renes, Susan; Dahl, Heather; McMorrow, Samantha (2018-05)
      Body dissatisfaction and poor body image are issues girls are facing in their preadolescent years. Research is demonstrating that preadolescent girls need intervention programs to help support them with the struggles of body image and self-acceptance. This project uses the literature and established research to provide school counselors with a program to help meet the needs of preadolescent girls struggling with body dissatisfaction and promote body acceptance and body positivity.
    • Schools in rural Alaska with higher rates of student achievement: a search for positive deviance in education

      Hill, Melissa M.; Jacobsen, Gary; Adams, Barbara; Richey, Jean; Barnhardt, Ray (2017-05)
      This study sought to identify schools in rural Alaska with higher rates of student achievement and study what factors contribute to that success. Alaska Native students make up a large majority of the students attending school in small remote villages across the state. Data, however, have shown that Alaska Native students constantly perform lower than any other demographic group on every subject level and lower at every grade level when tested using state assessments. This study begins with a journey to understand the complexity of the problems that affect schooling in rural Alaska, ranging from teacher turnover to school district size and oversight. However, it is important to examine this current challenge by examining the history of education and how that history has affected Alaska Native people today. To identify schools in rural Alaska with higher rates of student achievement, a binary variable was used to determine positive deviance. Data analysis drew on academic achievement of each school as measured by the 5-year average score of the school in three subjects: Reading, Mathematics and Writing. While the results did not yield a case study for positive deviance, the findings and conclusion, using a critical race theory lens question whether schools today, intentionally or unintentionally, are still modeled after the same framework and operate in the same fashion as they did when they were intended to assimilate Alaska Natives to become better citizens. Using an advocacy worldview, this study draws upon the unchallenged truth that schools in rural Alaska may never perform as a collective as well as or better than their urban counterparts under this model.
    • Science Education In Rural America: Adaptations For The Ivory Tower

      Van Doren, Gregory S.; Duffy, Lawrence K. (2010)
      This thesis illustrated what can happen when academic culture disconnects from the cultures surrounding it. It showed that formal school environments are not always the best places to learn. A discussion of the debate between coherence and fragmentation learning theories illustrated academic chasms and a mindset that science education must originate from within ivory towers to be valued. Rationales for place-based science education were developed. Two National Science Foundation initiatives were compared and contrasted for relevance to Native Science education (a) Informal Science Education and (b) Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibilities. A National Science Foundation instrument, known as the Self-Assessment of Learning Gains, was selected to field-test measures of learning science outside of university science courses. Principles of chemistry were taught in community workshops, and those participant self-assessments were compared to self-assessments of students in introductory chemistry courses at two universities. University students consistently claimed the greatest learning gains, in the post-course survey, for the same areas that they claimed to have the greatest understanding, in the pre-course survey. The workshop participant responses differed, depending upon location of the learning environment. When held in a university laboratory, ideas were not related to other cultures, even when a Native Elder was present to describe those relationships. When held in a cultural center, those relationships were among the highest learning gains claimed. One of the instrument's greatest assets was the ability to measure reactions, level 4 of Bennett's (1976) hierarchy of evidence for program evaluation. A long-term commitment to informal science education (not short-term exhibits or programs), combined with negotiated place-based education was recommended as a crucially needed initiative, if relationships between universities and Native American communities are to improve. Some chasms created within ivory towers may never be bridged. Yet, those ideological chasms do not have to exist everywhere. The realities of working in the natural world and the practice of addressing multitudes of community challenges can alter perspectives, when horizons change from the edge of one's desk to those that meet the sea or sky.
    • Science education in rural America: adaptations for the Ivory Tower

      Van Doren, Gregory S. (2010-08)
      This thesis illustrated what can happen when academic culture disconnects from the cultures surrounding it. It showed that formal school environments are not always the best places to learn. A discussion of the debate between coherence and fragmentation learning theories illustrated academic chasms and a mindset that science education must originate from within ivory towers to be valued. Rationales for place-based science education were developed. Two National Science Foundation initiatives were compared and contrasted for relevance to Native Science education (a) Informal Science Education and (b) Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibilities. A National Science Foundation instrument, known as the Self-Assessment of Learning Gains, was selected to field-test measures of learning science outside of university science courses. Principles of chemistry were taught in community workshops, and those participant self-assessments were compared to self-assessments of students in introductory chemistry courses at two universities. University students consistently claimed the greatest learning gains, in the post-course survey, for the same areas that they claimed to have the greatest understanding, in the pre-course survey. The workshop participant responses differed, depending upon location of the learning environment. When held in a university laboratory, ideas were not related to other cultures, even when a Native Elder was present to describe those relationships. When held in a cultural center, those relationships were among the highest learning gains claimed. One of the instrument's greatest assets was the ability to measure reactions, level 4 of Bennett's (1976) hierarchy of evidence for program evaluation. A long-term commitment to informal science education (not short-term exhibits or programs), combined with negotiated place-based education was recommended as a crucially needed initiative, if relationships between universities and Native American communities are to improve. Some chasms created within ivory towers may never be bridged. Yet, those ideological chasms do not have to exist everywhere. The realities of working in the natural world and the practice of addressing multitudes of community challenges can alter perspectives, when horizons change from the edge of one's desk to those that meet the sea or sky.