• An assessment of suspended sediment transport in Arctic Alaskan rivers

      Lamb, Erica K.; Toniolo, Horacio; Schnabel, William; Kane, Douglas (2013-05)
      Provided here is an initial assessment of suspended sediment transport in several rivers on the North Slope of Alaska. This study was divided into two parts: the Umiat project, which involved the Chandler, Anaktuvuk and Itkillik Rivers, and the NPR-A study, which considered Prince, Seabee and Fish Creeks, as well as a brief look at the lkpikpuk River, Otuk Creek, Judy Creek and the Ublutuoch River. Methods used included depth-integrated suspended sediment samples, grab samples, automatic pump-style samplers, discharge measurements, bed sediment grain size analysis and the inclusion of a variety of meteorological measurements from other projects. With slightly less than two years of data collection from May 2011 to September 2012, an initial analysis was completed. Suspended sediment rating curves developed for the Anaktuvuk and Chandler Rivers over the two-year study period revealed a strong correlation between suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge. The most data was collected for the Anaktuvuk and Chandler Rivers; on these rivers, suspended sediment discharge was also analyzed, showing that over 90% of suspended sediment transport occurred during the spring melt period in 2011. Spring melt was not measured in 2012, so analysis was only completed for 2011.
    • Assessment of the benthic environment following offshore placer gold mining in Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea

      Jewett, Stephen Carl; Smith, Ronald L. (1997)
      The effects of placer gold mining on the benthic environment of Norton Sound in the northeastern Bering Sea were assessed. Research focused on red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus, a species with commercial and subsistence importance in the Sound and seasonal occurrence in the mining area. The study addressed mining effects on: (1) benthic macroinvertebrates, many serving as food for this crab, (2) crab relative abundance, distribution, and food, and (3) heavy metal concentrations in crabs. Mining on variable substrates in $<$20 m water depths occurred between 1986-90 during ice-free months when crabs were further offshore. Sampling nearly a year subsequent to mining revealed moderate substrate alteration. Benthic community parameters and abundance of numerically predominant families (e.g., owenid, spionid, and capitellid polychaetes and echinarachniid sand dollars) were reduced in mined areas. Many reduced taxa are known crab prey. Although young individuals of opportunistic taxa predominated, taxa were generally smaller at mined areas. Multi-year surveys of a once-mined area showed continued smoothing of bottom relief. Ordination of taxon abundance from mined (1 yr after mining), recolonizing (2-7 yrs after mining), and unmined stations reflected decreasing station disturbance. At least four years were required for benthos to recover from mining. Mining had a negligible effect on crabs. Crab catches, size, sex, and most prey groups in stomachs were similar between mined and unmined areas. Concentrations of eight heavy metals in muscle and hepatopancreas tissues were generally not different in mined areas. Furthermore, these metals were not different in sediments upcurrent and downcurrent of mining. Concentrations of most metals in tissues showed no temporal trend. Elemental concentrations in muscle tissues were below or within the range of concentrations in red king crabs from other North Pacific locations. Most metals from Norton Sound crabs were well below federal guidance levels for human consumption. Effects from mining were apparent for benthic macrofauna with virtually no effects observed for king crabs. Absence of any demonstrable effects of mining on this crab is primarily a result of the high natural dynamics of the Sound and opportunistic feeding behavior and high mobility of the crab.
    • Assessment of the oyster market distribution chain and its implications for cooperative formation in the Alaska mariculture industry

      Harrington, Erin D. (2005-05)
      Market preference for attributes of Alaska-produced Pacific oysters (Crassostreas gigas) is studied using survey techniques. Oyster buyers in the continental United States are surveyed to determine the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic product attributes, ranging from oyster size to seasonal availability patterns. Implications of market preferences for the development of mariculture cooperatives are then considered. Extrinsic product characteristics such as a good business reputation, frequency and seasonality of product availability, and product price were relatively important to respondents when compared to intrinsic product characteristics such as size, shape, or presence of grit in the oyster.
    • Assessment of the reproductive ecology of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska using subsistence biosampling programs

      Hutchinson, Emily A.; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Kruse, Gordon; Wynne, Kate (2014-08)
      Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska have experienced extreme fluctuations in abundance in recent decades. The purpose of this study was to examine growth and determine the age and size at sexual maturity in populations of these two species, as spatial and temporal variations in environmental conditions and changes in ecological constraints as a result of population fluctuations can influence growth and reproductive characteristics of individuals. All samples for this research were collected via biosampling, the collection of measurements and biological tissue samples, as a component of subsistence harvesting by Alaska Natives. In Chapter 1, morphometric measurements and reproductive tracts were collected by the Alaska Native Harbor Seal Commission's Biosampling Program from female harbor seals harvested throughout the Gulf of Alaska from 1998 through 2005. Seals attained an asymptotic standard length (SE) of 147.7 ± 2.6 cm and body mass of 82.2 ± 4.8 kg. Female harbor seals did not mature until a minimum age of 3 yr, a standard length of 122 cm, and a weight of 48 kg. The average age of sexual maturity was 4.2 ± 0.7 yr (95% CI). Fetal growth was measured by standard length, curvilinear length, axillary girth, the cube root of fetal mass, skull length, condylobasal length, zygomatic width, and skull width against the day of the year the mother was harvested. The x-intercept of the linear regression of each fetal growth measurement against the day of the year produced estimates of the implantation date that ranged from September 22nd to October 17th, with a mean date of September 30th ± 8 d (SD). Harbor seals from this study are smaller in length, have a later implantation date, and are larger at sexual maturity compared to harbor seals in the Gulf of Alaska from the 1960s. In Chapter 2, morphometric measurements and reproductive tracts were collected by a Native Alaskan subsistence hunter from 40 male sea otters near Gustavus, in Southeast Alaska. The maximum recorded standard length and axillary girth were 160 cm and 78.7 cm, respectively. Sexual maturity was assessed by the histological examination of the testes and epididymides and the subsequent measurement and characterization of the seminiferous tubules. Male sea otters in the region reached sexual maturity at 3 to 4 yr of age, after attaining a standard body length of 130 cm., a mean seminiferous tubule diameter of 140 µm, and a baculum length of 14 cm. Sea otters outside Gustavus, Alaska exhibit increased body size and lower ages of sexual maturity compared to sea otters in other regions of Alaska, suggesting that resources are abundant and are not limiting maturation rates of male sea otters near Glacier Bay. In the future, as anthropogenic influences continue to increase and environmental conditions fluctuate, biosampling programs will be an invaluable tool for continued monitoring of marine mammals in Alaska.
    • Assessment of tight gas sands in Cook Inlet Basin

      Patel, Kanhaiyalal U.; Ogbe, David O.; Zhu, Tao; Patil, Shirish L. (2005-05)
      The Cook Inlet Basin is the source for all of the natural gas used in south-central Alaska. The estimated ultimate recovery from existing Cook Inlet gas fields is approximately 8.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) and the proven reserves remaining on January 1, 2004 were 1.8 tcf. It will be difficult to meet the peak demand for gas in south-central Alaska after 2009. Cook Inlet Basin contains vast quantities of unconventional gas resources in tight sands. Resources-in-place and producible gas reserves from the tight sands are unknown. It is likely that these tight sands will be developed as additional gas reserves and will be produced along with the high permeability conventional gas reserves in order to meet both local and export demands. The objectives of this study are to quantify the distribution of tight gas sands; to estimate the resources in place and producible gas reserves in the Cook Inlet Basin; and to predict the post-stimulation gas production. Rate transient analysis, well log analysis and reservoir stimulation analysis were therefore conducted on selected key tight sand wells. Results indicate that the tight gas can play an important role in meeting south-central Alaska's gas demand beyond 2009.
    • Assessment of total mercury and methyl mercury in selected subsistence fish in Western Alaska

      Zhang, Xiaoming; Duffy, Lawrence K.; Kelly, John J.; Naidu, Satyanarayan (2001-08)
      Total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in muscle and liver samples of salmon species (Chinook: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; Chum: O. keta; Sockeye: O. nerka; Coho: O. kisutch) and freshwater fish species (Pike: Esox lucius; Grayling: Thymallus arcticus; Whitefish: Caregonus nelsoni) collected in 1999 and 2000 from the Western Alaska rivers (Yukon, Kuskokwim, Nushagak and Kvichak). The THg in salmon muscles has a mean value of 62 ng/g (ww). In Pike muscles, THg has a mean value of 879 ng/g. The mean concentrations of THg in Grayling and Whitefish muscle are 153 ng/g and 32 ng/g respectively. In salmon muscle and liver the MeHg levels constitute 77% and 62% of the THg levels, respectively. In Pike muscle the MeHg levels constitute 100% of the THg levels. A significant correlation between Hg levels and fish length was found. Calculated consumption limits indicate that children may consume 0.05-1.5 kg of fish per month, depending on the species consumed. The study suggests that, from 1979 to 1998, nearly 21 kg of MeHg was transported by Sockeye salmon to the Alaskan rivers of the Bering Sea east coast.
    • An assessment of trap efficiency to estimate coho salmon smolt abundance in a small Alaskan stream

      Eskelin, Anthony Alexander (2004-08)
      Smolt abundance is commonly estimated using trap efficiency-based methods; however, few studies have investigated the accuracy of trap efficiency estimates. The objectives of this study were to: (1) test the hypotheses that (i) trap efficiency is not affected by release timing nor release distance, (ii) trap efficiency-based estimates of smolt abundance are concordant with smolt-adult mark-recapture estimates, and (2) evaluate if water level and turbidity influence trap efficiency. In Deep Creek, Alaska, during 2001 and 2002, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch smolt abundance was estimated using trap efficiency-based methods and compared to independent smolt-adult mark-recapture estimates. Marked smolts were released at two times of day (1200 hours and 0000 hours) and two release distances upstream of the trap (400 m and 1500 m) every 2 to 4 d throughout each year. Trap efficiency estimates were highly variable (range 0%-55%) and trap efficiency-based estimates of abundance were not concordant with smolt-adult mark-recapture estimates. Release timing and turbidity significantly influenced trap efficiency, whereas release distance did not. Several assumptions of the trap efficiency approach were not met, which produced biased estimates and conflicting results among years when comparing estimation techniques. These results suggest that assumptions of the trap efficiency-based methods be fully assessed to accurately estimate smolt abundance.
    • Assisting adolesecents transitioning from residential treatment to public school

      Church, Sylvia; Cook, Christine; Morotti, Allan; Simpson, Joni (2017-05)
      This research project aims to aid residential treatment facilities and school personnel in recognizing the importance of transition planning, developing strategies to assist a successful transition from inpatient residential treatment centers to the students next school, while also taking into account adolescent perspectives on their needs during this transition. This paper introduces the importance of addressing education while in treatment and explores barriers to aftercare and current aftercare models using an ecological model to recognize how multiple systems interact in shaping the experiences of students. Included in this paper is a small pilot study of three students that attended a residential treatment program at the Boys and Girls Home of Alaska. It is important to note that since interviews were conducted, the Boys and Girls Home of Alaska no longer operates in the State of Alaska and is now under new ownership. The application resulting from this project is a presentation for both treatment and school staff.
    • Assisting school personnel with youth transitioning from residential treatment to a school environment

      Smith, Kristi; Cook, Christine; McMorrow, Samantha; Gifford, Valerie (2015-12)
      The following research project examines the data and literature regarding youth who reside in residential treatment centers for behavior and mental health purposes. The paper introduces common risk factors that youth are experiencing which contribute to their placement in the facilities, as well as the difficulties they face upon exiting the treatment program. This project explores how schools can assist students in the transition from residential treatment to a school setting using a bio-ecological model that supports the students on an individual level up to a systemic level. School counselors serve as a key point of contact for transitioning students and can help teachers to understand this population and introduce supports both in the classroom and schoolwide. Teachers will also learn how to identify and modify potential negative stigmas, frustrations, and thought processes by practicing cognitive behavior techniques. The application resulting from the project is a counselor lead in-service for elementary through high school teachers, administrators, and student support services personnel.
    • Ataam Taikina: traditional knowledge and conservation ethics in the Yukon River Delta, Alaska

      Cook, Chad M.; Plattet, Patrick; Charles, Walkie; Koskey, Michael; Schneider, William (2013-12)
      This research was conducted in collaboration with rural Yup'ik residents of the Yukon River delta region of Alaska. The thesis explores traditional knowledge and conservation ethics among rural Yup'ik residents who continue to maintain active subsistence lifestyles. From the end of July through August of 2012, ethnographic field research was conducted primarily through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, documenting Yup'ik subsistence hunting and fishing practices. Research participants invited me beluga whale hunting, seal hunting, moose hunting, commercial and subsistence fishing, gathering berries, and a variety of other activities that highlights local Yup'ik environmental knowledge, practices, and ethics. Through firsthand examples of these experiences, this thesis attempts to explore what conservation means through a Yup'ik cultural lens. Documenting Yup'ik traditional knowledge offers an opportunity to shine a light on the stewardship of local people's relationship with their traditional lands. The importance of maintaining direct relationships with the natural world, eating Native foods, and passing on hunting and gathering skills to future generations help develop the narrative of my analysis. In many ways, the cultural heritage of the Yup'ik people are embodied in such practices, providing a direct link between nature and culture.
    • Atmospheric Forcing Of Wave States In The Southeast Chukchi Sea

      Francis, Oceana P.; Bhatt, Uma (2012)
      The objective of this study was to assess the impact that the ocean state, particularly ocean waves, have on coastal communities and operations in the Western Alaska region. In situ measurements and one-dimensional spectra models, were used to link observed wave activity -- wind-sea and swells -- to their synoptic drivers. Bottom-mounted Recording Doppler Current Profilers (RDCPs) were placed at offshore and nearshore locations in the southeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during 2007 and 2009-2010. The highest significant wave height (SWH) "events" were defined as wave heights above 2m and 3m for a duration of 6h or more. Results show that SWH events appeared to be driven by three types of systems, 1) cyclonic systems that moved into the eastern Bering Sea and then stalled there, 2) cyclonic systems that moved into the eastern Chukchi Sea and then loitered there, and 3) a cyclonic system over the Brooks Range, a less common occurrence. Results also show the offshore region having highest SWHs with an east wind and wave direction, and classified as a wind-sea state. For the nearshore region, highest SWHs with south and west wind and wave directions, generally showed a swell state. Agreement between one-dimensional spectral models and in situ measurements was greatest for the higher wind-sea state in the offshore region, while discrepancies arose for the lower swell state in the nearshore region. Cross-validation of in situ measurements with satellite altimeter radar measurements were also conducted. Good correlation was found for the offshore regions but not for the nearshore regions. Satellite observations were also used to assess wave conditions in the Arctic during the years 1993-2011. A 0.020m/year increase of SWH for the SE Chukchi Sea and a 0.025m/year increase for the Pacific-Arctic, was found which correlates well with diminishing sea ice and the heighted wind speed, also shown in this study.
    • Atmospheric forcing of wave states in the southeast Chukchi Sea

      Francis, Oceana Puananilei; Atkinson, David; Bhatt, Uma; Metzger, Andrew; Walsh, John; Weingartner, Thomas (2012-05)
      The objective of this study was to assess the impact that the ocean state, particularly ocean waves, have on coastal communities and operations in the Western Alaska region. In situ measurements and one-dimensional spectra models, were used to link observed wave activity – wind-sea and swells – to their synoptic drivers. Bottommounted Recording Doppler Current Profilers (RDCPs) were placed at offshore and nearshore locations in the southeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during 2007 and 2009-2010. The highest significant wave height (SWH) “events” were defined as wave heights above 2m and 3m for a duration of 6h or more. Results show that SWH events appeared to be driven by three types of systems, 1) cyclonic systems that moved into the eastern Bering Sea and then stalled there, 2) cyclonic systems that moved into the eastern Chukchi Sea and then loitered there, and 3) a cyclonic system over the Brooks Range, a less common occurrence. Results also show the offshore region having highest SWHs with an east wind and wave direction, and classified as a wind-sea state. For the nearshore region, highest SWHs with south and west wind and wave directions, generally showed a swell state. Agreement between one-dimensional spectral models and in situ measurements was greatest for the higher wind-sea state in the offshore region, while discrepancies arose for the lower swell state in the nearshore region. Cross-validation of in situ measurements with satellite altimeter radar measurements were also conducted. Good correlation was found for the offshore regions iv but not for the nearshore regions. Satellite observations were also used to assess wave conditions in the Arctic during the years 1993-2011. A 0.020m/year increase of SWH for the SE Chukchi Sea and a 0.025m/year increase for the Pacific-Arctic, was found which correlates well with diminishing sea ice and the heighted wind speed, also shown in this study.
    • Atmospheric moisture transport and its impact on the water cycle over Alaska and Hawaii: the roles of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Nino

      Borries, Cecilia J.; Zhang, Xiangdong; Bhatt, Uma; Mölders, Nicole (2014-05)
      Precipitation over the North Pacific can fluctuate under climate patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In order to better understand the role which these climatic patterns play in the North Pacific water budgets and pathways, we employed the Community Atmosphere Model 5.0 (CAM) and conducted sensitivity experiments to examine how atmospheric moisture convergence and moisture transport respond to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with the PDO and ENSO phase transitions. We have found that changes in transient moisture transport, as the PDO phase shifts from cool to warm, are due to increases in specific humidity and decreases in wind speeds over Alaska and the North Pacific. Additionally, increases in moisture convergence, specific humidity, and wind speeds and decreases in transient moisture transport are seen over the North Pacific during El Niño events compared to La Niña events.
    • Atp-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Complexes In Xenopus Development

      Brown, Elvin E.; Krebs, Jocelyn E.; Drew, Kelly (2010)
      A central question in the study of vertebrate development is how to account for the exquisite interplay of genes within differentiating cells and of groups of cells as they create the organs of the vertebrate embryo. Recently it has become clear that gene regulation by epigenetic processes adds a formerly unappreciated level of complexity to the regulatory network of development. One form of epigenetic gene regulation is embodied in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, which use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter the interactions of DNA and histones. Chromatin remodeling complexes can both promote and repress expression of a gene at the appropriate time and place in vertebrate development. The list of their known roles in development is long and growing. Here I have studied the developmental role of CHRAC17, a subunit of the CHRAC and ATAC complexes, by visualizing its expression and by ablating CHRAC17 function in Xenopus laevis embryos. Whole mount in situ hybridization localized CHRAC17 expression to the neural tube, cranial placodes, and myotomes. Loss of CHRAC17 function following injection of embryos with CHRAC17-specific morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in abnormal development in the neural tube, eyes, notochord, and pharyngeal pouches, underlining the critical importance of CHRAC17 function in Xenopus development. Similarly, ablating the function of CHD4, the ATPase motor of the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex, resulted in severe developmental abnormalities in early Xenopus development.
    • Attenuation of the herbicide glyphosate along railroad corridors in Alaska

      Ballou, Nellie B. (2011-05)
      Following the application of glyphosate in the formulation of AquaMaster® at two contrasting sub-arctic zones along the railroad corridor in Alaska, attenuation of the herbicide glyphosate was investigated. Study sites were established in continental and coastal zones. Glyphosate soil attenuation was similar to temperate regions during the growing season but exhibited an extended persistence during the winter months. Although glyphosate microbial degradation likely slowed during winter, both sites showed evidence of slight glyphosate degradation during the winter months. The coastal site attenuated more rapidly than the continental site which is presumably due to increased rainfall relative to the continental site. Glyphosate attenuation at the coastal site was likely driven by dispersion while microbial degradation was responsible for the attenuation of glyphosate at the continental site. Movement to subsurface soils (10-25 cm) at low concentrations was observed at both sites with slightly more transport at the coastal site than the continental site. Glyphosate transport to groundwater along railroad corridors was not conclusive. Vegetation cover reduction was reduced at the continental site but could not be determined at the coastal site.
    • Attenuation of the LG phase in Interior Alaska

      Marriott, Duncan A. (2002-12)
      A simultaneous inversion of a large dataset produced robust estimates of regional attenuation for the Lg phase in interior Alaska. Data were collected from summer 1999 through summer 2001 from the Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range (BEAAR). Spectra calculated from this dataset were used in a nonlinear simultaneous least squares inversion to determine source factors, path effects and site amplification terms. The average regional attenuation of the Lg phase in interior Alaska was found to be: LgQ(f)=166f⁰·⁵⁸ Variation in regional attenuation has two main characteristics: variation on small spatial scales caused by small crustal heterogeneities, and increased excitation of the Lg phase along raypaths perpendicular to the strike of subduction from shallow subduction events due to the effect of the subduction zone geometry. This study also estimated stress drops, site factors, and developed a robust method of estimating seismic moment (Mo) for small events.
    • Attitude determination for small satellites using gps signal-to-noise ratio

      Peters, Daniel; Raskovic, Dejan; Hawkins, Joseph; Thorsen, Denise (2014-05)
      An embedded system for GPS-based attitude determination (AD) using signal-to-noise (SNR) measurements was developed for CubeSat applications. The design serves as an evaluation testbed for conducting ground based experiments using various computational methods and antenna types to determine the optimum AD accuracy. Raw GPS data is also stored to non-volatile memory for downloading and post analysis. Two low-power microcontrollers are used for processing and to display information on a graphic screen for real-time performance evaluations. A new parallel inter-processor communication protocol was developed that is faster and uses less power than existing standard protocols. A shorted annular patch (SAP) antenna was fabricated for the initial ground-based AD experiments with the testbed. Static AD estimations with RMS errors in the range of 2.5° to 4.8° were achieved over a range of off-zenith attitudes.
    • Attributions of blame and social reactions to scenarios of sexual assault of adult women

      Skanis, Marie L.; Lopez, Ellen; Rivkin, Inna; Gifford, Valerie; Worrall, John (2019-08)
      Alaska consistently has the highest rate of sexual assault in the nation, yet research within the state has focused on stranger rape or assaults which were reported to medical or law enforcement professionals. National research suggests these characteristics are not representative of most victims. The current study fills a gap in research by examining the attitudes and reactions towards victims of stranger and acquaintance rape who have disclosed their assault to friends rather than authorities. Attribution theory was hypothesized to underlie relationships between attributions, emotional reactions, and social behaviors that victims encounter. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to read either a scenario of realistic acquaintance (common) or stereotypical (rare) stranger rape. The stereotypical assault scenario depicted a victim who was attacked outdoors by a stranger in a physically violent manner. The acquaintance rape scenario, in which a woman experiences assault inside her home by a known acquaintance who uses coercive verbal tactics, reflects characteristics of sexual assault that are experienced by most victims. The influences of type of rape, modern sexism, rape myth acceptance, expected peer rape myth acceptance, gender, training, or experience responding to disclosures of sexual assault on participant reactions were explored. It was hypothesized that participants reading the acquaintance rape scenario, participants with higher acceptance of negative attitudes (rape myths and modern sexism) and expectations that peers accept high levels of rape myths, male participants, and those who lack training or experience responding to disclosures would report more negative attributions (high fault and blame), emotional reactions (low empathy and high anger), and social reactions to the victim and positive reactions towards the perpetrator (low attributions of fault and blame, high empathy and low anger). Results revealed that acceptance of modern sexism, rape myths, and expecting that friends accept rape myths were associated with higher attributions of fault and blame to the victim, more anger towards the victim, more empathy felt for the perpetrator, and increased likelihood of offering the victim negative social responses. When asked what would improve response to sexual assault at UAF, participants indicated that changes in training, the UAF community, Title IX processes, awareness, resources, and demonstrating trustworthiness are important. Given these results, recommendations for stakeholders include communicating that most students do not accept modern sexism or rape myths to combat pluralistic ignorance and targeting the most prevalent rape myths in training. Changes to education and awareness efforts are recommended, including conducting sessions in-person, over several sessions, within single-gender groups, and utilization of pre- and post-training outcomes assessments to measure a variety of biases (such as rape myths). Stakeholders are encouraged to use existing research as a framework for teaching students about different types of reactions to disclosures of sexual assault, emphasizing which reactions victims experience as helpful and hurtful. Limitations and strengths of the study are also discussed.
    • Auroral Thermospheric Temperatures

      Cole, Marjorie Althea (1980)