• Vestige

      Fultz, Venus; Soos, Frank; Johnson, Sara; Coffman, Chris (2020-05)
      Vestige is a fantasy novel that follows Delphine Ventadour's struggle to return home. Delphine is rescued from execution by a Priest who is the lover/bodyguard of a Prince. Both men try to convince her to accept her fate to become High Priestess of an ancient religion and marry his daughter. A major theme of Vestige is truth, explored not only in Delphine's struggle to know which characters and version of events to trust, but also in the novel's text. Vestige moves between a third-person omniscient point of view (POV) and Delphine's first-person POV. The switch between POVs provides an indication of telepathy and encourages the reader to participate in exploring truth. Poems appear in the text as a form of world-building and to further the theme of truth through various translations and the rewriting of a culture's history. Two other major themes in the novel closely circling one another are home and loneliness. In Delphine's perspective, the descriptions of Aerasha uses diction such as "rotting" "cursed" alongside imagery of hostility through and I contrast this with the place Delphine considers home to explore home and loneliness. The lack of trust Delphine cements her loneliness even when she finds herself liking other characters. I also explore home not only through the contrast with Aerasha and where Delphine grew up, but also through the contrast of Delphine's found family (Jean, Kokumo, Thema) back where she was raised and her bloodline family in Aerasha.
    • Video feedback efficacy at Romig Middle School

      Fliss, Christopher D.; Topkok, Sean; Lott, Chris; Peterson, Don (2019-12)
      Romig Middle School in Anchorage, Alaska, is consistently ranked within the top ten most diverse middle schools in the nation. The main objective of this research will be to determine if video production students meet learning objectives better or worse with video feedback given. The secondary goal is to measure the efficacy of using video feedback as a delivery source of evaluation to students at the eighth-grade level. The methods involve pre-and-post class surveys on the feedback methods and quantitative data gathered on improved technique. The results of this research will guide the use of video feedback in video production classes and serve as a platform to expand video feedback delivery into technology classes.
    • A virtuous woman

      Stice, C. R. (2007-05)
      A Virtuous Woman is simultaneously the story of one woman and the story of all women. It is an attempt to discover the true nature of virtue, especially as it applies to women. The poems consider what it means to be good and what it means to be a woman, questions for which there are no clear answers. For that reason a variety of women appear in the collection, and they speak openly about a range subjects: violence, desire, anger, family history, grief, the functions and failings of their own bodies. The poems likewise employ a variety of forms. Some are short and tight, designed to surprise with their content and language. Others are long and expansive, and attempt to consider a single subject from multiple angles. Finally, there are those that lack defined form which are meant to emulate the workings of the human brain. The collection is organized into three unnamed parts that can be read as the story of one woman's journey of self discovery: a rash and tragic love affair, back story about the woman's family and childhood, and finally how she comes to terms with her body and her self.
    • Visual artists experiencing nature: examining human-environment relationships

      Wiita, Amy Lynn; Lee, Molly; Chapin, Terry; Jonaitis, Aldona; Schweitzer, Peter; McDonough, Maureen (2015-12)
      Anthropology has a long history collaborating with artists to understand their artwork. However, little research exists in the discipline that focuses on artists as a group, their creative process, and what may influence that process. In particular, how artists use nature and place has not been studied; instead, anthropology has generally considered nature and place as merely a backdrop for culture rather than for its impact on cultural expression. Identification of diverse aspects of the interdependence of ecological and social systems can inform our understanding of how people address issues of environmental concern. Managers, scientists, creative people, and others working at the nexus of disciplines, management needs, and ecological and social systems can facilitate this understanding through knowledge sharing. In my research I examined how two groups of visual artists process their interaction with the environment through what I term "experiencing with" nature and how this may influence them as artists. I employed phenomenological inquiry methods and interdisciplinary analysis to investigate the ways in which artists develop a sense of experiencing with nature and a sense of place. I developed an experiencing formula framework representing relationships between variables involved in the act of experiencing in order to analyze artists' narratives and actions as a way to examine their perceptions of their experiences with nature. The analysis made evident six primary categories of findings: artists' sense of experiencing with nature, their purpose of experiencing, their process of experiencing, their conceptual definitions of nature, their access to nature, and how they experienced nature through the artist residency programs. I propose the experiencing formula framework may be suitable for describing human environment relationships beyond the boundaries of artists and nature. The artists' experiences were individual and influenced them to varying degrees. They experienced nature with purpose and encountered both tension and inspiration while gathering resources for their work. They were not so concerned with defining nature as seeking to tell their story of place through their sense of experiencing to communicate their experiences with nature through their works. Experiencing with nature provided them with a language for expressing themselves. Nature was a place for journey and exploration for the artists.
    • Visualizing second language learning: a microgenetic case study using pantomime comics for adult ESL students

      Darrow, Daniel J. (2012-08)
      Comics are regularly used in language classrooms. Most language teachers and researchers in applied linguistics justify the use of comics through individual characteristics such as motivation, humor, and aiding comprehension. Some studies use comics in social settings, but do not consider the images as a significant factor in language development. This study investigates the effectiveness of instruction using pantomime comics on both language acquisition and language development for adult English as second language (ESL) students. A mixed methods approach is employed to investigate individual acquisition and language development during a collaborative task. Analyses of written tests, transcriptions, and audio/video data using analytical foci, deixis, and transcription conventions following conversation analysis ascertains how comic images affect individual learners and contribute to language development between learners. Results suggest that comics can benefit the language learner individually and act as a powerful, mediational tool for language development and co-construction of knowledge between peers.
    • Visualizing the present: current issues within contemporary visual Sami art - an analysis of Sami artists and their art in Oslo, Norway

      Horn-Hanssen, Birte Marie (2011-12)
      Until recently, contemporary visual Sami art has been little studied. However there is continuous activity within the Sami art world that is evident from the large amount of contemporary visual Sami art exhibits in northern Scandinavia. This paper provides an exploratory analysis of the current issues and artistic language contemporary visual Sami artists who live in Oslo, Norway are concerned with. Through contextualizing the artworks within a post-colonial framework highlighting the dominant Sami historical, political and societal narratives from the 1970s until now, and contrasting them with the official Norwegian image of Norway as a unified "oil and gas nation," a "human rights nation" or a "fishing nation" the artworks question dominant historical perspectives and become visual inquiries of the Sami's political and societal situation currently or in recent history in Norway. This study demonstrates that the current issues visualized among contemporary Sami artists in Oslo are humans' relationship to the natural environment; collective and personal identity; and political and cultural rights. The study shows that the artists use their Sami background as a specific context to visualize these generic issues. Finally, the analysis emphasizes that contemporary visual Sami artists have transcultural backgrounds and use transnational artistic language, themes, and expressions and therefore visualizes new and emerging fluid transnational Sami identities.
    • Vitamin D, cognitive function, and oxidative stress: clues to overtraining syndrome?

      Jerome, Scott P.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Duffy, Lawrence K.; Sheppard, Dani K.; Watts, Phillip B. (2018-05)
      Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is characterized by an unexplainable drop in athletic performance. It affects primarily elite, endurance athletes, though sub-elite athletes are also affected. Although the deterioration in performance is often the most pronounced and troublesome symptoms for athletes, others range from severe fatigue and insomnia to depression and lack of mental concentration. There is no known diagnostic tool except for ruling out all other possible explanations for the abnormal performance. The only known remedy for OTS is rest. Some recover within months while others take a year or more. Some athletes never fully recovery and never return to pre-OTS performance levels. The exact mechanism behind OTS is unknown. Consensus has been reached among exercise science professionals that 1) an imbalance between stress load and recovery leads to OTS; 2) OTS exists on a spectrum of possible outcomes from different exercise/rest ratios; and 3) exercise is only one part of systemic stress that can lead to OTS. In addition to physical exercise, other factors such as environmental conditions, family dynamics, schoolwork, job stressors, and social pressures all contribute to the total stress load on the body. A severe and sustained imbalance between stress and rest is a likely contributor to OTS in athletes. I investigated biomarkers and psychological markers that, in concert, could be used to identify athletes who are at the greatest risk for developing OTS before the onset of symptoms. I examined vitamin D, cognitive function, and oxidative stress status in university cross country skiers in addition to athletic performance status during the competitive ski season. This study's results support three primary conclusions. First, collegiate endurance athletes are more prone to vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than their sedentary counterparts. Second, collegiate cross country ski racers in the circumpolar North are unlikely to maintain adequate vitamin D during a competition season. Furthermore, vitamin D levels are likely to drop in the post-season, recovery period. Third, cognitive function is likely to be significantly higher in the post-season than during the competition season. Fourth, those who experienced a drop in performance during the competition season are more likely to show signs of oxidative stress. These findings may help to produce a screening tool for OTS.
    • Voices from the margins: seriality and the introductory writing classroom

      Cameron, Casie E.; Stanley, Sarah; Carr, Rich; Harney, Eileen (2019-05)
      In an era of great political division and fear of the "other," how can introductory writing classes do a better job of foregrounding marginalized voices and building classroom communities that value many different life experiences over the one presented in dominant discourse? By employing select features of the serial form including: worldbuilding for community, use of devices of continuity to bridge part-whole segmentation, and cyclical communication and recursive writing practices, voices and stories from the margins can break into dominant discourse. This paper begins and ends with my own story as it is spun and woven through the chapters. Between interludes, I initiate a layered exploration defining the origins and scope of the serial form, establish terms and identify storytelling devices that serials rely on for long-term, overarching, and influential success. Turning then to iterations of the modern serial, I explore the continued development of devices of continuity (the cliffhanger and the recap), develop further ideas of cyclical communication, and clarify how the modern serial is tied firmly with capitalism. After an analysis of the evolution of the serial form and its constituent parts, I suggest ways of incorporating certain strategies and devices of the serial form into the introductory writing classroom in order to build community; establish a cyclical, serialized communication through writing and sharing our individual stories; and normalizing outside voices. The implications of this investigation are that pedagogical repurposing of select devices of the serial can support writing instructors' efforts to amplify voices and stories from the margins bringing them into dominant discourse.
    • Voices from the third shift: advocate/caregiver perceptions of effective communication in medical encounters

      Babers-M., Terri (2003-09)
      A review of related literature, together with experiential understandings of the author, indicates that interpersonal communication in medical encounters is often triadic rather than dyadic in nature. The central interest of this research is to understand what commonalities of lived experience exist for women who act as advocate/caregivers communicating in medical encounters. The distinction of this study is that the focus is on the socially constructed, lived-experiences of the advocate/caregiver and her understandings of communication effectiveness in interpersonal communication in the medical encounter, rather than on the needs, responsibilities, and competencies of either the provider or the patient. A qualitative research design was used for this study. It consisted of two concept-rich, self-contained focus group conversation/interviews with female caregivers who are employed full, time and who serve in medical encounters as advocates for the family members for whom they care in the home. From an interpretive perspective, this study investigates the socially constructed perceptions, revealed in narratives told in focus group conversations, of advocate/caregivers about their communication experiences as advocates for a patient in medical encounters and what co-constructions of communicative reality they understand to be essential to their perceptions that communication has been effective.
    • Volcanic, tectonic, and tsunamigenic events recorded in peats near Millers Landing, Homer, Alaska

      Davis, Kathleen Melissa (2006-05)
      The Millers Landing peat deposit is located on the western side of Kachemak Bay, near Homer, Alaska. Distal tephra deposits from past eruptions of Augustine Volcano, Redoubt Volcano, Spurr Volcano, and Katmai Volcano are preserved within the peat. Evidence of active tectonism is found where a meter of marine silt overlies the peat deposits at Millers Landing. The marine mud deposits record co-seismic subsidence and post-seismic uplift as a result of a prehistoric great earthquake, ca. 1000 yr. B.P. along the northern Pacific plate boundary along the subduction interface. The uplift rate of Millers Landing over the past 1000 years has a minimum uplift rate of 3.0 mm/yr. Since 1995 Millers Landing has been an experiencing a post-seismic uplift rate of 5.4 +/- 0.6 mm/yr from the 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake. The Millers Landing peat deposits also contained nine layers of sand and beach gravel. The sedimentology is identical to classic tsunami depositional facies that have been identified in other tectonically active areas and we interpret these deposits as evidence of prehistoric tsunami events. The upper layer of two thick sand units, dated at ca. 3600 yr. B.P. by radiocarbon dating, is directly overlain by a 1.2 cm thick grayish white tephra. The tephra is from Redoubt Volcano and records a tsunami triggered by Mt. Redoubt's debris avalanche and lahar which are also dated at 3600 yrs B.P. The other sand deposits present within the peat are evidence of tectonically-triggered tsunamis. The recognition of tephras, tsunami deposits, and evidence of prehistoric co-seismic subsidence indicates the potential for geohazard assessment of Millers Landing and the entire Homer, Alaska region.
    • Volcanism On Unimak Island, Alaska, Usa: A Petrologic Focus On Shishaldin And Fisher Volcanoes

      Stelling, Peter L.; Eichelberger, John C. (2003)
      Volcanism on Unimak Island, Alaska represents a microcosm of Aleutian arc volcanism in general. This work focuses on two of the most significant features on Unimak Island, Fisher Caldera and Shishaldin Volcano. Despite frequent activity and potential for violent, hazardous eruptions, these volcanoes have been relatively unstudied. The present work details the processes occurring within Shishaldin and Fisher volcanoes, and highlights the complexities of their magma storage systems. Fisher Caldera began as a scattered series of independent stratocones formed from small, independent, non-communicating reservoirs. The 100 km 3 caldera-forming eruption (CFE) resulted from injection of three chemically distinct magmas, one being the largest magma batch to have passed through this system. Extensive fracturing during the CFE destroyed the pre-caldera infrastructure, and subsequent magmatism formed a single mixed reservoir. Post-caldera activity, stemming from this centralized chamber, produced several structurally controlled stratocones that erupted into the newly formed caldera lake. A tsunami generated by an explosive intra-caldera eruption catastrophically drained the caldera lake. Current activity is largely hydrothermal. The progression through which the Fisher system developed is similar to those seen in other caldera systems, yet has not been put forth in the literature as a common process. I suggest the Fisher sequence is an end-member in the spectrum of worldwide caldera formation, and present this process in a global context. Shishaldin Volcano has been formed through the concurrent activity of two separate magma systems, the products of each of which are compositionally distinct. Parental magmas for each series are both basalt, but have different trace-element signatures that require separate protoliths. Furthermore, distinct paths of subsequent chemical evolution are also required. One series shows evidence of ponding at high pressure prior to final ascent, whereas the magmas of the other series are directly emplaced in several small, shallow reservoirs. Results from both volcanoes tend to support a view involving complex magma storage: discrete magma batches with limited interaction rather than simple differentiation in a central chamber.* *This dissertation is a compound document (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following system requirements: Adobe Acrobat; Microsoft Office.
    • Volcano Deformation And Subdaily Gps Products

      Grapenthin, Ronni; Freymueller, Jeffrey (2012)
      Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano's plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ~30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I derive evidence for a very shallow source, likely within the edifice. This work shows that network design and individual plumbing system characteristics affect the ability to detect motion on subdaily and even weekly time scales, which stresses the importance of network scale considerations.
    • Volcano Seismicity in Alaska

      Buurman, Helena; West, Michael; Freymueller, Jeffrey; Prejean, Stephanie; Thompson, Glenn (2013-05)
      I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the longterm volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc than they are in the eastern and western regions. I tie these observations to trends in magma geochemistry and regional tectonic features, and present two hypotheses to explain what could control volcanism in the Aleutian arc.
    • Volcano Seismology From Around The World: Case Studies From Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) Galeras (Colombia), Mount Wrangell And Mount Veniaminof (Alaska)

      Sanchez-Aguilar, John Jairo; McNutt, Stephen R.; Power, John A.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Christensen, Douglas; Eichelberger, John (2005)
      A compilation of research papers in volcano seismology is presented: (1) to study the configuration of magma systems beneath volcanoes, (2) to describe unexpected effects of the shaking from a regional earthquake on volcanic systems, and (3) to integrate seismicity investigations into a conceptual model for the magma system of a volcano. This work was undertaken because much research in volcano seismology is needed to help in hazard assessment. The possible configuration of magma systems beneath Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, and Galeras Volcano, Colombia, is studied with b-value mapping. We suggest models for earthquake-volcanoes interactions by studying the declines in local seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof, Alaska, following the 3 November 2002 Denali Fault Earthquake (DFE). Finally, a model for the magmatic-hydrothermal system beneath Mt. Veniaminof is proposed by deriving a velocity model and relocating the earthquakes, and by studying the temporal changes of frequencies and attenuation (Q) at the source of long-period (LP) events. Results from b-value mapping confirm that volcanoes are characterized by localized zones of high b-values, and also indicate that the internal structure of volcanoes is variable. Analyses of the background seismicity at Mt. Veniaminof suggest that earthquakes result from locally-induced stresses and that LP events may represent the response of a shallow hydrothermal system to heat input from below. The study of declines in seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof volcanoes following the DFE indicates that the dynamic shaking from regional shocks can physically damage a volcano and together with the static stress changes can affect the local seismicity for extended periods. We conclude that the use of simple methods allows a better understanding of the seismicity at volcanoes in Alaska, but most importantly in developing countries where the small number of seismograph stations puts challenging limitations for research.
    • Volume Changes Of Alaska Glaciers: Contributions To Rising Sea Level And Links To Changing Climate

      Arendt, Anthony A.; Echelmeyer, Keith A. (2006)
      We have used airborne altimetry to measure surface elevations along the central flowline of 86 glaciers in Alaska, Yukon Territory and northwestern British Columbia (northwestern North America). Comparison of these elevations with contours on maps derived from 1950s to 1970s aerial photography yields elevation and volume changes over a 30 to 45 year period. Approximately one-third of glaciers have been re-profiled 3 to 5 years after the earlier profile, providing a measure of short-timescale elevation and volume changes for comparison with the earlier period. We have used these measurements to estimate the total contribution of glaciers in northwestern North America to rising sea level, and to quantify the magnitude of climate changes in these regions. We found that glaciers in northwestern North America have contributed to about 10% of the rate of global sea level rise during the last half-century and that the rate of mass loss has approximately doubled during the past decade. During this time, summer and winter air temperatures at low elevation climate stations increased by 0.2+/-0.1 and 0.4+/-0.2�C (decade)-1 respectively. There was also a weak trend of increasing precipitation and an overall lengthening of the summer melt season. We modeled regional changes in glacier mass balance with climate station data and were able to reproduce altimetry measurements to within reported errors. We conclude that summer temperature increases have been the main driver of the increased rates of glacier mass loss, but winter warming might also be affecting the glaciers through enhanced melt at low elevations and a change in precipitation from snow to rain, especially in maritime regions. Uncertainties in our calculations are large, owing to the inaccuracies of the maps used to provide baseline elevations, the sparsity of accurate climate data, and the complex and dynamic nature of glaciers in these regions. Tidewater, surging, and lake-terminating glaciers have dynamical cycles that are not linked in a simple way to climate variability. We found that regional volume losses can depend on one or several large and dynamic glaciers. These glaciers should be treated separately when extrapolating altimetry data to an entire region.
    • Volumetric heat transfer via constructal theory, and its applications in permafrost and hydrogen energy storage

      Kukkapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Kim, Sun Woo; Lin, Chuen-Sen; Das, Debendra (2016-05)
      Constructal theory is widely used as a powerful tool in designing of engineering systems (flow configurations, patterns, geometry). This theory is observed in nature and its principles are applicable to general engineering. Constructal theory encompasses a wide range of space in the "design", drawing from each and every field from engineering to biology. The universal design of nature and the constructal law unify all animate schemata such as human blood circulatory systems, and inanimate systems, such as urban traffic and river basins. The proceeding research applies the overlying theories of constructal theory to the two different systems in order to achieve best thermal performance phenomena. The first is stabilization of roadway embankments in the permafrost regions with design modifications in existing thermosyphon evaporators with tree structure designs, and defining the optimal spacing between two neighboring thermosyphons based on thermal cooling phenomena. This research utilizes constructal law to the generation of tree-shaped layouts for fluid flow, so that the flow structures use the available space in optimally. The intention here is the optimization of geometry of the flow system. This begins with the most simple cases of tree-shaped flows: T- and Y-shaped constructs, the purpose of which is to create a flow connection between one point (defined as a "source" or "sink") to an infinity of points (via a line/area/volume). Empirically speaking, tree-shaped flows are natural examples of selforganization and optimization. By contrast, constructal law is theory which states that flow architectures such as these are the evolutionary results of nature which tend toward greater global flow access. Tree-shaped flows can be derived from this constructal law. The mathematical simulation revealed that there exists an optimal spacing between two neighboring thermosyphons, and the tree structures perform better than the existing configuration in terms of thermal cooling. The second part of the research is to find an effective way to reject heat released from the metal hydride powder to the outer environment during the hydrogen absorption process. The main objective of this investigation is to minimize the time required for the absorption process, and to reduce the hotspot temperature by determining the optimal aspect ratio of rectangular fins, while the total volume of fins used is kept constant. The intension of using constructal theory in this part of research is to find the optimal geometrical parameters (length, width) of the fin structure for better thermal performance of the metal hydride reactor system. The simulations revealed that there exists an optimum aspect ratio of rectangular fins for accelerating heat rejection and lowering the hotspot temperature in a cylindrical metal hydride reactor. Constructal theory is supremely adapted for use in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional design for heat transfer structures, as it allows for incorporation of minute analysis of the interior structure with the goal of optimizing for heat transfer. In its application in the realm of engineering, every multidimensional solid structure that is to be cooled, heated or serviced by fluid streams must be vascularized. By this definition, 'vascularization' includes, however is not limited to, structures such as trees, geometrical spacing, and solid walls. Here, every geometric detail will be sized and positioned to achieve maximum efficacy from an engineering design point of view. Furthermore, via design morphing we can achieve low resistances in flow structures which are applicable in cooling and heating applications. An example is that of a ground-source heat pump design where the piping design is morphed by constructal law and spaced in an optimal way to achieve maximum thermal efficiency when extracting heat from the ground.
    • Walk Softly With Me: Adventures Of A Woman Big-Game Guide In Alaska

      Mcleod-Everette, Sharon Esther; Murray, John A. (1993)
      Walk Softly With Me: Adventures of a Woman Big-Game Guide in Alaska is a memoir blending adventure, description, dialogue, and humor. The animals and landscapes in Interior Alaska are revealed through the eyes of a woman tackling the male-dominated arena of big-game guiding. The thesis describes the author's evolution from hunting rabbits and tender moose for subsistence to leading clients in search of trophies. In an attempt to provide an objective view of the ethics of hunting and game management, the author explores the question of why we hunt and our relationship with the animals we pursue.<p> The thesis is written in informal first person point of view, beginning with early homesteading life and moving through scenes with hunters and other guides. The natural history of animals is woven into the narrative, as are the changes that the author experiences. The thesis culminates with the author's introspective look at why she guides and whether she will continue. <p>
    • Walks with her hands

      Johnston, Emily R. (2007-05)
      The poems in 'Walks with Her Hands' reflect a female persona tracing the origins of her sexuality, as one might trace her way along a dark corridor using her hands. The persona makes this journey through exploring a range of landscapes as well as relationships with both family and lovers. In Section I, the persona comes to terms with an absent father, a failed marriage, and her experience working with other abused women. In Section II, the persona steps back in time to consider how an emotionally distant mother has further estranged the persona from her sexuality. The persona begins to find herself in Section III through romantic relationships with women. The subject of this section, however, is a controlling lover who stilts the persona's coming out experience. By Section IV, the persona has come full circle, back to the abuse theme in Section I. She enters into an abusive relationship with a different woman, but through this experience, the persona overcomes past relationships and more fully understands herself. Throughout the emotional turbulence in each section, an underlying calm exists. A steady pace, like walking, allows the reader to self-reflect alongside the persona.
    • Walleye Pollock (Theragra Chalcogramma) Distribution In The Eastern Bering Sea Related To Fishery And Environmental Factors

      Shen, Haixue (2009)
      Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) support the largest single-species fishery in the world. Pollock also play an important role in the EBS ecosystem as an important prey species. The decline of the western population of Steller sea lions during the 1980s and 1990s raised concerns about the potential competition between the pollock fishery and the sea lion population. My research focused on pollock distribution related to the fishery and physical environment at different temporal and spatial scales using fisheries acoustic data and observer data in the winter fishing season during 2002-2006. Temperature and wind played important roles in determining the pollock distribution in winter, especially from late February to March. The changes in spatial structure during the fishing season suggested that the fishery probably influenced pollock distribution by removing some portion of the local population and perhaps even smoothing out the aggregated distribution of pollock. At a small scale, pollock schools became smaller and denser. At the meso-scale, the distances between schools increased. At a larger scale, range estimates from variography increased which indicated that the spatial correlation among pollock extended to greater distances after fishing. Fishing behavior was also studied using Levy flight theory and its relation to pollock distribution in the EBS. Fishing behavior was significantly correlated to the fractal dimension of fish which measures the degree of pollock clustering, rather than to pollock spatial concentration or density in the EBS. The observer data were also included to analyze the effect of fish distribution on fishing behavior at the school scale. The results indicated that school density rather than the school size played an important role in fishing behavior. Finally, catch depletion analysis was used to examine the potential local depletion. While frequentist and Bayesian methods confirmed that the fishery caused slight local depletion in some areas in the EBS, the magnitude was less than that before sea lion protection measures were put into place in 1999 to spread out the fishery in space and time.
    • Wasting disease and environmental variables drive sea star assemblages in the northern Gulf of Alaska

      Mitchell, Timothy James; Konar, Brenda; Iken, Katrin; Kelley, Amanda (2019-05)
      Sea stars are ecologically important in rocky intertidal habitats. The recent (starting 2013) sea star die-off attributed to sea star wasting disease throughout the eastern Pacific, presumably triggered by unusually warm waters in recent years, has caused an increased interest in spatial and temporal patterns of sea star assemblages and the environmental drivers that structure these assemblages. This study assessed the role of seven potential static environmental variables (distance to freshwater, tidewater glacial presence, wave exposure, fetch, beach slope, substrate composition, and tidal range) influencing northern Gulf of Alaska sea star assemblages before and after regional sea star declines. For this, intertidal surveys were conducted annually from 2005 to 2018 at five sites in each of four regions that were between 100 and 420 km apart. In the years leading up to the regional mortality events, assemblages were different among regions and were structured mainly by tidewater glacier presence, wave fetch, and tidal range. The assemblages after wasting disease were different from those before the event, and there was a partial change in the environmental variables that correlated with sea star structure. In these recent years, the environmental variables most highly correlated with sea star assemblages were slope, wave fetch, and tidal range, all of which relate to desiccation, attachment, and wave action. This indicates that the change in sea star density and structure by wasting disease left an assemblage that is responding to different environmental variables. Understanding the delicate interplay of some of the environmental variables that influence sea star assemblages could expand knowledge of the habitat preferences and tolerance ranges of important and relatively unstudied species within the northern Gulf of Alaska.