• Thermophysical properties measurements and numerical modeling of nanofluids

      Namburu, Praveen Krishna (2007-08)
      This thesis covers measurements of the thermo physical properties of various nanofluids containing copper oxide (CuO), silicon dioxide (SiO₂) and aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃) nanoparticles and numerical investigation on the fluid dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids. Nanofluids are dispersions of nanometer-sized particles (<100 nm) in heat transfer liquids such as water, ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. An ethylene glycol and water (60:40 by mass) mixture was used as a base fluid in which various volume concentrations of nanofluids were dispersed. These nanofluids will be useful in the sub-arctic and arctic environments. Experiments were performed to investigate the rheological properties of CuO, SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ nanofluids. New viscosity correlations for different nanofluids as a function of volume concentration and temperature were developed. Using these correlations heat transfer performance of nanofluids as compared to the base fluid was numerically analyzed for laminar as well as for turbulent flows. Developing laminar flows in a parallel plate duct were computed for Reynolds number ranging from 100 to 2000 for various concentrations of CuO nanofluids. Turbulent convective heat transfer in circular tube geometry under a prescribed heat flux was numerically analyzed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 10⁴ to 10⁵. Heat transfer enhancement of various nanofluids over the base fluid was evaluated. The numerical results show enhanced heat transfer with increase in the volume concentration of nanoparticles.
    • Thermoregulating ability and minimum flight temperature in interior Alaska dragonflies (Odonata: anisoptera)

      Sformo, Todd (2003-05)
      The use of operative environmental temperature (Te) has been a major advance in the study of thermal ecology. I review the use of operative temperature in thermal biology with an emphasis on insects. Then I use data from dragonflies in Interior Alaska (Odonata: Anisoptera) to compare the efficacy of operative and ambient temperature when examining thermoregulating ability. I conclude that although the use of Te may provide more accurate measures of thermoregulation under specific environmental conditions, the use of ambient temperature usually leads to the same conclusions about thermoregulating ability. I next examine the relationships between thermoregulating ability, minimum flight temperature (MFT), mass, passive cooling rate, and wing loading for the ten species of dragonflies present in Interior Alaska investigate the influence of ambient temperature and solar radiation on daily and seasonal activity patterns. I find a range of thermoregulating abilities from complete thermoconformers to very efficient periodic thermoregulators. The ability to thermoregulate is strongly tied to body mass. Thermoconfomers have significantly lower MFTs than thermoregulators, suggesting a possible tradeoff between the ability to operate and low and high thoracic temperatures.
    • They didn't say that

      Kwon, A. Haesong (2004-05)
      The stories here deal with the quality of devotion in settings where strong belief becomes debilitating rather than empowering. For the characters in this collection, reconciliation, or other forms of compromise, is not a goal since the characters value dignity in spite of the results of its pursuit. Consequently, though not intentionally, lies and mistranslations become a part of the characters' makeup since the characters must, despite the dominant and opposing worldview of the culture, acquire life's membership, and communicate on the terms already established or inflicted by the culture. If all translations are mistranslations, and if all lies possess an aspect of truth, then depicting these characters in falsified language is appropriate, especially in achieving an aesthetic unity of thought and action. Finally, the stories aim to affirm the fact that the power of language is enough to produce victims and their retaliation against the language.
    • "They left their teacups full and their zeniths in the house": Innoko River population movements and migrations

      Raymond-Yakoubian, Julie (2001-05)
      This thesis discusses the history of population movements and migrations on the middle and upper Innoko River in west-central Alaska. The history of research and exploration into the region is synthesized. The bodies of work known as 'place attachment studies' and 'place studies' are presented as a framework with which to understand current perceptions of the movements and migrations. The move from Holikachuk village on the Innoko River to Grayling on the Yukon River in 1963 is examined in detail. The long-term consequences of these movements for the Holikachuk Athabascan people are analyzed.
    • This apocalypse won't last long enough

      Moody, Jennifer L. (2012-08)
      This Apocalypse Won't Last Long Enough is a collection of short stories about people facing a crisis -- their own personal apocalypse. Each character struggles with a relationship that is either helped (or most often, hindered) by the past. In "In Miniature," an older man is haunted by the recent popularity of his old TV repair shop commercial as he struggles to prove to his wife that he's still a viable mate. "Hollywood Magic" is a young girl's quest to save the life of her teen idol, but she's surprised when she travels back in time and learns that he is a jerk. "Libration" is a double narrative of two sisters who, like the moon's wobble, are able to see a little bit more of their father than the other. "Time Lines," a young man cuts himself in order to relive memories of his ex-girlfriend. "This Apocalypse Won't Last Long Enough" follows a young musician in the aftermath of a tornado's devastation, and the dissolution of his romantic relationship. In "Spirited Art" a young woman takes a special art class in order to reunite with her deceased mother. In "In Vivo, "a young woman rescues a rabbit from a laboratory, and discovers that it has strange powers. "Poppies Will Make Them Sleep" features a middle-aged narrator who covets youth's beauty, and discovers that she has the strength to steal it. The final story of the collection, "Helpline," describes the life of an elderly man who works a telephone helpline in order to make up for his troubled past with his son. In this collection, each character must confront their past in order to move in to the future.
    • This Is What I Know

      Alonzo, Rachael Jane; Soos, Frank (2004)
      The memoir, This is What I Know, considers the relationship between the narrator and her mother. It uses the lives of the dead to shed light on the lives of the living. The narrative is further complicated by the women's status as members of a minister's family and by the family's code of silence. The mother's life is used as a frame for the ten days prior to her death. The narrator uses memoir form to address issues of how the lives of the dead become myth and the ethical issues inherent in telling the stories of others. The memoir considers how untold histories, myth and memory combine to create an acceptable view of the present.
    • "This Is Who I Am": Perspectives On Economics, Policy, And Personal Identity And Culture Of Cook Inlet And Kenai River Salmon Fisheries

      Harrison, Hannah L.; Loring, Philip A.; Fong, Quentin; Gerlach, S. Craig (2013)
      Throughout this thesis, I use a multidisciplinary approach for understanding the sustainability of the culture, livelihoods, and ecosystems in the Cook Inlet and Kenai River salmon fisheries on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. In Chapter 1, I present a broad overview of the Cook Inlet region, its inhabitants, and the various stakeholder and user groups that access regional salmon fisheries. Chapter 1 also provides an overview of the methodology utilized in this research, as well as discuss the methods, the strengths, and weaknesses of the research as part of an evaluation of the study. In Chapter 2, I present an overview of how the Kenai River and Cook Inlet salmon fisheries are managed and regulated, including regulatory bodies and agencies and their mandated roles. Finally, the chapter concludes with a presentation of ethnographic data collected during interviews between summer of 2011 and spring of 2013. These data reveal the perspectives and attitudes of fishermen, and in terms of how they regard management, and about whether management decisions contribute to or detract from the ongoing sustainability of the regional fisheries and fish stocks. In Chapter 3, I examine some of the economically based arguments commonly made to support allocation rights between the several user groups that access the area fisheries. This chapter draws upon economic reports produced by advocacy groups and the State of Alaska, as well as utilizes a comparison of these reports by an economist from the University of Alaska Anchorage. This chapter again draws upon ethnographic research to understand perspectives of fishermen, illuminating how they interpret and develop their economic arguments for allocation. In Chapter 4, I present an ethnography detailing and describing attitudes and perspectives of fishermen as to how they perceive their personal identities relate to their fishing livelihoods. Finally, in Chapter 5 I conclude with an explanation and review of findings, as well as recommendations for future research and some personal thoughts. Throughout the thesis are pieces of my personal narrative to give the reader a more intimate understanding of this research.
    • Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models of fugitive dust dispersion in high-latitude open-pit mines

      Bhowmick, Taraprasad; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Ghosh, Tathagata; Fochesatto, G. Javier; Ganguli, Rajive (2015-12)
      The Arctic region contains vast mineral resources and mining of these resources is a major activity in several countries, including the United States. With the advancement of open-pit mining technology, the depth to which minerals can be profitably mined has increased, resulting in deeper pits than ever before. This increase in depth has several inherent challenges for mining operations. The ventilation of an open-pit mine is mostly dependent on natural airflow patterns. The dispersion behavior of the pollutants generated in a mine is also dependent on the atmospheric conditions. The control of fugitive dust in high-latitude open-pit mines is challenging due to unique atmospheric phenomena resulting in complicated flow regimes as well as atmospheric inversion due to the lack of adequate insolation during prolonged winter seasons. The development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an open-pit mine is challenging due to the presence of several sharp and irregular features at the pit surface. A good quality mesh of the model domain is a prerequisite for convergence in solution. Besides good quality meshing, choices of various simulation setup parameters have significant impact in convergence or divergence of the simulation. Appropriate choices of simulation type, boundary and initial conditions, time stepping and various convergence criteria are important for realistic simulation of a model domain. Environmental conditions in the mine vary from season to season; hence, fugitive dust dispersion simulations using a commercial CFD software are conducted for various seasonal conditions along with several cloud conditions. Clear sky and cloudy sky conditions result in different radiative and turbulent energy fluxes. In each scenario, fugitive dust particles varying in size (PM₀.₁ to PM₁₀) and concentrations are generated at various locations of the selected mine. The simulation results predict a speedy removal of fugitive dust in summer. However, during winter, the presence of an inversion layer in the open-pit results in extensive retention of fugitive dust. For removal of the atmospheric inversion during winter, it is observed that the presence of cloud cover and convective wind are the most important factors.
    • Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models of pollutant transport in a deep open pit mine under Arctic air inversion and mitigation measures

      Raj, Kumar Vaibhav; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Fochesatto, G. Javier; Nelson, Michael G.; Ganguli, Rajive (2015-05)
      As open pit mines continue to grow deeper and productivity continues to increase, the management of air pollution can become challenging. One of the challenges, common during winter in deep open pit mines operating in the Arctic, is the occurrence of atmospheric inversion. In itself, inversion is not hazardous. However, due to the emission of gases and particulates during the mining process, the air within the pit can be severely contaminated, rather quickly, leading to serious health and safety consequences. The problem is complex and any solution approach will require a good understanding of the interaction of the aerodynamic movement of air, the air inversion process, the meteorology, the pollutant sources, and the application of mechanical ventilators in open pit mines. Scientific literature related to open pit mine ventilation, particularly with respect to air inversion, is practically non-existent in the English literature. This is perhaps the first account of a three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of pollutant transport in an actual open pit mine under an Arctic air inversion. Advanced technology has made computers faster and more powerful, which allows computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures to be applied to many air flow problems. Thus, a CFD approach can be used to understand the transport of contaminant in the pit during inversion by using several turbulence models. An array of data is required to develop CFD models for open pit mine ventilation. The meteorological conditions within deep open pit mines are significantly affected by temperature and roughness conditions, which ultimately generate complex dispersion phenomena including separation of air flow and its recirculation. For the application of CFD, various data such as pollutants concentrations, temperature, velocity, pit contours, equipment locations, and radiation (shortwave and longwave) were collected from the selected open pit mine and the weather stations located nearby. Analysis of the weather data showed that inversions are due to elevated inversions in the selected open pit mine. Because an exact flow situation in open pit mines is not known a-priori, open pit air flow simulation and pollution transport are often highly sensitive to the type of flow model employed. It is therefore necessary to investigate various turbulent models to identify the appropriate model that will simulate the flow phenomena with reasonable accuracy and predict the contaminant distributions within the pit. Dispersion models differ in their assumptions and structures as well as in the algorithm used and as a result, predictions vary from model to model. Furthermore, it is also important to investigate the behavior of a CFD model when simulating complex phenomena, such as the transport and distribution of contaminants in an open pit mine under an Arctic air inversion. The simulation of an enhanced period of turbulence in the stable boundary layer (SBL) is of particular interest because traditional air pollution dispersion models cannot explicitly treat intermittent turbulence events, and yet the SBL is often the worst-case scenario in open pit pollution transport.Realizable κ-ε and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models were used for understanding flow of gaseous contaminants. The 2010 pit configuration was used to develop models for understanding the gaseous transport under air inversion. During an inversion, turbulence is dominant at the bottom of the pit, while in the middle portion of the pit turbulence is intermittent and flow over the upper portion of the pit is mostly laminar. The realizable κ-ε model tends to over-predict the contaminant concentration, whereas, the LES model under-predicts the level of pollutant concentrations. Validation of the developed model was performed using the 2013 pit configuration. Despite the complex synoptic situations, the different meteorological input data and the fast changing conditions, the simulation results from the validation model were in good agreement regarding the dispersion of pollutants and other turbulent variables. Pollutant concentration values in the selected locations showed differences, but remained within the same order of magnitude in most cases. Removal of the harmful pollutants from the pit is significantly important for the health and safety of the mine workers. The mitigation models were developed for both the 2010 and the 2013 pit configurations. Several remedial measures such as the use of mechanical ventilators in forcing and exhaust mode, push-pull ventilation and a novel approach of using cloud cover were considered. Mitigation efforts employing mechanical means were unsuccessful in removing or diluting the contaminants to a safe level. The novel approach of using cloud cover over an open pit mine showed promise. With this approach, the model showed that the inversion could be lifted and pit could be cleared of all pollutants.
    • Three dimensional finite element analysis of decked precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges

      Chaudhury, Sanjay (2004-08)
      The speed of construction has become the key issue for bridges. This is especially true in cold regions like Alaska, where you face a very short summer season. The speed of construction can be expedited by connections. As there are advantages in connections there are also disadvantages. One of the primary advantages of the connectors is that it makes the load transfer mechanism very efficient. However everything comes for a price. Maintenance of connections is very difficult. Routine inspections are to be made to ensure proper functioning of the system. This becomes a very important factor in Alaska where extreme winter conditions exists. Another issue is that the current connector design is based on an empirical approach. A rational design method is needed. In this study an effort has been made to find the presence of ISD on the live load distribution factor for single lane loading. Using ABAQUS CAE, 3D finite element (FE) models have been developed and analyzed with different parameters. By varying the parameters, different distribution factors corresponding to the reaction, strains (flexure and shear) as well as the forces originating from the connectors are evaluated and compared. This paper provides a basis for future connector design.
    • Three dimensional volcano-acoustic source localization at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

      Rowell, Colin; Fee, David; Christensen, Doug; West, Michael (2013-12)
      We test two methods of 3-D acoustic source localization on volcanic explosions and small-scale jetting events at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Recent infrasound studies have provided evidence that volcanic jets produce low-frequency aerodynamic sound (jet noise) similar to that from man-made jet engines. Man-made jets are known to produce sound through turbulence along the jet axis, but discrimination of sources along the axis of a volcanic jet requires a network of sufficient topographic relief to attain resolution in the vertical dimension. At Karymsky Volcano, the topography of an eroded edifice adjacent to the active cone provided a platform for the atypical deployment of five infrasound sensors with intra-network relief of ~600 m in July 2012. A novel 3-D inverse localization method, srcLoc, is tested and compared against a more common grid-search semblance technique. Simulations using synthetic signals indicate that srcLoc is capable of determining vertical source locations for this network configuration to within �150 m or better. However, srcLoc locations for explosions and jetting at Karymsky Volcano show a persistent overestimation of source elevation and underestimation of sound speed by an average of ~330 m and 25 m/s, respectively. The semblance method is able to produce more realistic source locations by fixing the sound speed to expected values of 335 - 340 m/s. The consistency of location errors for both explosions and jetting activity over a wide range of wind and temperature conditions points to the influence of topography. Explosion waveforms exhibit amplitude relationships and waveform distortion strikingly similar to those theorized by modeling studies of wave diffraction around the crater rim. We suggest delay of signals and apparent elevated source locations are due to altered raypaths and/or crater diffraction effects. Our results suggest the influence of topography in the vent region must be accounted for when attempting 3-D volcano acoustic source localization. Though the data presented here are insufficient to resolve noise sources for these jets, which are much smaller in scale than those of previous volcanic jet noise studies, similar techniques may be successfully applied to large volcanic jets in the future.
    • Three essays on community supported agriculture

      Thayer, Anastasia; Little, Joseph; Seefeldt, Steven; Goering, Gregory; Baek, Jungho (2015-08)
      The number of community supported agriculture (CSA) farms has grown considerably since the model was first introduced in the United States nearly 30 years ago. However, current academic literature lacks specific studies that provide an in-depth analysis of a market for CSA shares over time. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the supply and demand for CSA shares in the Tanana Valley through extensive data gathering of local production and farm statistics. The research provides a narrative of how the market has developed and changed over time. Hedonic models provide real estimates of implicit prices paid for specific attributes of CSA shares in the market. A choice experiment and intercept surveys determined consumer preferences for CSA shares. Overall, the results of this research indicate that CSA farms are becoming more prevalent in the Tanana Valley and offer a growing number of consumers a diverse basket of vegetables over the short Alaskan growing season. Based on statistics gathered from the demand analysis, farmers in the region could increase revenues and capture a larger share of the market for produce in the Tanana Valley through increased marketing and more flexible share options.
    • Three Studies Of Impact Phenomena In The Solar System

      Chappelow, John E.; Sharpton, V. L. (2005)
      Meteoritic activity affects every body in the solar system; its effects are ubiquitous and therefore very useful in the exploration of many planetary bodies. This work addresses two different current problems associated with the use of impact phenomena in the study of other planetary bodies in our solar system. In Chapter 1 of this thesis, an original method of measuring depths and inferring cross-sectional shapes of impact craters using shadows cast within them by the Sun is developed. The method has the advantage of not requiring that the shadow-front pass through the center of the crater, as the current shadow-measuring technique does. It also has considerable advantages over the methods of stereogrammetry, which requires two images taken from different angles, and photoclinometry, which is sensitive to variations in reflectivity. Three examples providing a check of this method against real lunar impact craters, and demonstrating its utility, are provided. The rest of this work consists of two closely related studies of the effects of Mars's atmosphere, and its variations, on martian impact cratering and meteorite production rates. To date, little account has been taken of these, since the martian atmosphere has been considered too thin to have significant effects. Here, an original approach to the study of large impactor populations, and their effects on planetary surfaces, is developed and applied to Mars. The results show that for small crater sizes (2 m ? D ? 250 m) and impactor masses (10-1 kg ? m ? 107 kg), both processes depend strongly on atmospheric density. Even the current martian atmosphere is dense enough to produce meteorites of over 50 kg, and to substantially reduce small diameter (<30 m) impact cratering. Past, denser atmospheres would have had even greater effects. Therefore, Mars's atmosphere may interfere with surface age estimates based on counts of small craters, and its variations may be reflected in martian impact crater and meteorite populations.
    • Three-dimensional diving behavior of ringed seals

      Simpkins, Michael A.; Kelly, Brendan P. (2000)
      The three-dimensional movements of 13 freely diving ringed seals were recorded during the spring of 1990, 1991, 1992, 1996, and 1997 in the Canadian Arctic near Resolute Bay, Nunavut. These data were used to investigate the diving behavior of ringed seals more fully than was possible using previous data, which only recorded the vertical movements of diving animals (time-depth data). During a third of all dives, ringed seals focused much of their effort within a reduced volume, suggesting local search behavior within patches of prey. Local search occurred during descent, ascent, and bottom phases (time spent at depth between the end of descent and the beginning of ascent) of dives, but local search most commonly occurred during bottom phases. Location data from five seals were detailed enough to allow analysis of three-dimensional movements within individual dives. Behaviors were defined for the dives of these five seals based on the character of movements within the dives. Ringed seal dives included horizontally convoluted, travel, and exploration dives, but vertically convoluted, rest, and sit-and-wait foraging dives were not observed. Horizontally convoluted (presumed foraging), travel, and exploration dive behaviors were defined with similar frequency for V-shaped dives (dives with only descent and ascent phases) and U-shaped dives (dives with descent, bottom, and ascent phases). The lack of behavioral differences between dives with distinct time-depth profiles suggested that time-depth profiles were not a reliable means of classifying behavioral dive types for ringed seals.
    • Three-Dimensional Structure Of The Heliosphere: Quiet-Time And Disturbed Periods (Kinematic, Flare Propagation, Solar Wind, Interplanetary Magnetic Field)

      Fry, Craig Daniel (1985)
      An improved kinematic method is used to perform simulation studies of temporal and spatial variations of solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field during periods when the sun is quiet and when it is active. The procedure of Hakamada and Akasofu (1982) is improved and calibrated with a one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solution of solar wind flow. The solar-cycle evolution of solar wind velocity is studied using the data sets of King (1979, 1983) and Hoeksema et al. (1982, 1983) for the period 1976 to 1982. It is found that the gradient of the quiet-time solar wind speed as a function of magnetic latitude is steepest near solar minimum and most broad at solar maximum. The background solar wind velocity and magnetic field are simulated and compared to observations near the earth. Three-dimensional representations of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) are displayed out to 5 AU for idealized dipole and quadrupole cases, and for observed source field configurations. The high latitude IMF and surfaces of constant magnetic latitude are also presented. The propagation of solar wind disturbances in the solar equatorial plane to 30 AU is simulated. Two major disturbance event periods are simulated, and it is seen how a series of solar flares can greatly disrupt both the inner and outer heliosphere. Visual representations of the distorted HCS due to a series of hypothetical solar flares are presented. A method of generating the polar component of the IMF vector, B(,z), is also developed. It is shown that field-line motion at the source surface provides a mechanism for the propagation of B(,z) into interplanetary space. This study shows that an improved kinematic method can be used to quantitatively model the three-dimensional heliospheric structure. Such a modelling scheme, which takes the stream-stream interaction into account, is necessary for the accurate prediction of near-earth solar wind parameters during quiet times and active periods.
    • The three-dimensional structure of the summit magma complex at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, from travel time CDI tomography

      Pearson, Aaron David (2001-05)
      Methods of seismic tomography have been applied to Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii several times to determine the structure of the magma conduit system. The shallow summit chambers are the least defined part of the magma system. A dense seismic array ... was deployed over the summit in January, 1996 and February, 1997. P- and S- phase travel times of 271 earthquakes recorded at these stations were inverted with a new tomography algorithm developed by Clippard (1998) to highlight small, anomalous regions. A large (26.2 km³) low P-phase velocity anomaly (9% perturbation) was imaged beneath the summit caldera implying a body of approximately 9% partial melt. Several small anomalies of Vp/Vs = 2.7 beneath Kilauea caldera and the East Rift Zone are also interpreted as localized pockets of melt, gas and/or highly fractured material.
    • Threshold management strategies for exploited fish populations

      Zheng, Jie (1994-05)
      Under a threshold management strategy, harvesting occurs at a constant rate but ceases when a population drops below a threshold. The threshold approach seeks to enhance long-term yield of a population and to maintain population renewability. I evaluated threshold management strategies for selected herring and pollock stocks in Alaska. First, I examined stock-recruitment data from 19 major herring stocks worldwide to provide the basis for evaluating threshold management strategies. Seventy-three percent of these stocks exhibited statistically significant density-dependence. Most stocks have compensatory, dome-shaped stock-recruitment curves. Then, I simulated threshold management strategies for eastern Bering Sea (EBS) pollock and herring and Prince William Sound (PWS) herring using a single-species model. I further examined seven alternative threshold estimation methods. Cohort analysis, catch-at-age analysis, and catch and population sampling yielded estimates of population parameters. The objective function was a weighted function of increased average yield and decreased standard deviation of yield over a planning horizon. Compared to a non-threshold approach, threshold management strategies increase the long-term average yields, stabilize population abundances, shorten rebuilding times, and increase management flexibility. For a maximum yield criterion and Ricker stock-recruitment models, optimal fishing mortalities are slightly above fishing mortalities at maximum sustained yield (MSY), and optimal threshold levels range from 40% to 60% of pristine biomass for EBS pollock, from 40% to 50% for EBS herring and from 30% to 60% for PWS herring. With fishing mortality at MSY and the criterion of equal trade-off between yield and its variation, optimal thresholds range from 20% to 30% of pristine biomass for pollock. With the status quo exploitation rate of 20%, optimal thresholds range from 10% to 25% of pristine biomass for EBS herring, and from 5% to 25% for PWS herring. Of the threshold estimation methods evaluated, default percentage of pristine biomass usually performs best. Loss of yield due to errors in threshold estimation is small, generally under 10%. A bout 15 to 20 years of data are required to obtain a reliable estimate of thresholds. With single-species dynamics, the form of the stock-recruitment curve, exploitation rate and management objective are the most important factors affecting optimal thresholds.
    • Through the looking glass: constructing sexual identity

      Foore, Kimberly Ann (2004-05)
      The present research explored how contemporary women define their sexual identity and communicate their needs/wants for sexual gratification during the act of sexual intimacy. Using human science epistemology, methodology, and methods, eight women's narratives were co-constructed into two emergent themes: Defining sexuality as self-stereotyping identity and Setting the stage for uncertainty as mask. This research explored the unique definitions of sexuality from the co-researchers perspective and ultimately determined that sexual identity is inextricably bound to self-presentation and impression management. It was also discovered that these women communicate their sexual needs nonverbally and 'hide' behind a mask of uncertainty out of a culturally developed fear of being judged and/or labeled negatively for being too sexually experienced.