• Wind energy: is there an economy of scale in Alaska?

      Ellanna, Dayne; Lewellyn, Levi; Hulsey, J. Leroy; Perkins, Robert; Whitaker, Keith (2015)
      The purpose of this project is to show the cost relationship per kilowatt hour (kWh) between small scale (< 25kWh), medium scale (> 25 kWh and < 100 kWh), and large scale (> 100kWh) wind turbines. Our analysis will compare the cost per kWh and identify the economy of scale between our custom small scale models to commercial models. The commercial models used for this project were installed by Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) at their Healy, Alaska wind farm. We requested their wind data, capital investment breakdown, and their operations and maintenance costs. This data will be compared to the costs and wind data associated with our custom built wind turbine. Wind energy is dependent on one major variable, the wind. Regardless of the wind turbine size, wind speed, frequency, and duration will affect the efficiency of every wind turbine. Commercial wind farms are new to Alaska. The first major wind power project in Alaska was in 1997 in Kotzebue. This wind farm, of 17 wind turbines, represents the first megawatt of wind power in Alaska. Installation and maintenance of these systems is more expensive in Alaska due to the states' remoteness. Small scale systems used in this study are custom built because small scale commercial systems are not "hardy" enough to withstand Alaska's harsh weather systems. Both medium and large scale systems, for this study, are commercially constructed systems that have been designed to withstand these harsh conditions.
    • A window to the past: macrofossil remains from an 18,000 year-old buried surface, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Wolf, Victoria Goetcheus (2001-12)
      Macrofossil remains and pollen from an 18,000 year old buried surface from the northern Seward Peninsula enable a reconstruction of the full-glacial environment of an upland portion of the Bering Land Bridge. The buried surface represents a dry meadow and herb-rich tundra. Prostrate shrubs were rare on the landscape, but abundant locally. A large and diverse insect fauna populated the surface, preying on the plants and each other. Small mammals and their predators lived on the surface. Large mammals, such as caribou and bison, were present as well. The productivity of the surface was maintained by a continual influx of loess, which replenished the nutrients of the soil. Study of the buried surface provides an important addition to knowledge about the vegetation mosaic of full-glacial Beringia.
    • Winter feeding ecology and biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaska polar bears

      Bentzen, Torsten W. (2006-12)
      Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations, ranging from bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) as one of the least contaminated marine mammals to the more highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seal (Phoca hispida) which represent the majority of their annual diet. We used stable isotopes [delta]¹⁵N and [delta]¹³C to estimate trophic status of 139 free-ranging polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast in spring 2003 and 2004. The [delta]¹⁵N values of polar bear packed blood cells ranged from 18.2% to 21.4% with a mean of 19.5% (SD=0.7) in 2003 and 19.9% (SD=0.7) in 2004. Two-element three-source mixing models indicated that lower trophic level prey, such as scavenged bowhead whale carcasses, may have composed 11-26% (95% CI) of the diet in 2003, and -2-14% (95% CI) of the diet in 2004. Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined for 47 of the polar bears sampled in 2003 and compared to trophic position ([delta]¹⁵N). Although many OCs appear not to biomagnify in polar bears, we found positive relationships with [delta]¹⁵N in both sexes between concentrations of several highly recalcitrant OCs in models incorporating age, lipid content, and [delta]¹³C. [Delta]¹⁵N was important in explaining variation in OC concentrations, indicating structural differences in food webs and biomagnification of OCs among polar bears related to their sex, age, and the apparent use of lower trophic level prey.
    • Winter forage selection by barren-ground caribou: effects of fire and snow

      Saperstein, Lisa Beth (1993-05)
      Snow depth and hardness were the most influential factors in selection of feeding areas by caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in late winter in northwestern Alaska. Following a 1988 fire, plots were established in late March through April in burned and unbumed tussock tundra in 1990 and 1991. Snow in both burned and unbumed plots was shallower and softer at edges of caribou feeding craters than at adjacent undisturbed points in both years. There was little difference in snow depth or hardness between burned and unbumed plots, although caribou cratered in shallower snow in burned plots than in unbumed plots in 1990. Crater area was greater in unbumed plots in 1990, but there was no difference in crater area between burned and unbumed plots in 1991. Frequencies of particular plant taxa were only significant in determining selection of crater sites in unbumed plots in 1990, when caribou craters had higher relative frequencies of lichens and lower frequencies of bryophytes than unused areas. Fire reduced relative frequency and biomass of most plant taxa, with the exception of post-disturbance species, which occurred primarily in burned plots. Lichens were reduced in burned plots, and lichens composed 59-74% of the late-winter diet of caribou, as determined by microhistological analysis of fecal pellets. Biomass and relative frequency of Eriophorum vaginatum was greater in burned plots than in unbumed plots in 1991, and protein and in vitro digestibility levels were enhanced in samples of this species collected from burned plots in late winter.
    • Winter foraging ecology of moose in the Tanana Flats and Alaska Range foothills

      Seaton, C. Tom (2002-12)
      I studied woody browse distribution, production, removal, species composition, twig size, moose diets, and predicted daily intake of resident and migratory moose in the Tanana Flats and adjacent Alaska Range Foothills, Alaska, 1999-2000. Density of moose in these areas was high (1.1 moose/km²). Moose were experiencing density-dependent effects on reproduction and growth, exhibited by low adult twinning rate (6%) and absence of pregnant yearlings, yet 17.5 kg higher 10-month-old calf body weights in the migratory segment. Of all willow, poplar, and paper birch plants sampled, 74% had a broomed architecture, which I attributed to heavy use by moose. Using a model of daily moose intake based on bite mass and bite density, I estimated that 1) migratory moose met expected intake during winter while intake of resident moose was marginal, 2) moose could not meet their expected daily intake with the mean twig dry mass (0.26 g) remaining unbrowsed at end of winter, and 3) higher predicted intake by migratory moose than resident moose was consistent with their higher 10-month-old calf weights.
    • Winter habitat of arctic grayling in an interior Alaska stream

      Lubinski, Brian R. (1995-05)
      Placer mining and the lack of information on winter ecology of Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus. has raised concern for this popular sportfish. A study was designed to validate aerial radio telemetry data and to locate and describe overwinter areas (OWA) of Arctic grayling in Beaver Creek, Alaska. Reliance on aerial data alone resulted in overestimation of survival and misidentification of 14 of 26 designated OWAs. Twenty-one Arctic grayling were tracked downstream 12-58 km to 12 OWAs spanning a 31-km section of Beaver Creek. Radio-tagged and untagged Arctic grayling occupied areas with ice thickness of 0.4-1.4 m overlying 0.06-0.52 m of water, flowing at 0.03-0.56 m/s. During winter, discharge, cross-sectional area, velocities, and water width in four OWAs decreased until late March; then, cross-sectional area increased due to an increase in discharge that pushed the ice upward. Adult Arctic grayling overwintered downstream of habitat disturbances, and occupied much shallower winter habitats than expected.
    • Winter movements of Arctic foxes in Northern Alaska measured by satellite telemetry

      Pamperin, Nathan J.; Follman, Erich H.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Huettmann, Falk; Person, Brian (2008-12)
      We studied winter movements of 37 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) collared within a petroleum development area at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (n = 20), and an undeveloped area in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A, n = 17) during the winters of 2004, 2005, and 2006 using satellite telemetry. Comparing Prudhoe Bay and NPR-A, differences in mean movement rates of juveniles was 23.9 ± 2.7 km per duty cycle and 10.6 ± 2.8 km per duty cycle for adults, and mean difference in maximum distance from capture site for juveniles was 265.2 ± 63.2 km and 205.5 ± 128.9 km for adults. Juveniles and adults collared in NPR-A were highly mobile and made long distance movements (up to 782 km) while foxes from Prudhoe Bay remained in or near the oil field throughout winter. Extensive use of sea-ice by three juvenile foxes from NPR-A was documented during the winter of 2005-2006. Three juvenile foxes traveled long distances (904, 1096, and 2757 km) during the winter and remained on the sea-ice for extended periods of time (76, 120, and 156 days). These findings verify the use of sea-ice by arctic foxes and raise concerns that the diminishing ice cover may negatively impact populations by limiting access to marine food sources. We conclude that the oilfields are having a strong effect on the winter movements of arctic fox and suggest differences in movements are likely attributable to the availability of anthropogenic foods at Prudhoe Bay.
    • Winter Precipitation Depths Across The North Slope Of Alaska Simulated From The Weather Research And Forcasting Model And Snowtran-3D

      Byam, Sarah Jean; Cherry, Jessica E.; Toniolo, Horacio; Kane, Douglas (2012)
      Accurately predicting snow distribution and blowing snow conditions in the Arctic is critical to the design of ice road construction and maintenance as well as for predicting water supplies and runoff during snowmelt, estimating the cost of snow removal, and forecasting tundra travel conditions. A current atmospheric model used by both the operational weather prediction and research communities is the Weather Research and Forecasting model. However, the built-in snow schemes in the model neglect redistribution of snow via wind, one of the key processes in snow pack evolution. This study will involve three parts: (1) diagnostic of the differences in the current snow schemes of the model, (2) evaluation of the model's snow schemes as compared to observational data, and (3) asynchronous coupling of the SnowTran-3D to model predictions using a simple algorithm. The approach provides a simple method for the prediction of snow distribution, improving the realism of current snow distribution models, and will be easily employable for both operational and research applications.
    • Winter Range Studies Of The Western Arctic Caribou Herd, Northwest Alaska

      Joly, Kyle; Chapin, F.S.; Rupp, T.S.; Klein, David R.; Verbyla, David L. (2011)
      Climate change is likely to bring a myriad of interrelated changes to the Arctic. One change is warmer and drier conditions that could increase the prevalence of wildfire in northwest Alaska. Wildfires destroy terricolous lichens that Western Arctic Herd caribou (Rangifer tarandus ) rely on during winter; taking decades to recover. My goals were to assess the recent (1950--2007) fire regime within the herd's range, identify characteristics of habitat selected by overwintering caribou, and determine the potential impacts of climate change on the fire regime and caribou winter range. I used a combination of existing data and information collected at vegetation plots to conduct these analyses. I found that wildfires in the tundra were relatively common from 1950--2007, covering approximately 10% of northwest Alaska. Tundra was > 4.5 times more likely to re-burn than boreal forest. This novel, yet intuitive finding could have serious implications if fire starts to become more common in the Arctic. I found that the average annual area burned more than doubled in years where mean August temperatures exceeded 11.7�C (53�F). Caribou use tundra and forested during winter but avoided recently (< 58 years) burned areas in both habitat types likely because they contained < 1/4 of the abundance of forage lichen species than unburned habitats. I found that lichen abundance was 3 times greater in the herd's current winter range versus its historic range -- supporting the theory that caribou shift ranges to compensate for deteriorating grazing conditions. Stand age was the most consistent correlate with lichen abundance. Dwarf birch (Betula spp.) was more abundant in recent burns which may facilitate the intensification of the future fire regime in the region. My modeling efforts revealed that wildfire is likely to become more prevalent, especially on the herd's core winter range, which could have deleterious impacts on caribou winter range and provide quality habitat for moose ( Alces alces). My results should provide a solid foundation to develop a science-based fire management plan for the Western Arctic Herd.
    • Winter studies of under-ice benthos on the continental shelf of the northeastern Bering Sea

      Stoker, Sam W. (1973-05)
      A total of 76 samples from 16 benthic stations over the eastern Bering Sea shelf were taken between 31 January and 17 February, 1970 for purposes of assessing the quantity and distribution of benthic macrofauna. A total of 129 species or taxa were found, with an average density of 1,133 indiv/m^2 and average biomass of 127 g wet/m^2. Species were subjected to elemental analysis for determination of organic carbon and nitrogen content, yielding average values of 5.1% carbon and 1.1% nitrogen expressed as percentage wet weight, which translated into biomass values of 6.5 g C/m^2 and 1.4 g N/m^2 averaged over all stations. Correlation studies yielded 9 species affinity groups, and regression analysis indicated that about 40% of the variability of distribution and density of the major species could be accounted for by salinity, sediment mode particle size, depth, temperature, or dissolved oxygen, with no one factor assuming dominance. Of the 129 species or taxa, 35 account for about 80% of total numbers, wet weight biomass, or carbon biomass, with 8 species making up over 50% of the totals in all categories. Of these 35 major species, 8 are known to be food species of the Pacific walrus. These 8 comprise only 10% of the total number of individual organisms encountered, but make up 60% of the wet weight biomass and 49% of the carbon biomass over the region, sampled.
    • Winter vertebrate browsing of birch: effects on the use of leaf litter leachates by stream microorganisms

      Estensen, Jeffrey L. (2001-05)
      Winter browsing of birch leads to chemical changes in leaves of the following growing season, potentially generating differences in the quality of leachates derived from leaf litter and in leachate use by stream microorganisms. The effects of moose browsing were tested on leachates from leaves collected from browsed and unbrowsed trees and inoculated with microbial communities. Respiration and bacterial abundance were used to assess qualitative differences in leachates. Microbes cultured in leachates derived from leaves of browsed trees had significantly higher rates of oxygen uptake. There were no significant differences in bacterial abundance between treatments. The basis for the qualitative difference in leachates is likely due to an 89% greater concentration of amino acides in leachates derived from leaves of previously browsed trees. This study provides evidence that winter herbivory of birch can influence the use of leaf leachates by stream microbes, demonstrating coupling between riparian zones and stream ecosystems.
    • "The winter's tale": Leontes' derangement and the chronotope of melancholy

      Wood, David Houston (2000-05)
      To recent critical formulations regarding melancholy and its role in the Renaissance humoral body, this project contributes the argument that melancholy's trajectory from its natural to its unnatural state carries with it a fundamental shift in temporal-senses. I illustrate this shift through close analysis of Leontes' derangement in Shakespeare's 'The winter's tale.' Based on Renaissance physiological texts, as well as modern psychoanalytic, anthropological, and gender studies, I explore how melancholy's inherent volatility signifies the masculine anxieties of early modern English patriarchy. I argue that melancholy's bifurcated temporal-senses serve to clarify the subjectivity of Renaissancee passions.
    • Wintering strategies of an Arctic-nesting goose: costs of migration and over-wintering for Pacific black brant

      Mather, Danielle D. (2005-05)
      Birds wintering in different climates may have different strategies for storing and using energy. We documented changes in body morphology and composition of Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) wintering in Alaska and Baja California and modeled the energetic costs of wintering at each location. We compared costs associated with two different wintering strategies: 1) to remain in an unstable and harsh environment but close to breeding grounds, or 2) to migrate long distances to a mild environment, but distant from breeding grounds. Despite dramatic differences in the timing and magnitude of energetic costs between sites, Brant stored similar amounts of lipid and maintained similar body mass throughout winter. Brant operate under similar physiological bounds but changes in organ mass and nutrient storage took place within these bounds. This flexibility allowed Brant to employ two contrasting winter strategies. We suggest that there may be reproductive and energetic advantages associated with shortening migration distance and remaining in Alaska over winter. The number of Brant wintering in Alaska should continue to increase if constraints on food intake do not impede energy storage and survival is similar between sites.
    • Wireless communication protocol architectures for nanosensor networks

      Zhang, Zhongping (2004-05)
      Recent developments in micro fabrication and nanotechnology will enable the inexpensive manufacturing of massive numbers of tiny computing elements with sensors. New programming paradigms are required to obtain organized and coherent behavior from the cooperation of large numbers of sensor nodes. The individual nodes are identical, randomly placed and unreliable. They communicate with a small local neighborhood via wireless broadcast. In such environments, where individual nodes have limited resources, aggregating the node into groups is useful for specialization, increased robustness, and efficient resource allocation. In this paper, an application-specific self-organization protocol stack is developed. The clustering process is divided into phases. The first phase is to know the neighbor nodes. The second phase is to set up the cluster and routing. A 'find maximum clique algorithm' is used to set up clusters. A back off method is used to set up the hop field and routing. Group leaders set up a TDMA schedule for steady state operation. This schedule ensures that there is no conflict among in the same cluster and between clusters. Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS) is used to avoid inter-group conflict. The limited power resource is a challenge in nanosensor networks. This paper uses two different ways to analyze energy consumed in nanosensor networks, energy cost field and bit flow method. Sensor node deployment, cluster size, and propagation condition effect are discussed in this paper by those two methods respectively.
    • A wireless early warning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) detection device

      Rider, Patrick Jason (2006-12)
      The sudden and unexplained death of an infant younger than one year, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), is currently the leading cause of death for infants in the United States. This thesis gives the design for a prototype of an early warning SIDS detection device. The prototype monitors three parameters; temperature, motion, and level of oxygen saturation in blood. Data of these parameters is transmitted wirelessly to a remote location for data analysis. Hardware limitations result in delaying the integration of all three sensor signals for a later period. Greater improvements in the hardware will allow for both a decrease in error and combined integration of all three sensor signals. Future work to this project will also include additional sensors, miniaturization of the product, and live testing.
    • Wolf-Caribou Relationships In A Multiple Ungulate Prey Ecosystem

      Dale, Bruce Williams; Bowyer, R. Terry (1993)
      Winter wolf (Canis lupus) predation and functional response in wolf - caribou (Rangifer tarandus) dynamics were investigated in a multiple ungulate prey ecosystem in Gates of the Arctic National Park, Alaska. Prey selection, prey availability, prey switching, kill rates, and food availability for 4 wolf packs were estimated in March 1989, March 1990, and November 1990. Estimates for these study periods reflected near record, average, and early winter snow conditions, respectively. Wolves killed predominately caribou even if moose (Alces alces) or Dall sheep (Ovis dalli) were more abundant. Prey selection varied with study period; however, per wolf kill rates and food availability did not. Length of intervals between kills was correlated with pack size and the biomass of the previous kill. Kill rates indicated a destabilizing Type II functional response. Modeling with a linear numerical response revealed wolf predation to be an increasingly important limiting factor at low caribou densities. However, little potential for regulation of caribou by wolves was observed. <p>
    • Wolvendael

      Parker, Eric-Alain; Kamerling, Leonard; Hill, Sean; Carr, Richard (2015-05)
      Set in Belgium in the 1990s, Wolvendael (Flemish for Valley of the Wolves) fictionalizes the aftermath of one of Europe's biggest scandals. Our protagonist, Arjen Desmet, is an aspiring journalist whose life and relationships are beginning to suffer because of his single-minded obsession with getting "the whole story." Drawing from the tradition of Belgian comics such as Tintin, the whole story, it turns out, is more grotesque and hilarious than we could have anticipated; Arjen Desmet ends up unwittingly above his pay grade as political intrigue, monsters, and comedy convene in this farcical take on horror as a film genre. A screenplay, or film script, is best read as a blueprint for producing a dramatic film. The screenwriter lays the structural and aesthetic foundation by composing the setting, story, pacing, characterization, and visual tone. Only when this blueprint is structurally sound can the director and crew render the words on the page into a film. Screenplays generally follow a three act structure. Act I should be thought of as the set up; since viewers are more open minded at the beginning of a film, world building and characterization need to be solidified at this point. The dramatic premise is introduced and by the end of the act, should culminate in an inciting event--the catalytic conflict that will drive the rest of the story. Act II addresses the ongoing confrontations and obstacles that pull the protagonist out of his comfort zone, eventually landing him at his lowest point. Act III is typically shorter, since it focuses entirely on the resolution. Sometimes dubbed the "final battle," this act lifts the protagonist out of the mire that is Act II so that he can be confronted by or implicated in the climax of the film before the denouement unfurls. Though it adheres to the traditional three act structure, Wolvendael features two notable idiosyncrasies. Like the bulk of Raymond Carver's stories, it begins after a major conflict and focuses on what goes on behind closed doors. Though the context is not as subtle as a Carver piece, tension is endemic to the script's story world, rendering it unstable from the very beginning in spite of our protagonist's obliviousness. Wolvendael's other quirk comes in its favoring of the anticlimax over the climax. The European infatuation with farce (see Voltaire's Candide) maintains that an anticlimactic ending is no less potent than a climactic one--it is simply gratifying for sobering reasons, not redemptive ones. Good examples of successful anticlimaxes occur in Anton Corbijn's A Most Wanted Man and Hayao Miyazaki's animated masterpiece, Spirited Away. Speaking of animation, a two-dimensional rendering of the script could be as, if not more viable than live action since several characters flirt with caricature, sensational and quasi-supernatural events abound, and the script itself was born from a Belgian love for comic art.
    • "A woman is either a lady or not": the influence of mothers on daughters in William Faulkner's "As I lay dying" and "The sound of the fury"

      Dassinger, Kristine Robyn; Heyne, Eric; Corti, Lillian; Bird, Roy K. (2000-05)
      William Faulkner, in 'As I lay dying' and 'The sound of the fury, ' illustrates the relationship between parents and children within a disintegrating social structure. Not only does the father pass his misogynistic views onto his sons and daughters, but the mother also acts as an agent, perpetuating patriarchal order. Although Addie Bundren discovers that her identity is not defined in male terms, she fails to educate her daughter, Dewey Dell. Rather than struggle against her environment, Addie chooses to die, leaving Dewey Dell alone with her father and brothers. Caroline Compson preserves the patriarchal structures within her life by submitting to her father's definition of women. She then teaches this rigid view to Caddy and little Quentin. Through these failed mother and daughter relationships, Faulkner illustrates how families in the South are destroyed from within.
    • Women at work: perceptions of appearance, power, and negative communication

      Wall, Amanda Ilene (2005-05)
      This study is an attempt to understand the professional relationships among women. The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between female self-concept and female-female negative communication in the workplace. Specifically the effects of self-esteem, communication behaviors, and perception of power on professional females in the workforce were examined. Females in varying levels of professional positions were asked to respond to a set of statements regarding their own perceived level of self-esteem, power artifacts, and negative communication behaviors. The data were then analyzed to determine if a correlation exists between female age and level of self-esteem, the relation self-esteem has to negative communication behaviors, and to measure the frequency that females report exhibiting, experiencing, and witnessing negative communication behaviors in the workplace. Results of this study lead to several implications regarding the connection between self-esteem, negative communication behaviors, power artifacts, and age. First, these data suggests that addressing women's self-esteem in the workplace can have a positive effect on the workplace environment. Next, by mentoring younger women to be more confident at work, they are less likely to exhibit negative communication behaviors. The third key conclusion connects the effects that power artifacts, such as extravagant vacations, expensive jewelry, a college or graduate degree, and fancy cars have on other women. It is apparent that these artifacts are a point of contention for women.
    • Women In Alaska Constructing The Recovered Self: A Narrative Approach To Understanding Long -Term Recovery From Alcohol Dependence And /Or Abuse

      Richey, Jean Alice; Brown, Jin G. (2003)
      Autobiographical narratives are explored in a qualitative approach regarding women in Alaska who have been successful in long-term recovery from alcohol dependence and/or abuse. The literature review includes an integrative approach to theoretical perspectives from the disciplines of Human Communication, Anthropology, and Psychology. The epistemological orientation of Constructionism grounds this study, as well as provides a framework for theoretical understandings from the narrative co-construction of self-identity, gender studies, health belief and health behavior change models, anthropological views on alcohol and culture including Native American and Alaska Native approaches, and various psychological and transpersonal strategies for overcoming alcohol addiction. Today, a diverse resource of recovery paradigms and tools are available to women who have problems with alcohol. As a result, this study explores the applicability of various methods of recovery as they occur in the real lives of women in Alaska. Two emergent themes of recovery derived from nine narrative interviews are discussed in regard to identity reconstruction: (1) Survivorship and (2) the Transcendent Self. The emergent themes represent the reconstructed constitutive interpretations of a woman's self-identity as the recovered self. The process of recovery from alcohol dependence and/or abuse constitutes a uniquely personal and culturally specific journey for women. A recovered lifestyle is a completely different way of being for the woman who had previously been immersed in a culture of alcohol addiction---she now must construct a healthy self. A woman's process of recovery from alcohol addiction cannot be separated from the world of social/cultural/gender interactions in the construction of a healthier lifestyle. Whether a recovering person's social interactions are with professionals or are everyday interpersonal exchanges with intimates and others, they form the context within which the discursive evolution of identity is embedded. The narrative stories of the lived world of women in Alaska who are maintaining long-term recovery from alcohol problems provide an understanding of cultural, ethnic, and gender influences, various treatment and recovery paradigms, relational tensions, and the process of identity construction in the maintenance of ongoing recovery.