• Water Metabolism By Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus)

      Cameron, Raymond Darwin, Iii (1972)
    • Water metabolism of wolves in winter: effects of varying food intake and exercise

      Philo, L. Michael (1986-12)
      The only free water available to wolves during arctic winter is snow. Snow consumption involves an energy cost due to melting the snow and increasing the temperature of the resulting water to deep body temperature. Wolves are subject to negative energy balance when prey availability is inadequate. When negative energy balance is prolonged, the energy cost of snow consumption could shorten the time to death by starvation. It was therefore hypothesized that during negative energy balance in winter, wolves reduce energy expenditure by suppressing snow intake. The goal was to determine whether wolves conserve a significant quantity of energy by suppressing snow intake during negative energy balance in winter. The hypothesis was tested by varying food intake and exercise of captive wolves during winter in arctic Alaska. Experimental negative energy balance was imposed in three ways: (1) undernutrition, (2) fasting and (3) forced exercise on a treadmill with no change in food intake. Results of testing the hypothesis varied among experiments, but overall the findings refuted the hypothesis. When the wolves were undernourished, there was indirect evidence of suppressed snow intake. When the wolves were fasted, there was indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake. When the wolves were exercised with no change in food intake, there was indirect evidence of both suppressed and enhanced snow intake, but the evidence of enhancement was more conclusive. The indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake during either fasting or the exercise trial was sufficient to refute the hypothesis. The wolves did not conserve a significant amount of energy by suppressing snow intake. When snow intake was suppressed during undernutrition, less than 1% of the calculated daily energy expenditure was saved. There was no unequivocal evidence of snow intake suppression in any other experiment. It is concluded that when energy balance is negative during winter, wolves do not suppress snow intake to conserve energy.
    • Water metabolism of wolves in winter: Effects of varying food intake and exercise

      Philo, Lee Michael; Dieterich, Robert A. (1986)
      The only free water available to wolves during arctic winter is snow. Snow consumption involves an energy cost due to melting the snow and increasing the temperature of the resulting water to deep body temperature. Wolves are subject to negative energy balance when prey availability is inadequate. When negative energy balance is prolonged, the energy cost of snow consumption could shorten the time to death by starvation. It was therefore hypothesized that during negative energy balance in winter, wolves reduce energy expenditure by suppressing snow intake. The goal was to determine whether wolves conserve a significant quantity of energy by suppressing snow intake during negative energy balance in winter. The hypothesis was tested by varying food intake and exercise of captive wolves during winter in arctic Alaska. Experimental negative energy balance was imposed in three ways: (1) undernutrition, (2) fasting and (3) forced exercise on a treadmill with no change in food intake. Results of testing the hypothesis varied among experiments, but overall the findings refuted the hypothesis. When the wolves were undernourished, there was indirect evidence of suppressed snow intake. When the wolves were fasted, there was indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake. When the wolves were exercised with no change in food intake, there was indirect evidence of both suppressed and enhanced snow intake, but the evidence of enhancement was more conclusive. The indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake during either fasting or the exercise trial was sufficient to refute the hypothesis. The wolves did not conserve a significant amount of energy by suppressing snow intake. When snow intake was suppressed during undernutrition, less than 1% of the calculated daily energy expenditure was saved. There was no unequivocal evidence of snow intake suppression in any other experiment. It is concluded that when energy balance is negative during winter, wolves do not suppress snow intake to conserve energy.
    • Water quality from rainwater catchments throughout Alaska: looking at contaminants in catchment materials

      Hart, Corianne Irene (2003-12)
      A field study which focused on linking materials used in rainwater catchments to the quality of water they produce was conducted throughout Alaska in the summer of 2003. The importance of this project stems from the fact that many families throughout Alaska depend on rainwater catchment systems to provide water for washing, cleaning, cooking and/or drinking purposes. After a core group of participants were identified, samples were periodically collected from participants' water taps and were analyzed for a suite of contaminants that included metals (e.g., Pb and Zn), organics (e.g., volatile organic compounds) and bacteria. Based on variables, such as construction materials, the frequency of rainfall, the amount of water collected and the duration of storage, we evaluated the effectiveness of various catchments for providing safe drinking water. This fieldwork, coupled with a companion document addressing best management practices for rainwater catchments, provides valuable information for owners of small systems seeking to use rainwater catchments in Alaska. The conclusions of the study were that zinc concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by roof and tank material, lead concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by roof material, and copper concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by pipe material.
    • Water security in the rural North: responding to change, engineering perspectives, and community focused solutions

      Penn, Henry J. F.; Schnabel, William E.; Loring, Philip A.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Dotson, Aaron A.; Barnes, David L. (2016-08)
      This project explores the capacity of rural communities to manage their water resources in a changing climate, environment and society. Using water resources as a lens through which to evaluate the effects of social and environmental changes on Alaska’s rural communities, and working from conversations with key community members including city planners and infrastructure operators, this research develops theoretical frameworks for increasing community capacity. The prospect of developing community capacity, and more specifically water resources management capacity, in order to respond to societal and climatic change is a present concern for rural communities, and is becoming increasingly so in today’s fiscally challenged environment. Many rural water managers in Alaska are challenged by aging systems designed and built over 20 years ago, and are now operating well beyond their design life. While the configuration of existing systems varies across Alaska, a common suite of problems exists; regular breakdowns, failure to achieve regulatory standards, wide variability of raw water quality, low payment rates, and historically high electricity and fuel prices. These systems are also operating during a period of historically high deficit between community needs and available grant funding at both a State and Federal level. Existing theoretical frameworks for exploring the impacts of change on regional water security (i.e. resilience and vulnerability) are informative heuristics for triage of impacts at the individual community level. Presently, however, there is little consideration given to water security solutions that do not involve the construction of a new system. This research proposes that the focus upon “new system solutions” limits available solutions for improving security at both the local and regional levels. Further this research seeks to understand the extent to which “new utility solutions” create additional capacity at both the community and regional level to respond to change. At the core of this work are informal interviews and participant observation research in 11 coastal communities in Bristol Bay and Northwest Arctic regions of Alaska.
    • Water, behavior, and health in Alaska

      Ritter, Troy L.; Bersamin, Andrea; Lopez, Ellen; Hennessy, Thomas; Johnson, Rhonda; Konkel, Steven (2014-08)
      This dissertation addresses the need for a better understanding of how water and sanitation infrastructure and water use behaviors come together to influence health. The ultimate aim is to inform water infrastructure designs and behavior change programming for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), skin infections, and diarrhea. All three diseases are of public health significance in Alaska, and all three can be prevented by proper access and use of water and sanitation services. I begin the dissertation by illustrating that some residents who have access to treated water continue to consume untreated river water and rain. In fact, 82% of respondents (n=172) reported that some of their drinking water came from an untreated source. Motives for drinking untreated water could be categorized into six themes: chemicals, taste, health, access, tradition, and cost. The next chapter describes the design and impact of a health promotion program to increase consumption of treated water. Self-reported data revealed that from pre- to post-intervention, the proportion of households drinking mostly treated water increased by 21% (39% to 60%), p < 0.0001. The third chapter reports changes in water use and health as reported by participants who recently received modern sanitation services. Most participants (n=101; 74%) reported improved community health. A prominent theme was that better access to treated water increased children’s ability to drink treated water and perform hand washing and bathing, practices known to prevent ARIs, skin infections and diarrhea. Based on the findings, I recommend: 1) providing inhouse piped water service where feasible, 2) development of an alternative water and sanitation system that provides adequate quantities of water for homes that may not be provided in-house piped water service, and 3) providing health promotion to encourage healthy water use, either in combination with provision of in-house water service, or as a stand-alone intervention.
    • Water-in-air droplet formation in plasma bonded microchannels fabricated by Shrinky-Dink® lithography

      Bender, Christopher J. Jr. (2011-08)
      This thesis presents the first work on water-in-air droplet microfluidics. Polymeric microchannels were prototyped to illustrate water droplet formation in air by the T-junction meditated design. The first part of the thesis is on the proof of using unfiltered air as the process gas for plasma-assisted bonding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels. A series of bilayered PDMS prototypes were plasma bonded under various plasma treatment parameters to determine the optimal settings for high-strength bonding. Pressure rupture tests were conducted to measure the bonding interface strength, which were shown to be as high as 135 psi. The second part of the thesis illustrates the formation and dispersion of water droplets in a continuous air flow in microchannels, and discusses the mechanisms of how droplets are formed. The Shrinky Dinks lithography and plasma-assisted bonding were used to prototype leakage-free microcbannels for testing droplet production. Droplets are formed under the competition between the fluid viscosity and surface tension forces. The channel dimensions and the fluid flow rates dictate the mechanism of droplet formation. The major finding is that the droplet length increases and droplet velocity decreases with increasing water flow rates, but some droplets were not formed at the T-Junction. These findings are discussed.
    • Waterbird distribution and habitat in the Prairie Pothole Region, U.S.A.

      Steen, Valerie (2010-12)
      The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of north-central North America provides some of the most critical wetland habitat continent-wide to waterbirds. Agricultural conversion has resulted in widespread wetland drainage. Furthermore, climate change projections indicate a drier future, which will alter remaining wetland habitats. I evaluated Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) habitat selection and the potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of waterbird species. To examine Black Tern habitat selection, I surveyed 589 wetlands in North and South Dakota in 2008-09, then created multivariate habitat models. I documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands surveyed, and found local variables were more important predictors of use than landscape variables, evidence for differential selection of wetlands where breeding and foraging occurred, and evidence fora more limited role of area sensitivity (wetland size). To examine the potential effects of climate change, I created models relating occurrence of five waterbird species to climate and wetland variables for the U.S. PPR. Projected range reductions were 28 to 99%, with an average of 64% for all species. Models also predicted that, given even wetland density, the best areas to conserve under climate change are Northern North Dakota and Minnesota.
    • Ways To Help And Ways To Hinder: Climate, Health, And Food Security In Alaska

      Loring, Philip A.; Gerlach, Craig; Fazzino, David V. II; Murray, Maribeth S.; Chapin, F. Stuart III; Atkinson, David E. (2010)
      This dissertation explores various ecological, socioeconomic, sociopolitical, and biophysical dimensions food security in Alaska. The context for this work is dramatic climatic change and ongoing demographic, socioeconomic and cultural transitions in Alaska's rural and urban communities. The unifying focus of the papers included here are human health. I provide multiple perspectives on how human health relates to community and ecosystem health, and of the roles of managers, policy makers, and researchers can play in supporting positive health outcomes. Topics include methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of wild fish, the impacts of changes to Alaskan landscapes and seascapes on subsistence and commercial activities, and on ways to design sustainable natural resource policies and co-management regimes such that they mimic natural systems. The operating premise of this work is that sustainability is ostensibly a matter of human health; the finding is that human health can provide a powerful point of integration for social and ecological sustainability research.
    • We are almost talking

      Liebl, Jonnell; Burleson, Derick; Hill, Sean; Cooper, Burns (2015-05)
      These poems move as a conversation would: they circle, they get distracted, they get personal, they change the topic. They try to tell you something, like an accidental autobiography, or bits and pieces of distress, or the probing of emotions in a way that is more than just cathartic. There are various cycles of repetition (echoes) in these poems through obsessive content and images, repeated phrases and words, and on an individual scale in several poems. There are many references to reflections, and many poems which were built and written with reflective patterns in images or stanzaically. These poems are public on a surface level; the sonic, lyric, and imagistic qualities of the poems grab a reader's attention. The places where the poems are private lie in the metaphorical musings, where the surface of the poem is driven by language, usually in a rapid rhythm. The most honest and revealing sections come when memory collides with writing. The collection is a verbalization of traumatic experiences full of distractions, intentional changes of topic, and interruptions. In many ways, the collection drives toward the last line "I think I was supposed to tell you it's okay." The implications are several. Firstly, I really don't know what I'm supposed to be telling you. Secondly, it is not okay. Thirdly, if I should be saying it, is there a right way to say it? This collection is not committed to the idea of a right way to say a thing, and has never even heard the word resolution. Or, another way to look at it: Does a conversation ever come to a resolution? Or, what do we mean by good bye? Certainly not goodbye forever. Nor do we usually mean "See you later" to mean later that same day. In some cases, later spans years. Is a conversation ever truly "over" or are we constantly picking up the same one, reexamining, pushing it, repeating ourselves, asking the same set of questions to someone we've known for years and always getting variations of an answer which, as it turns out, has a theme. That theme is the person's life--their inner narrative, maybe the inner monologue, maybe the inner dramatic personae. This lifelong conversation is broken over days and locations, gets caught in themes, and is interrupted by other people; by your memories and thoughts and sudden connections; by the other person's memories and thoughts and sudden connections. Hence the 'almost' of We are Almost Talking. Or: "The purpose of poetry is to remind us how difficult it is to remain just one person for our house is open, there are no keys in the doors; and invisible guests come in and out at will." Czesław Miłosz's "Ars Poetica?" This manuscript resists closure but not disclosure. Or "I write for myself and strangers" as Gertrude Stein said.
    • We are the safety net: skills for suicide prevention evaluating a training to increase recognition and response to signs of suicide among at-risk peers

      Burket, Rebekah; Campbell, Kendra; Rivkin, Inna; Fitterling, James; Skewes, Monica (2017-05)
      This pilot study evaluated the effects of a brief suicide prevention training. The intervention was efficient and targeted peer intervention for those least likely to engage in proactive help seeking on their own behalf. The results were promising but mixed. The results showed that the intervention can increase suicide literacy and confidence about safety planning and help seeking on behalf of an at-risk peer. Significant differences were found in the small sample with variables most relevant to the ability to recognize peers at risk for suicide and act effectively on their behalf. Variables not directly emphasized in the training and those with high baseline scores did not show change. The brevity of the intervention lends itself to potential dissemination opportunities in educational and healthcare settings such as new student orientations, teacher in-service trainings, hospital staff training and community-based outreach.
    • "We dance because we are Iñupiaq", Iñupiaq dance in Barrow: performance and identity

      Ikuta, Hiroko (2004-05)
      Dance, like other forms of expressive culture, is an important vehicle for creating, maintaining, and expressing identity. Founded in the early 1950s, the Barrow Dancers, with a membership of more than sixty, perform on important occasions in Alaska and outside the state for Native and non-Native audiences. For the Barrow Dancers, song, gesture, and drumming are means of creating and maintaining continuity in a community undergoing rapid social change. Collectively, the troop appears to dance with greater freedom and innovation for local audiences whereas their commoditized performances for outsiders are more formal and repetitive. The Barrow Dancers also perform at Kivgiq (the Messenger Feast) which was revived in 1988 after a more than 70-year lapse. Unlike community, external, and tourist performances, Kivgiq is intended to provide the individual Iñupiat with a more solid collective identity and enhanced ethnic pride. I will argue that Iñupiaq dance, as represented by the Barrow Dancers, embodies Iñupiaq socio-economic empowerment and objectifies its relationship with large-scale American society.
    • "We did listen": Successful aging from the perspective of Alaska Native Elders in Northwest Alaska

      Boyd, Keri M.; Gifford, Valerie M.; Whipple, Jason; Lewis, Jordan; David, Eric John (EJ) (2018-05)
      Alaska's older adults are growing faster in proportion to the overall population creating concern regarding how adequate care will be provided in the coming years. Statewide, rural community members are looking for innovative, culturally appropriate ways to promote successful aging for their growing population of elders, allowing them to age in their home communities. This qualitative, phenomenological study sought to establish a deeper understanding of how Alaska Native Elders in Northwest Alaska understand and experience successful aging to inform program development and service delivery. The present project was embedded within a larger community-based participatory research study and conducted in collaboration with community members and an Alaska Native Elder Advisory Committee. The 14 community-nominated Elder participants universally identified engagement with family and community, self-awareness and care, and a sense of gratitude as essential elements of successful aging. Elders who age successfully listened to and learned from their Elders, enact their traditional values and practices, and pass their wisdom and knowledge to future generations. The results provide a culture and context specific understanding of successful aging that will help communities develop Elder-centered programs and service delivery and contributes to field of successful aging by presenting a perspective of successful aging that is not currently represented in the literature. Finally, by recording the Elders' knowledge and stories of successful aging this project also helped preserve some of the traditional cultural knowledge held by Elders in this region to be shared with generations to come.
    • "We drove the Alaska Highway": romanticizing the road north

      Larrabee, Susan K. (2006-08)
      The Alaska Highway is a road that still fascinates and draws people north more than sixty years after its initial construction. Beginning in 1942, literature concerning the road's hasty wartime construction and the men who worked on the highway led to the formation of Alaska Highway myths and legends and enticed Americans north after World War II. Many of these travelers wrote and published the accounts of their adventures, inspiring readers' to make an Alaska Highway journey as well. The objective of this work is to show how the Alaska Highway literature perpetuates the frontier romance of the northern road. This paper examines American frontierism and how the Alaska Highway was and is a perfect outlet for Americans to have a frontier experience. Also, the paper explores the various highway literature written since 1942, particularly the 'I drove the Alaska Highway' works that influenced many Americans to seek their own frontier adventures on the Alaska Highway.
    • We need to talk and the nation is watching: a textual analysis of drug interventions

      Denhalter, Bailey J.; Richey, Jean; Sager, Kevin; Taylor, Karen (2012-05)
      Addiction is something that millions of people struggle with. Many are unable to or do not realize that they have a problem. Previously kept as an embarrassing family secret, drug interventions have gone Hollywood. The entertainment industry began publicizing these once private affairs for the nation in the early 2000's; unfortunately, publicity does not ensure a problem will be addressed in the appropriate manner. Drug interventions are typically conducted in secret, away from the prying eyes of neighbors or community members. By a stroke of genius or insanity, the producers at A & E realized the American public's fascination with the dark underbelly of society and televised the taboo phenomenon of interventions. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify emergent themes through the comparison and textual analysis of multiple episodes of A & E Television Networks series Intervention, focusing on family participation in illicit drug interventions. These televised interventions offer a rare and unique glimpse into the processes and consequences for those involved. The viewer is given the opportunity to observe the effects an intervention may have on the family unit, as well as on individuals.
    • Weapon, Toy, Or Art? The Eskimo Yo-Yo As A Commodified Artic Bola And Marker Of Cultural Identity

      Klistoff, Alysa J.; Lee, Molly; Odess, Dan; Gray, Patty (2007)
      The Eskimo yo-yo is a popular tourist art found in gift shops across Alaska. It is made in a variety of shapes, ranging from seals and dolls, to mukluks and simple balls. Many are plainly decorated; others display elaborate decorations, fine beadwork, and intricate details. Some shops carry only Native-made pieces, while others carry imitation pieces made in China. Though a true history of the Eskimo yo-yo remains "shrouded in mystery" (Ray 1977), Eskimos maintain that this game originated as an important and widely used hunting tool made simply with sinew and bones---the bola. The gun has replaced the bola as a hunting tool, yet, the skills required to use a bola (dexterity, speed, aim, coordination, strength and stamina) remain important in areas where people subsist off the land; as such, the Eskimo yo-yo remains an important link to the past and speaks to a subsistence lifestyle. Natives and tourists alike recognize it as a marker of cultural heritage. This thesis details the enigmatic history of the relationship between the Eskimo yo-yo and the arctic bola and explores the influences each has as markers of indigenous identity in Alaska.
    • Welcome to Deadhorse

      Arnegard, Iver (2005-05)
      Welcome to Deadhorse features poems that are narrative and lyrical in nature and represent an aesthetic in which the land is an undeniable force, generally inseparable from the lives of characters involved. The sequence of the poems creates a narrative arc that follows the journey of a man running from a broken-down Dakota farm. Lured by myths of the north, and haunted by ghosts, he travels to Alaska and finds that everything he hoped he'd left behind has come along with him: isolation, alcoholism, a traumatic past. The narrator eventually comes full-circle, returning to a home he never really left behind.
    • Well-being: the looking glass in 4-D

      Bays, Joey M.; Richey, Jean; Arundale, Robert; Anahita, Sine (2011-05)
      Well-being affects all of us. It is intricately interwoven with our identity and interactions. This study explores the relational contexts in which well-being is created, maintained, and diminished. In order to accomplish this goal, three main themes were addressed: (a) the co-researcher's understanding of what well-being is, (b) the co-researcher's understanding of how community affects a person's well-being, and (c) a description of the co-researcher's best of times and worst of times. These phenomenological themes guide the context and process of this research. This study is grounded in the theoretical stance of interpretivism with a constructionism epistemology; the methodology employed is phenomenological research utilizing conversational interviewing methods. I thematically analyzed the emergent capta from the interviews into the following themes: (a) What is Well-Being?: a definition of well-being and (b) The Struggle in the Search: co-researchers lived experiences of wellness. These themes offer an in-depth exploration of understanding the meaning of well-being the lived experiences informing those understandings.
    • Wellness through the lens of gathering, gardening, and grocery

      Busby, Shannon; Bersamin, Steve; Seefeldt, Steve; Meier, Rose (2016-08)
      The food environment in rural Alaska has undergone a rapid transition as communities have gone from subsistence to cash based economies. As this nutrition transition continues and is further impacted by climate change, rural Alaskans need diverse food sources to maintain health and improve resilience. The objective of this research was to assess the role cultivated and wild plants play in wellness, and to understand current perceptions of gardening as a source of vegetables and improved wellness in Barrow, Alaska. A mixed methods approach was used, the qualitative component consisting of seven focus groups, 60 minutes each, which were audio recorded. Following each focus group, a questionnaire was administered to all participants. Focus group recordings were transcribed and coded in Atlas.ti for themes. Questionnaire data were compiled in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Alaska Native adults were recruited to participate through snowball and convenience sampling. The study found that gathering played a strong role in wellness, in particular as it relates to nutrition, connection to the land, traditional foods, culture, and medicine. However, participants also reported lacking knowledge about plants from the tundra. The overwhelming majority of plants consumed were from the grocery store. In contrast to gathered plants, participants’ perceived that plants from the grocery store only address one dimension of wellness--dietary health. Gardening was perceived as a valuable new local source of fruits and vegetables. These results provide insight into the role that plants play in wellness in an Alaska Native community that is experiencing a nutrition transition. This study found that fruits and vegetables from the garden, grocery store, and tundra each play important, but different roles in wellness. This is consistent with previous studies and highlights the importance of considering each source when addressing wellness in Alaska Native communities. In addition, having a diverse food portfolio that includes fruits and vegetables from all three sources, especially local sources, is key to achieving food security and sovereignty.