• Wolf-Caribou Relationships In A Multiple Ungulate Prey Ecosystem

      Dale, Bruce Williams; Bowyer, R. Terry (1993)
      Winter wolf (Canis lupus) predation and functional response in wolf - caribou (Rangifer tarandus) dynamics were investigated in a multiple ungulate prey ecosystem in Gates of the Arctic National Park, Alaska. Prey selection, prey availability, prey switching, kill rates, and food availability for 4 wolf packs were estimated in March 1989, March 1990, and November 1990. Estimates for these study periods reflected near record, average, and early winter snow conditions, respectively. Wolves killed predominately caribou even if moose (Alces alces) or Dall sheep (Ovis dalli) were more abundant. Prey selection varied with study period; however, per wolf kill rates and food availability did not. Length of intervals between kills was correlated with pack size and the biomass of the previous kill. Kill rates indicated a destabilizing Type II functional response. Modeling with a linear numerical response revealed wolf predation to be an increasingly important limiting factor at low caribou densities. However, little potential for regulation of caribou by wolves was observed. <p>
    • Wolvendael

      Parker, Eric-Alain; Kamerling, Leonard; Hill, Sean; Carr, Richard (2015-05)
      Set in Belgium in the 1990s, Wolvendael (Flemish for Valley of the Wolves) fictionalizes the aftermath of one of Europe's biggest scandals. Our protagonist, Arjen Desmet, is an aspiring journalist whose life and relationships are beginning to suffer because of his single-minded obsession with getting "the whole story." Drawing from the tradition of Belgian comics such as Tintin, the whole story, it turns out, is more grotesque and hilarious than we could have anticipated; Arjen Desmet ends up unwittingly above his pay grade as political intrigue, monsters, and comedy convene in this farcical take on horror as a film genre. A screenplay, or film script, is best read as a blueprint for producing a dramatic film. The screenwriter lays the structural and aesthetic foundation by composing the setting, story, pacing, characterization, and visual tone. Only when this blueprint is structurally sound can the director and crew render the words on the page into a film. Screenplays generally follow a three act structure. Act I should be thought of as the set up; since viewers are more open minded at the beginning of a film, world building and characterization need to be solidified at this point. The dramatic premise is introduced and by the end of the act, should culminate in an inciting event--the catalytic conflict that will drive the rest of the story. Act II addresses the ongoing confrontations and obstacles that pull the protagonist out of his comfort zone, eventually landing him at his lowest point. Act III is typically shorter, since it focuses entirely on the resolution. Sometimes dubbed the "final battle," this act lifts the protagonist out of the mire that is Act II so that he can be confronted by or implicated in the climax of the film before the denouement unfurls. Though it adheres to the traditional three act structure, Wolvendael features two notable idiosyncrasies. Like the bulk of Raymond Carver's stories, it begins after a major conflict and focuses on what goes on behind closed doors. Though the context is not as subtle as a Carver piece, tension is endemic to the script's story world, rendering it unstable from the very beginning in spite of our protagonist's obliviousness. Wolvendael's other quirk comes in its favoring of the anticlimax over the climax. The European infatuation with farce (see Voltaire's Candide) maintains that an anticlimactic ending is no less potent than a climactic one--it is simply gratifying for sobering reasons, not redemptive ones. Good examples of successful anticlimaxes occur in Anton Corbijn's A Most Wanted Man and Hayao Miyazaki's animated masterpiece, Spirited Away. Speaking of animation, a two-dimensional rendering of the script could be as, if not more viable than live action since several characters flirt with caricature, sensational and quasi-supernatural events abound, and the script itself was born from a Belgian love for comic art.
    • "A woman is either a lady or not": the influence of mothers on daughters in William Faulkner's "As I lay dying" and "The sound of the fury"

      Dassinger, Kristine Robyn; Heyne, Eric; Corti, Lillian; Bird, Roy K. (2000-05)
      William Faulkner, in 'As I lay dying' and 'The sound of the fury, ' illustrates the relationship between parents and children within a disintegrating social structure. Not only does the father pass his misogynistic views onto his sons and daughters, but the mother also acts as an agent, perpetuating patriarchal order. Although Addie Bundren discovers that her identity is not defined in male terms, she fails to educate her daughter, Dewey Dell. Rather than struggle against her environment, Addie chooses to die, leaving Dewey Dell alone with her father and brothers. Caroline Compson preserves the patriarchal structures within her life by submitting to her father's definition of women. She then teaches this rigid view to Caddy and little Quentin. Through these failed mother and daughter relationships, Faulkner illustrates how families in the South are destroyed from within.
    • Women at work: perceptions of appearance, power, and negative communication

      Wall, Amanda Ilene (2005-05)
      This study is an attempt to understand the professional relationships among women. The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between female self-concept and female-female negative communication in the workplace. Specifically the effects of self-esteem, communication behaviors, and perception of power on professional females in the workforce were examined. Females in varying levels of professional positions were asked to respond to a set of statements regarding their own perceived level of self-esteem, power artifacts, and negative communication behaviors. The data were then analyzed to determine if a correlation exists between female age and level of self-esteem, the relation self-esteem has to negative communication behaviors, and to measure the frequency that females report exhibiting, experiencing, and witnessing negative communication behaviors in the workplace. Results of this study lead to several implications regarding the connection between self-esteem, negative communication behaviors, power artifacts, and age. First, these data suggests that addressing women's self-esteem in the workplace can have a positive effect on the workplace environment. Next, by mentoring younger women to be more confident at work, they are less likely to exhibit negative communication behaviors. The third key conclusion connects the effects that power artifacts, such as extravagant vacations, expensive jewelry, a college or graduate degree, and fancy cars have on other women. It is apparent that these artifacts are a point of contention for women.
    • Women In Alaska Constructing The Recovered Self: A Narrative Approach To Understanding Long -Term Recovery From Alcohol Dependence And /Or Abuse

      Richey, Jean Alice; Brown, Jin G. (2003)
      Autobiographical narratives are explored in a qualitative approach regarding women in Alaska who have been successful in long-term recovery from alcohol dependence and/or abuse. The literature review includes an integrative approach to theoretical perspectives from the disciplines of Human Communication, Anthropology, and Psychology. The epistemological orientation of Constructionism grounds this study, as well as provides a framework for theoretical understandings from the narrative co-construction of self-identity, gender studies, health belief and health behavior change models, anthropological views on alcohol and culture including Native American and Alaska Native approaches, and various psychological and transpersonal strategies for overcoming alcohol addiction. Today, a diverse resource of recovery paradigms and tools are available to women who have problems with alcohol. As a result, this study explores the applicability of various methods of recovery as they occur in the real lives of women in Alaska. Two emergent themes of recovery derived from nine narrative interviews are discussed in regard to identity reconstruction: (1) Survivorship and (2) the Transcendent Self. The emergent themes represent the reconstructed constitutive interpretations of a woman's self-identity as the recovered self. The process of recovery from alcohol dependence and/or abuse constitutes a uniquely personal and culturally specific journey for women. A recovered lifestyle is a completely different way of being for the woman who had previously been immersed in a culture of alcohol addiction---she now must construct a healthy self. A woman's process of recovery from alcohol addiction cannot be separated from the world of social/cultural/gender interactions in the construction of a healthier lifestyle. Whether a recovering person's social interactions are with professionals or are everyday interpersonal exchanges with intimates and others, they form the context within which the discursive evolution of identity is embedded. The narrative stories of the lived world of women in Alaska who are maintaining long-term recovery from alcohol problems provide an understanding of cultural, ethnic, and gender influences, various treatment and recovery paradigms, relational tensions, and the process of identity construction in the maintenance of ongoing recovery.
    • Women, alcohol use disorders, and sexuality: an exploration of beliefs

      Moore, Patricia S. (2002-08)
      Extensive research has been conducted on issues of sexuality for women with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). These issues are relevant both to the development of and recovery from AUD. Little of this research has focused on the importance of women's beliefs about sexuality at the time of drinking and during recovery. This study sought to identify these beliefs and to determine their importance in the development of and recovery from AUD. A qualitative research design was used whereby interviews with four women in long-term recovery (3 or more years) were analyzed. It was found that, overall, beliefs about sexuality became more positive during recovery. Women tended to have less sex during recovery and reported that the sex was better than while drinking. Women's relationships with themselves and others improved improved significantly during recovery. It is within the context of these improved relationships that beliefs about sexuality became more positive.
    • Women, culture, and identity in Kate Chopin's 'The awakening' and Assia Djebar's 'Ombre sultane'

      Hutchison, Shayle M. (2000-12)
      Beginning with the assumption that women of all cultures experience a conflict between their culturally prescribed gender roles and their individual sexual desires, I comparie the characters Edna Pontellier of Kate Chopin's 'The Awakening' with Isma and Hajila of Assia Djebar's 'Ombre Sultane.' Each woman undergoes a process of awakening body consciousness that leads to her first experience of desire, an essential link between physical and mental consciousness. The expression of female desire conflicts with prescribed cultural behavior. Each character also moves away from her family and cultural roots, thus assuring herself a necessary distance for rebellion against social standards. However, of all three women, only Isma from 'Ombre Sultane' is able to return to her community, successfully resolving the conflict between gender and individual desire.
    • Women, Health, And Aging In Yup'Ik/Cup'Ik Culture

      Hutchison, Scarlett Hopkins; Kwachka, Pat (2003)
      Knowledge of cultural beliefs about health and how they influence life choices and intervention is essential in forming health policy and health promotion programs to meet the growing needs of aging minority populations. This thesis explores cultural beliefs, experiences, and expectations of health and well-being of Yup'ik/Cup'ik women in two rural communities in southwestern Alaska. Interviews were conducted with fifteen women to address two key research questions: (1) how Yup'ik/Cup'ik women define health and well-being; and (2) what environmental, social, and cultural factors contribute to healthy Yup'ik/Cup'ik aging. While many health beliefs and practices appear very different from those current in research on aging, many commonalities and similarities emerge-concern for family, importance of physical activity and healthy diet, and need for social support. A significant finding of this study is that traditional Yup'ik/Cup'ik ways of living parallels that of current research findings on healthy aging in mainstream populations. <p>
    • Work and family: communicative actions and interactions in employed women's management of dual roles

      Pope, Carla Renee (2005-05)
      Recent changes in American families have resulted in an influx of mothers entering the workforce. Research has addressed work and family issues by exploring the challenges people experience in their daily routines and social interactions. Medved (2004) explores married women's micro-practices in ordinary, everyday life to provide an understanding of how women negotiate work and family. This research extends Medved's work, by examining the micro-practices of employed mothers without domestic partners. This study employs conversational interviewing as a means of data gathering and an analysis technique focused on identifying routines or micro-practices in daily interaction. This research explores three issues: how women account for the accomplishment of work and family, how women interpret or understand their actions and interactions, and the forms of personal and emotional support they identify. The women who participated in this research accounted for their management of work and family in terms of two broad categories of routines: communicative practical actions and individual practical actions. The women's understandings of their actions and interactions were examined in terms of accountings they provided in discussing their daily routines and social interactions. The women identified forms of personal and emotional support unique to their situations as mothers without domestic partners.
    • A workshop assessing the effects of social support on the incidence of burnout

      Bates, David Brian (2002-08)
      This research was designed to address the issue of burnout by developing and presenting a workshop to 26 human service providers (primarily educated Caucasian women) to increase their level of social support and address organizational concerns. Two measures were used in a pre-posttest design: the Maslach Burnout Inventory and social support questionnaire developed for this study. The results showed that burnout dropped significantly on the emotional exhaustion subscale. There was a drop in the depersonalization subscale but it only approached significance. There was also a negative correlation of perceived social support satisfaction with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at both pre and posttest. Building social support has implications for reducing burnout. Studies with quasi-experimental designs and larger samples are needed to further validate the findings of this study.
    • Wrestling, archery, and horse racing in Buryatia: traditional sports competitions and social change

      Krist, Stefan; Schweitzer, Peter; Plattet, Patrick; Koester, David; Kassof, Brian (2015-12)
      Sporting activities are examined in order to better understand a society's general socio-economic and political changes. The two basic research questions are the following: (1) Which economic, social, political, and cultural changes in and of the Buryat society were and are reflected in Buryat traditional sports? (2) How far and in which ways did and do Buryat traditional sports and the people engaged in them contribute to social change? Anthropological studies of play, games, and sport, an overview of which is presented in Chapter 1, have revealed that sports are closely linked and tightly entangled with the cultures and societies, in which they are performed. Thus, many features, values, world views, normative demands, and rules, effective in a society in general, are reflected by the sports engaged in by its members. Therefore changes observed in sports often reflect changes in society. Moreover, changes in society are often more readily apparent in sports than in other social spheres. This is because the social action a sport competition constitutes is limited in its range of time, space, number of acting persons and established rules. These limitations let it reveal the values, norms, rules, and power relations that operate a society much clearer than other, less limited social actions. In addition, a large portion of the research on games and sports shows that sports not only reflect, but have the capacity in themselves to create new values and behavioral patterns, thus can produce social change. The results of this study verify all these social properties and capacities of sports by using the traditional sporting activities of the Buryats as an example case. Chapter 2 provides the necessary background knowledge about the history of the Buryats. Chapters 3-5 outline the main features and the historical development of the three age-old traditional Buryat sports, bukhe barildaan (wrestling), sur kharbaan (archery), and mori urildaan (horse racing). Chapter 6 outlines the main characteristics and historical developments of the Buryat national holidays Eryn gurban naadan and Surkharban, during which competitions in these sports constitute the central activities. All these chapters, i.e. Chapters 3-6, describe the development from the sports' and festivals' ancient origins over their various utilizations by changing political and religious leaders to the present commixture of simultaneously re-traditionalizing and modernizing them. The analysis of these sports' rules, techniques, tactics, equipment, etc., and how they have changed over the course of time as well as how has changed, where, when, by whom and how they were organized, sheds clear light on historic and present socio-economic, political, and spiritual processes in Buryat society. Changing political leadership (from tribal chieftains over Tsarist rule, Soviet power, early post-Soviet liberality to today's omnipotence of Putin's party "United Russia") and respective ideologies, varying religious affiliations (shamanism, Buddhism, Soviet communist ersatz religion, and the post-Soviet stormy revivals of shamanism and Buddhism), changing gender relations (from a male dominated society to a more emancipated one and back again), changing values and normative demands (such as what garb athletes have to wear)--all that and more can be detected and determined in how in particular the competitions and festivals were and are carried out. That Buryat sport competitions and festivals themselves contribute to the production of social change is shown by their deliberate re-traditionalization and their re-embedding in religious rituals in the post-Soviet period. Due to massive support from the Buddhist clergy as well as from individual shamans, the three traditional sports have again become closely linked with Buryat practices of Buddhism and shamanism. Thus, because of their great popularity, these sports have vividly contributed to the post-Soviet revival and still ongoing flourishing of these two religions among them. The deliberate re-traditionalization of these sports supports a new arousing pride of being Buryat or, in other words, a re-construction of a Buryat national identity. Thus, Buryat traditional sports prove sports' capacity of indicating as well as actively contributing to social change.
    • X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using synchrotron radiation with applications in unmanned aircraft environmental sensing

      Barberie, Sean Richard Gopal; Cahill, Catherine F.; Hatfield, Michael C.; Iceman, Christopher R. (2015-12)
      In this thesis I present an analytical optimization of the Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF) technique for applications in unmanned aircraft aerosol studies. In environmental and atmospheric science, there is a pressing need for aerosol measurements at various altitudes in the atmosphere and spanning large regions. This need is currently either ignored, or met to a limited degree by studies that employ manned aircraft. There is, however, a great deal of opportunity to improve and expand on these studies using the emerging technology of unmanned aircraft systems. A newly developed aerosol sampler makes this opportunity a near-reality by its ability to collect aerosol samples in-situ from unmanned aircraft platforms. The challenge lies in analyzing these samples for elemental composition. In airborne aerosol studies, the ability to resolve where a sample was collected both spatially and temporally is limited by the sensitivity of the analysis technique. In aircraft-based aerosol collection, the length of the aerosol sample spot corresponds to distance. Thus the spatial resolution of an airborne study is limited by the amount of mass that must be collected for analysis. The SR-XRF optimizations outlined in this thesis decrease the amount of sample mass required for detectable elemental concentrations, allowing aerosol samples to be analyzed in smaller areas corresponding to smaller time steps. Since, in a flight path, time steps are directly correlated with distance, analysis of smaller time steps results in the ability to measure aerosols at higher spatial resolution. Four SR-XRF analysis configurations were experimentally tested: monochromatic beam, white beam, filtered white beam, and filtered white beam-filtered detector to determine which configuration gave the highest elemental sensitivity and selectivity. Of these tested methods, the straight polychromatic white beam configuration resulted in the best sensitivity for elements across a large range of x-ray energies for small amounts of mass collected on thin film substrates. The research in this thesis provides researchers with an optimized method for non-destructively analyzing a wide variety of environmental samples with high elemental sensitivity and selectivity. This research also has important implications for the ability to perform in-situ aerosol studies with unmanned aircraft on a systematic basis.
    • Xunaa Shuká Hít, the Tribal House, in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska

      Furuya, Emiko; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Nakazawa, Anthony; Ramos, Judith Daxootsu (2017-08)
      This research analyzes the Tribal House project in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Southeast Alaska, which the Hoonah Indian Association (the tribal government at Hoonah) and Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve have promoted collaboratively. The Tribal House project is the construction of an indigenous structure in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, primarily for the use of Hoonah, the local Tlingit community. This research investigates the motivations of the partners in supporting the project. It concludes that the two partners' motivations, which derive from distinct missions, reconcile with one another in a complex way. The Hoonah Indian Association supports the project primarily to reconnect the younger Tlingit generations to their ancestral land, Glacier Bay, and to promote their cultural survival, which lies at the core of the tribal government's mission. The reconnection also represents a metaphorical restitution of Glacier Bay in demonstrating for park visitors the Tlingit clans' ties with Glacier Bay, which have been maintained from prehistoric times to modern days. Both the reconnection and the restitution affirm Tlingit clan-based identities. The representation of contemporary Tlingit culture in the Tribal House, however, requires a consolidation of multiple clan identities. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve promotes the project to accomplish the National Park Service's mission to tell Glacier Bay's history fairly to park visitors by acknowledging that Glacier Bay is the indigenous group's ancestral homeland. This acknowledgement contradicts the original purpose of the National Park, to preserve the region as uninhabited wilderness. This examination of the two entities' motivations in their collaborative project will serve as a case study for considering contemporary park management issues in light of indigenous peoples' inhabitation of park lands since time immemorial.
    • "You must always tell two": an examination of the Iñupiaq tale of "Aliŋnaq" and Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus

      Zibell, Chelsey; Burleson, Derick; Reilly, Terence; Ruppert, James; Hill, Sean (2015-05)
      This essay focuses specifically on a comparison between the Alaskan Inupiaq story of "Aliŋnaq" and Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus. "Aliŋnaq" comes in many variations and is known chiefly throughout the North American Arctic. Titus Andronicus is one of Shakespeare's less popular plays. But both stories, through the themes of agency, cannibalism, silencing and transformation, show the reader a world out of order, a world that must be set right. This comparison takes off from Joseph Campbell's concept of the monomyth, in which all stories are said to follow a basic plotline. In addition, this text serves to take a work of traditional ethnic folklore and bring it to its rightful place as literature alongside accepted canonized western literature.
    • You say I can, I think I can: peripheral route persuasion as a contributor to employability self-efficacy for undergraduate students

      Uzzell, Brandon W.; Sager, Kevin; Arundale, Robert; Richey, Jean (2011-05)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the persuasive communication phenomenon between university students and professors concerning students' post-degree employability. Communicative interactions were examined as originating with the Elaboration likelihood model's peripheral route cues (persuasive messages) and the outcomes of these interactions as student's employability self-efficacy (beliefs about employability). Hypotheses predicted that a positive correlation exists between perceived peripheral route cues and employability self-efficacy of students. Senior level undergraduate students at a Northwestern university voluntarily completed an electronic survey containing need for cognition, peripheral route cues, and employability self-efficacy measures. Analysis indicated that employability self-efficacy could be successfully predicted by peripheral route cues. Results showed an overall significant positive correlation between the predictor and outcome variable. Implications of these results, limitations of the study, and future research directions are discussed.
    • Young Native Fiddlers: A Case Study On Cultural Resilience In Interior Alaska

      Allan, Maryanne; Barnhardt, Raymond; Parker-Webster, Joan (2011)
      This study explores success for Alaska Native young people, defining success using an Alaska Native point of view, that is, interconnectedness between culturally healthy youth and a culturally nurturing community. As a participatory action research project, members of the community, including musicians, young fiddlers, and their parents and grandparents are collaborating to develop a culturally-based youth group (Young Native Fiddlers) focused on Athabascan fiddling, a 150 year old Athabascan tradition, with the goal of developing culturally healthy youth. This study focuses on the impact of this program on its members and on the community. Using a participatory action research process, data gathering includes interviews with young fiddlers, parents and grandparents, musicians and community members, journal entries, participant observation, notes from participants, photographs, videos, and local media coverage. Themes were identified in the data and references were tallied to determine the meaning given to involvement in this program. The themes referred to most often were empowerment and cultural connection. Results suggest that while acquiring the skills of fiddle performance, young participants are not only continuing this valuable cultural tradition but they are developing individual cultural resilience as well as leadership skills. And they are sharing culture and strengths with their cultural community, thereby contributing to community resilience.
    • Youth creating sustainable communities in rural Alaska

      Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin (2012-08)
      In this thesis I discuss the ability of the people of Igiugig to define their strengths and vulnerabilities as a village, and their ability to create innovative solutions in their conscious efforts to become a more sustainable village now and in the future. I argue that this process provides the village of Igiugig with a high degree of self-determination and increases its ability to move into the future on its own terms rather than terms defined solely by world politics and economics. A key component of Igiugig's process of becoming more sustainable is the accommodation and empowerment of its youth. The village makes an active effort to instill a feeling of belonging in its youth and encourages the young people to take an active part in the shaping of the village. The youth, categorized in this thesis as residents from age fourteen to thirty-one, make up roughly one third of the population in Igiugig and they contribute with a diverse set of resources that combined greatly enhances the strength of the community. Although all residents play an important part in Igiugig's sustainability efforts, it is this group of young people that in many ways is leading the development of the community. In order to accommodate the youth in this way and enable them to take on leadership the village has had to open up to change and compromise. While this has come with certain challenges, it has also to some degree strengthened the village by increasing diversity and thereby the ability to respond to change without jeopardizing the quality of life of the people living there. With this thesis I attempt to show the strengths of a rural Alaskan community and explore the idea that there is tremendous potential for creating innovative and healthy solutions to the problems faced by many rural villages, in Alaska and elsewhere. I also emphasize the great need for open communication about values and goals within a community, and the equally important need for intergenerational collaboration and acceptance. Furthermore, I argue that state and federal policy can both aid and hinder this positive change, and that rural villages need to be shown the trust and help needed for them to become more sustainable.
    • Yuraq: An Introduction To Writing

      Samson, Sally P.; Parker-Webster, Joan; Siekmann, Sabine (2010)
      Teacher research conducted at Ayaprun Elitnaurvik Charter School in Bethel, Alaska introduced 1819 kindergarten students to writing through Yuraq (Eskimo dancing). Within the teacher research, the case study followed four emergent writers as they developed in their writing abilities, how they connected Yuraq with writing, and their progression through their second language skills. The study followed two stories: the teacher's story and the students' story. The study found that Yuraq aided in writing instruction to second language learners, that there are aspects of the 6+1 Traits in Yuraq, and that students progressed in their L2 as well.
    • Yuraryararput Kangiit-Llu: Our Ways Of Dance And Their Meanings

      John, Theresa Arevgaq; Barnhardt, Ray; Webster, Joan Parker (2010)
      The first purpose of this study is to describe the categories of dance. The second purpose is to describe how Yup'ik music and dance has played a functional role in organizing and maintaining various societal infrastructures (kinship, social, political, subsistence/economic, and spiritual) within the Yup'ik culture (Fienup-Riordan, 1996; John, 1996; Kingston, 1999; Mather, 1985; Wallen, 1990; Wolf, 1999). This study seeks to further understand this role and how it has evolved over time. The study utilizes an ethnographic methodology that includes historical and contemporary perspectives to describe Yup'ik music and dance categories and to explain how dance serves to organize various aspects of Yup'ik culture and societal infrastructure. Data includes interviews from Yup'ik elders and adults, fieldnotes, research journal entries, digital recordings, photographs, and observations of Yup'ik immersion school performers and rural community cultural events such as the Cama-i Festival. The study suggests that Yup'ik dance and categories are important elements of the multiple cyclic rituals. It adds to the present literature revealing that there are twenty different dance types and categories, and many of the rituals are lost except for the ciuqitet (common dances), nangerceciyaraq (the first dance), and iluriurucaraq (teasing dance) dances. The study also suggests that dancing is an essential part of the Yup'ik social infrastructure and that dancing is integral to the social system. This is demonstrated through six themes: Kinship, Physical/Mental Health, Form of Prayer, Spiritual Enlightenment, Leadership, and Teasing. I also argue that there is connectedness in dance, music, and stories that are part of our yuuyaraq (epistemic worldview). Yuuyaraq is defined as a way of being a human (Napoleon, 1991) or an absolute unified social web. This web is represented in our social infrastructures of kinship, health/physical and mental, form of prayer/rituals, spiritual enlightenment, leadership, and teasing. There is a relationship in storytelling genres in dance and oral stories that represent people's historical and contemporary accounts, describing their social, cultural, and subsistence lifestyle. Interview participant data suggest these connections still exist in our society today.
    • Yuuyaraq: a transformative approach

      Kaganak, Wanda; Siekmann, Sabine; John, Theresa; Martelle, Wendy (2015-12)