• Bride-stealing: a myth of misogyny

      Murugesan, Seetha; Duffy, Lawrence; Bartlett, Doris A.; Koskey, Michael; Yesner, David R. (2013-12)
      Bride-stealing, an explicit symbolic misogynistic action in The Iliad and The Kamba Ramayanam, is analyzed as a long-term patterned conduct of human behavior among the peoples who produced these works. The systematic pattern of bride stealing found in the epics discussed suggests that within these groups social constructs had always been in favor of female inferiority and subjugation. This places an emphasis on gender as an issue, manifested in the treatment of women by men as "others." The narrations of marginalization of women in the epics lead to a critique of the hypothesis that they are misogynistic. Here a framework of theoretical formulation is put forward to explore the origin of the practice of bride-stealing as well as the behavioral and psychological factors behind the intentions of both abductor and the abductee. The ancient epics are examined in a comparative literary style, and analyzed from an interdisciplinary stance with the guidance of cultural patterns, historically-created social orders and power-motivated political systems. After examining five thousand years of the history of ancient Greece and India, substantiated by archeological, anthropological, and linguistic evidence, this dissertation argues that the phenomenon of "bride stealing" occurred basically in male-dominant societies and stems from various components of the socio-economic setting of these societies. Studies show that the abducted women in the epics lived in times of social transition. The abuse of women that echoes in the epics is sometimes misconceived as reflecting misogyny. Women were targets in times of upheaval, and suffered due to incursions of pastoral nomads imposing their social order of patriarchy. This paper deduces that women were the victims of war, and that, following successful conquests by these pastoral nomadic societies and subsequent shifts in political power, their status underwent tremendous change. Furthermore, the abductions and overpowering behaviors of men towards women in myths and epics served as encoded messages to women from men to sustain their superiority over the "others," reflecting the ongoing imposition of values from the dominant culture.
    • The "bridge party" of E.M. Forster's 'A passage to India': where Apollo and Kali yearn to embrace from opposite sides of the gulf

      Undeberg, Mark (2001-05)
      In 1978, Edward Said published 'Orientalism, ' a revolutionary study that invited new interpretations of literature and particularly of works written by Western authors about the East. Postcolonialist and feminist critics embraced many of Said's theories, including one that implies that the West equates the East with femininity and that such a view necessarily reveals the West's prejudice against both the East and with femininity in general. This thesis does not argue the overall validity of Said's theories. Rather, it explores the treatment of 'femininity' in E.M. Forster's 'A passage to India' with the aim of determining the validity of postcolonialist and feminist critiques of that novel. This study found that the femininity does not play a subservient role in the novel but that it is an essential half of an androgynous whole that Forster constructs as an ideal to promise hope in a troubled universe.
    • Bridging Arctic pathways: integrating hydrology, geomorphology and remote sensing in the North

      Trochim, Erin Dawn; Prakash, Anupma; Kane, Douglas; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Jorgenson, M. Torre (2015-12)
      This work presents improved approaches for integrating patterns and processes within hydrology, geomorphology, ecology and permafrost on Arctic landscapes. Emphasis was placed on addressing fundamental interdisciplinary questions using robust, repeatable methods. Water tracks were examined in the foothills of the Brooks Range to ascertain their role within the range of features that transport water in Arctic regions. Classes of water tracks were developed using multiple factor analysis based on their geomorphic, soil and vegetation characteristics. These classes were validated to verify that they were repeatable. Water tracks represented a broad spectrum of patterns and processes primarily driven by surficial geology. This research demonstrated a new approach to better understanding regional hydrological patterns. The locations of the water track classes were mapped using a combination method where intermediate processing of spectral classifications, texture and topography were fed into random forests to identify the water track classes. Overall, the water track classes were best visualized where they were the most discrete from the background landscape in terms of both shape and content. Issues with overlapping and imbalances between water track classes were the biggest challenges. Resolving the spatial locations of different water tracks represents a significant step forward for understanding periglacial landscape dynamics. Leaf area index (LAI) calculations using the gap-method were optimized using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as input for both WorldView-2 and Landsat-7 imagery. The study design used groups to separate the effects of surficial drainage networks and the relative magnitude of change in NDVI over time. LAI values were higher for the WorldView-2 data and for each sensor and group combination the distribution of LAI values was unique. This study indicated that there are tradeoffs between increased spatial resolution and the ability to differentiate landscape features versus the increase in variability when using NDVI for LAI calculations. The application of geophysical methods for permafrost characterization in Arctic road design and engineering was explored for a range of conditions including gravel river bars, burned tussock tundra and ice-wedge polygons. Interpretations were based on a combination of Directcurrent resistivity - electrical resistivity tomography (DCR-ERT), cryostratigraphic information via boreholes and geospatial (aerial photographs & digital elevation models) data. The resistivity data indicated the presence/absence of permafrost; location and depth of massive ground ice; and in some conditions changes in ice content. The placement of the boreholes strongly influenced how geophysical data can be interpreted for permafrost conditions and should be carefully considered during data collection strategies.
    • Bridging Home And School: Factors That Contribute To Multiliteracies Development In A Yup'ik Kindergarten Classroom

      Bass, A. Sarah; Parker-Webster, Joan; Siekmann, Sabine (2010)
      Since the establishment of a Yup'ik immersion school in Bethel in the mid-1990s, immersion programming has spread to many schools in Southwestern Alaska, including the school in this study. This school maintains a K-3 Yup'ik strand and a K-3 English strand. Both strands merge in the 4 th grade. Concern that the immersion program may hinder student achievement on state mandated benchmark testing in the 3rd grade and beyond has resulted in some opposition to the immersion program. However, in 2007/2008, those and former immersion students scored higher on the English reading and writing benchmark tests than students in the English strand and 3rd and 4th grade students district wide. This ethnographic teacher action research documented the process of multiliteracies development of four kindergarten students. Home literacy practice of students was documented from parent conversations. Classroom literacy development was documented through the collection of student work samples, still photographs, and teacher comments from anecdotal notes. Findings revealed these four students showed progress in their multiliteracies development as illustrated in their drawings, writing, and singing and chanting. Some of the contributing factors that emerged were: Yup'ik/English heard at home, Yup'ik at school, and literacy materials available both at home and school.
    • Bridging the gap between police and citizens: what we know, what we've done, and what can be done

      Colley, Melvin; Daku, Michael J.; May, Jeffrey D.; Duke, J. Rob; Boldt, Frank D. (2017-08)
      There is a long history of distrust between police and citizens and there have been no meaningful and sustained steps to correct this situation. Death and injuries are sustained by citizens and police, but still there has not been a real attempt to prevent this occurring because there is no trust between police and citizens and this lack of trust has created a rift or gap between police and citizens and this projects aim is to address the gap. Research into what causing damage and finding a way to repair the damaged relationship between police and citizens by way of finding approaches that tend to lead to trust between groups of people. Communication, a better ethics base for police, training and education, restorative justice, media, and the studying of social theories will help find a way to repair the damage. A collaboration of all of the aforementioned categories will tend to help bridge the gap between police and citizens. It is believed that by addressing the issues and the roots of the problems between police and citizens, a new relationship built on trust will emerge. By having a more trusting relationship there will be less harm caused to police and citizens.
    • Bridging the gap between pupping and molting phenology: behavioral and ecological drivers in Weddell seals

      Beltran, Roxanne Santina; Burns, Jennifer; Breed, Greg; Testa, J. Ward; O'Brien, Diane; Barnes, Brian (2018-08)
      In Antarctica, the narrow window of favorable conditions constrains the life history phenology of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) such that pupping, breeding, foraging, and molting occur in quick succession during summer; however, the carry-over effects from one life history event to another are unclear. In this dissertation, I characterize the phenological links between molting and pupping, and evaluate feeding behavior and ice dynamics as mechanistic drivers. First, I review the contributions of natural and sexual selection to the evolution of molting strategies in the contexts of energetics, habitat, function, and physiology. Many polar birds and mammals adhere to an analogous biannual molting strategy wherein the thin, brown summer feathers/fur are replaced with thick, white winter feathers/fur. Polar pinnipeds are an exception to the biannual molting paradigm; most rely on blubber for insulation and exhibit a single molt per year. Second, I describe the duration and timing of the Weddell seal molt based on data from 4,000 unique individuals. In adult females, I found that successful reproduction delays the molt by approximately two weeks relative to non-reproductive individuals. Using time-depth recorder data from 59 Weddell seals at the crucial time between pupping and molting, I report a striking mid-summer shallowing of seal dive depths that appears to follow a vertical migration of fishes during the summer phytoplankton bloom. The seals experience higher foraging success during this vertical shift in the prey distribution, which allows them to re-gain mass quickly before the molt. Across four years of study, later ice break-out resulted in later seal dive shallowing and later molt. In combination, the data presented in this dissertation suggest that molting, foraging, and pupping phenology are linked in Weddell seals and are affected by ice break-out timing.
    • Brine Percolation, Flooding And Snow Ice Formation On Antarctic Sea Ice

      Maksym, Ted; Jeffries, Martin O. (2001)
      Modelling studies of brine percolation, flooding, and snow ice formation on Antarctic sea ice were undertaken to (1) determine the influence of brine transport processes on the salinity, porosity, and stable isotopic composition of snow ice and the underlying ice, (2) explain the range of salinities and isotopic composition observed in ice cores, and to provide a better estimate of the contribution of snow ice to the thickness of the winter pack ice, (3) better understand the microstructural controls on brine percolation and its effects on the properties of sea ice, and (4) understand the effects of meteorological forcing on snow ice formation and development of the ice cover. Snow ice thickness is most dependent on snow accumulation rates. Once snow ice begins to form on a floe, most of the subsequent thickening is due to snow ice formation. Results show that percolation in winter sea ice is most likely an inhomogeneous process. Flooding most likely occurs rapidly through localized regions of high permeability, such as in large, open brine drainage channels or cracks. Simulations of the freezing of a flooded slush layer show that focussing of thermohaline convection may form porous drainage channels in the ice and snow. These channels allow rapid desalination of the slush and exchange of H218O depleted brine with sea water. Significant positive shifts in delta18O are possible in the slush layer. This process can explain the range of delta18O observed in ice cores. Based on these results, a cutoff of delta18O < -2� is recommended for snow ice identification in the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen seas. Such a cutoff puts the amount of snow ice observed at 6--18% of the ice thickness. Although flooding appears to occur through spatially restricted regions of the ice, the precise nature of the flow and factors controlling onset of percolation are unclear.
    • Bringing broader impacts to the community via university K-12 partnerships: growth in and seed quality of Betula neoalaskana Sargent

      Kanie, Sayako; Dawe, Janice C.; Karlsson, Meriam; Yeats, Scott (2020-05)
      Betula neoalaskana Sargent is the most abundant birch species in Alaska. All parts of the tree can be used in creating timber and non-timber products, and birch stands provide high-value ecosystem services for ecotourism and outdoor recreational purposes. For these reasons, the OneTree Alaska program of the University of Alaska Fairbanks uses Interior Alaska white birch as the centerpiece of its work. This M.S. thesis is a contribution to OneTree Alaska's goal of raising the public's understanding of the effects of Interior Alaska's lengthening growing season on the growth and reproduction of the local birch resource. Specifically, the thesis relates to the growth and reproduction of the offspring of the original "one trees" harvested on Nenana Ridge in October 2009. The saplings have been growing in the Generation OneTree Research Plot in the T-field, north of the Smith Lake on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus, since June 2011 and represent half-sibling families reared from the seed of 8 maternal trees. As seedlings, they were reared for growing seasons of variable length, both by students at the Watershed Charter School of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and by OneTree personnel in a University of Alaska Fairbanks growth chamber. Prior to this study, end of year measurements had been taken of the young trees in the T-field for all but one year and established that the length of the first growing season persistently affected the number of stems and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of the main stems. New findings in this thesis show that the elevation difference among trees impacts the number of infructescences and germination rates but not the number of male catkins. At least for the 2018 seed crop, seeds from trees planted at higher elevations in the T-field showed higher germination rates than those planted at lower elevations, while they produce fewer infructescences at up slope. Other findings demonstrate that sibling family does not have an effect on either vegetative or reproductive growth. Instead, the length of the first growing season provides for a diversity of canopy shapes across sibling families. The most significant finding is the effect of elevation on female reproductive growth: It suggests a number of next steps, tools, and analysis to better understand environmental variables that work alongside elevation in determining growth and reproductive success. Soil moisture and pH (H2O), Carbon/Nitrogen ratio, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine micronutrient composition, sensors to capture wind speed/direction and solar radiation, photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll concentration measurements could all be valuable in further elucidating the hypotheses being advanced by this research regarding the interactions between changing environment and reproduction.
    • Bringing Twygs to life: PACE based lessons in an adult ESL classroom

      Harris, Erica; Martelle, Wendy; Siekmann, Sabine; Stewart, Kimberly Aragon (2017-12)
      English grammar is a daunting subject for language learners and teachers alike. Traditionally, grammar is taught in an explicit manner in a teacher-fronted classroom. Rules are given and explained to students, who then practice with drills and example problems. As an alternative approach to teaching grammar, this project incorporates the PACE model (Presentation, Attention, Co-Construction, Extension) and task-based language teaching (TBLT). This method of teaching is a departure from traditional explicit-style teaching, and focuses more on the learner's role in the classroom than on the teacher's role. The PACE model uses stories to teach grammar, in this case English prepositions. Over the course of three weeks, a series of story-based lessons along with mini tasks were administered to a small academic writing class of adult ESL students. In addition to focusing on prepositions, the lessons were designed to allow practice for several other grammatical features appropriate to an academic writing class. The incorporation of PACE and task based activities showed that learners were able to understand the prepositions and use them appropriately in an original writing task.
    • Brucella suis type 4 in foxes and their role as reservoirs/vectors among reindeer

      Morton, Jamie Kay; Williamson, Francis S. L. (1989)
      Field and laboratory studies were conducted to test the hypotheses that (1) the reindeer/caribou organism, Brucella suis type 4, is incidentally transmitted to reindeer predators such as foxes but does not cause reproductive disease in them, and (2) infected predators such as foxes are terminal hosts and do not serve as reservoirs of infection for reindeer. In field collections, serologic prevalence of brucellosis was similar for male and female foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Alopex lagopus). B. suis type 4 was isolated from female Vulpes and Alopex. No association between reproductive status of foxes and brucellosis infections was observed. Serologic titers in Vulpes experimentally infected by oral exposure to Brucella suis type 4 were detected first by the standard tube and plate agglutination tests which were followed by the buffered Brucella antigen, rivanol, and complement fixation tests. Brucella suis type 4 was isolated from the feces 4 to 6 days post-exposure (PE) and from the oral cavity for as long as 3 weeks PE in Vulpes challenged with 10$\sp9$ or 10$\sp{11}$ colony forming units. Brucella suis type 4 was isolated frequently from regional lymph nodes in the head up to 18 weeks PE, and from only more distant nodes at 22 and 66 weeks PE. Organisms did not localize in the reproductive tract. Clinical effects of brucellosis in Vulpes experimentally-infected were not observed. Pathologic lesions were not detected in the male and non-gravid female reproductive tract. Due to breeding failure, effects of Brucella suis type 4 on the pregnant fox reproductive tract were not determined in experimental infections. Gross and microscopic pathology was limited to lymph nodes. Fox to fox transmission attributed to aerosols from products shed by infected foxes occurred readily. Transmission from Vulpes to lemmings (Dicrostonyx rubricatus) that were exposed to urine from infected fox occurred frequently. Transmission from infected Vulpes to two reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) occurred under conditions of close confinement. Ingestion of organisms passed mechanically in the fox feces was considered the probable source of infection. Fox saliva containing Brucella was also implicated in transmitting the organism through bites or aerosols.
    • Building a toolset for fuel cell turbine hybrid modeling

      Burbank, Winston S. (2006-12)
      Fuel cell/gas turbine hybrids show promise of high efficiency power generation, with electrical efficiencies of 70% or better shown by modeling, although these efficiency levels have not yet been demonstrated in hardware. Modeling of such systems is important to optimize and control these complex systems. This work describes a modeling tool developed to examine steady-state operation of different hybrid configurations. This model focuses on the area of compressor-turbine modeling, which is a key component of properly controlling fuel cell/gas turbine hybrids. Through side-by-side comparisons, this model has been tested and verified by Dr. Wolf of Brayton Energy [1]. This modeling tool will be used in further work to evaluate various configurations of turbines and fuel cells in hybrid configurations, focusing on both the performance and cost of such systems.
    • Building Blocks Of Self -Organized Criticality

      Woodard, Ryan; Newman, David (2004)
      Why are we having difficulty developing economical nuclear fusion? How can a squirrel cause a statewide power blackout? How do correlations arise in a random complex system? How are these questions related? This thesis addresses these questions through a study of self-organized criticality (SOC). Among the systems that have been proposed as SOC are confined fusion plasmas, the Earth's magnetosphere and earthquake faults. SOC describes how large-scale complex behavior can emerge from small-scale simple interactions. The essence of SOC is that many dynamical systems, regardless of underlying physics, share a common nonlinear mechanism: local gradients grow until exceeding some critical gradient and then relax in events called avalanches. Avalanches range in size from very small to system-wide. Interactions of many avalanches over long times result in robust statistical and dynamical signatures that are surprisingly similar in many different physical systems. Two of the more well-known signatures are power law scaling of probability distribution functions (PDFs) and power spectra. Of particular interest in the literature for approximately a century are 1/f spectra. I studied the SOC running sandpile model and applied the results to confined and space plasmas. My tools were power spectra, PDFs and rescaled range ( R/S) analysis. I found that SOC systems with random external forcing store memory of previous states in their local gradients and can have dynamical correlations over very long time scales regardless of how weak the external forcing is. At time scales much longer than previously thought, the values of the slope of the power spectra, beta and the Hurst exponent, H, are different from the values found for white noise. As forcing changes, beta changes in the range 0.4 <math> <f> &lap;</f> </math> beta &le; 1 but the Hurst exponent remains relatively constant, H &ap; 0.8. The same physics that produces a 1/f spectrum at strong forcing produces a f -0.4 spectrum at weaker forcing. Small amounts of diffusive spreading added to the two dimensional SOC sandpile greatly decreases the frequency and maximum size of large transport events. More diffusion increases the frequency of large events to values much greater than for systems without diffusion.
    • Building Safe Families Through Educating on Adverse Childhood Experiences

      Dabney, Katie E.; Dahl, Heather; McMorrow, Samantha; Henze-Nelson, Brenda (2018-05)
      There is a strong correlation between families that work with child welfare agencies and the prevalence of maltreatment during childhood. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to poor health outcomes but are much more negatively correlated when 3 or more ACEs have been experienced during a childhood (Hunt, Slack & Berger, 2017; Crouch, Strompolis, Bennett, Morse, & Radcliff, 2017). Teaching parents about the impacts of ACEs and how they may more safely parent, can reduce the recidivism of future maltreatment in at-risk families who work with child welfare agencies. Education can give parents the power and motivation to make better decisions for themselves and for their families.
    • Bullying in middle school: the role of school counselors and teachers in preventing bullying

      Palmer, Paula Nicole; Topkok, Sean; Barnhardt, Ray; Roehl, Roy (2017-05)
      Research suggests that bullying is a problem in schools throughout the nation. Children spend the vast majority of their life attending school. School counselors and teachers are in a unique position to identify, prevent and educate students about bullying. The purpose of this project was to examine the role of school counselors and teachers in the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District (FNSBSD) in preventing bullying in their schools. The participants of this study were 8 school counselors and teachers from four middle schools in the FNSBSD. Data for this research was collected using an anonymous online survey utilizing www.SurveyMonkey.com. The results of the survey indicated that bullying is an issue in the four middle schools selected for the study in FNSBSD. Of the four major types of bullying discussed in my research (cyber, relation, physical, and verbal), there was a consensus among the participants that cyber and relational bullying were the most prevalent and problematic in their schools. Recommendations for future research include expanding on this study to include a larger sample of schools and participants, suggestions for strengthening staff training and implementing school based youth courts in FNSBSD schools as part of the bully intervention and prevention program.
    • Buoyancy Effects On Building Pressurization In Extreme Cold Climates

      Bargar, Harold Edward; Das, Debendra K.; Goering, Douglas J.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Lin, Chuen-Sen; Quang, Pham X. (2003)
      This research investigates building pressurization due to buoyancy effect. The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) presents an idealized equation to calculate the buoyancy effect. This dissertation compares differential pressure measurements from an actual building exposed to extremely cold temperatures to this idealized model. It also presents new statistical models based on the collected data. These new models should provide engineers with improved tools to properly account for building pressurization for designs in extreme cold climates. Building pressurization, the differential pressure between the interior of a building and its exterior surroundings, is an important design consideration. Pressurization is the driving force in building infiltration/exfiltration. It also affects air flow within building zones. Improper calculation of pressurization can result in under-sizing the building's heating and cooling systems, improper operation of air distribution systems, improper operation of elevators, and freezing and failure of water distribution and circulation systems. Building pressurization is affected by: wind (speed and direction), exterior-to-interior temperature difference, and mechanical equipment operation. In extreme cold climates, the predominant effect is air buoyancy due to temperature differences across the building envelope. The larger the temperature difference, the larger the buoyancy effect. In extreme cold climates, the largest temperature differences often occur at times when wind speed is negligible. This dissertation also demonstrates the use of existing data sources such as building automation systems to collect data for basic research. Modern systems automation provides a tremendous amount of data that, in the past, had to be collected through separate instrumentation and data acquisition systems. Taking advantage of existing automation systems can provide the required data at greatly reduced costs when compared to previous industry practices. The statistical analysis approach taken in this research expands the tools for engineering design. Actual interactions of real world variables are analyzed and used to produce prediction models. These techniques allow the model to incorporate relationships which may not be fully understood at the underlying principle level but are evidenced in the data collected from actual installations.* *This dissertation includes a CD that is compound (contains both a paper copy and CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following applications: Internet Browser; Adobe Acrobat; Microsoft Office; Image Viewer.
    • Calcareous fen vegetation and ecology and the disjunct Betula glandulosa in Southeastern Alaska

      Johnson, Joni M. (2006-08)
      Calcareous fens are rare within southeastern Alaska due to their unique geochemical setting, as are the plant communities produced by these environs. On a global scale these wetland types have been identified as valuable for their biodiversity and have received special protection. The first objective of this research was to characterize the floristics and hydrogeochemistry of a subset of calcareous fens on Chichagof Island in the northern Alexander Archipelago through intensive sampling within each site. Multivariate analyses were used to describe these wetland systems. The second objective of this study included investigating whether or not the disjunct Betula glandulosa (dwarf birch) population was restricted to its current site. B. glandulosa is a habitat generalist in its known range; however, it is found in only one location within the Alexander Archipelago. Germination and seedling transplant experiments were conducted that tested for the effects of site, competition, and the interaction between site and competition. In this manner a subset of calcareous fens in the region was described and abiotic parameters associated with B. glandulosa evaluated. Obtaining baseline information and understanding mechanisms behind these sources of regional biodiversity are important for monitoring purposes and detecting disturbance effects
    • Calibration of an on-line analyzer using neural network modeling

      Yu, Shaohai (2003-08)
      The goal of the project was to predict the ash content of raw coal in real time using the Americium-137 and Cesium-241 scintillation counts from an on-line analyzer. Rather than regression methods (that are current industrial practice), neural networks were used to map the scintillation counts to percentage ash. Quick stop training was used to prevent overfitting The noise and sparseness of the data required that the training, calibration and prediction subsets are statistically similar to each other. Therefore, Kohonen networks were first used to detect the features present in the data set. Three subsets were then built such that they had representative members from each feature. Neural network models were developed for the screened coal, the unscreened coal and the combined data respectively. The results show that the performance of the combined model was comparable to the performance with two different models for the screened and unscreened data. Due to the variance in the sample data, the neural networks (screened, unscreened and combined) did not predict individual samples well. The network predictions were, however, accurate on the average. Compared to the common regression approach, neural network modeling demonstrated much better performance in ash prediction based on certain criteria.
    • Calibration of microbolometer infrared cameras for measuring volcanic ash mass loading

      Carroll, Russell C.; Hawkins, Joseph; Thorsen, Denise; Raskovic, Dejan; Hatfield, Michael (2014-08)
      Small spacecraft with thermal infrared (TIR) imaging capabilities are needed to detect dangerous levels of volcanic ash that can severely damage jet aircraft engines and must be avoided. Grounding aircraft after a volcanic eruption may cost the airlines millions of dollars per day, while accurate knowledge of volcanic ash density might allow for safely routing aircraft around dangerous levels of volcanic ash. There are currently limited numbers of satellites with TIR imaging capabilities so the elapsed time between revisits can be large, and these instruments can only resolve total mass loading along the line-of-sight. Multiple small satellites could allow for decreased revisit times as well as multiple viewing angles to reveal the three-dimensional structure of the ash cloud through stereoscopic techniques. This paper presents the design and laboratory evaluation of a TIR imaging system that is designed to fit within the resource constraints of a multi-unit CubeSat to detect volcanic ash mass loading. The laboratory prototype of this TIR imaging system uses a commercial off-theshelf (COTS) camera with an uncooled microbolometer sensor, two narrowband filters, a black body source and a custom filter wheel. The infrared imaging system detects the difference in attenuation of volcanic ash at 11 μm and 12 μm by measuring the brightness temperature at each band. The brightness temperature difference method is used to measure the column mass loading. Multi-aspect images and stereoscopic techniques are needed to estimate the mass density from the mass loading, which is the measured mass per unit area. Laboratory measurements are used to characterize the noise level and thermal stability of the sensor. A calibration technique is developed to compensate for sensor temperature drift. The detection threshold of volcanic ash density of this TIR imaging system is found to be from 0.35 mg/m3 to 26 mg/m3 for ash clouds that have thickness of 1 km, while ash cloud densities greater than 2.0 mg/m3 are considered dangerous to aircraft. This analysis demonstrates that a TIR imaging system for determining whether the volcanic ash density is dangerous for aircraft is feasible for multi-unit Cubesat platforms.
    • Calving ground habitat selection: Teshekpuk Lake and Western Arctic caribou herds

      Kelleyhouse, Rebecca A. (2001-12)
      Barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) exhibit relative fidelity to calving grounds each spring. The Western Arctic Herd (WAH) and Teshekpuk Lake Herd (TLH) calve separately on Alaska's north slope, each selective of the dominant vegetation type. The WAH consumed mostly sedges, though the TLH diet varied. Despite differing snow conditions between the calving grounds, both herds were selective of the lowest snow cover class. Rugged terrain was avoided by both herds. While the TLH selected a high rate of increase in biomass, the WAH selected high biomass at calving and at peak lactation. Climate trends (1985-2001) were variable. There was a warming trend on the WAH calving ground, though no significant trends were present on the TLH calving ground, as expressed by median NDVI on 21 June. These herds have similar winter ranges and population trends, yet they differ in respect to habitat composition, selection and climate patterns during calving.
    • Can I tell you what really happened?: learning to make decisions in response to indigenous student voice in a high school language arts classroom

      Rushman, Alyssa M.; Patterson, Leslie; Siekmann, Sabine; Martelle, Wendy (2019-05)
      This study focuses on engaging high school students in reading and the decisions I make to sustain that engagement. I learned that one way to enhance the engagement in my classroom is to listen to my students' stories and to incorporate culturally relevant texts. All of the students in this study were previously in our school's language intervention program: Read 180. While teaching this intervention-based class, I noticed this class was a behavior management nightmare. The students' challenging behavior led me to question the intervention program's ability to sustain my students' engagement through the prescribed texts. This study aims to describe my observations in a 10th grade Language Arts II class in Chefornak, Alaska. Specifically, this thesis describes my findings and analysis as it relates to how students show engagement and how I make (and revise) decisions in response to my students' voices. I used teacher action research (TAR) to research the events in my classroom. During an 11-week period, I collected audio recordings, student work samples, and teacher action research journal entries. At the end of the research, I also wrote memos about the data. I used constructive grounded theory (CGT) to make sense of the story the data tells and to see what kind of patterns were present. This research is important to me because it helps me to understand the weaknesses and the strengths in my own instructional planning as well as how I interpret students' participation in class. After this research, I am convinced that learning outcomes are preceded by learner engagement, and that learner engagement is complex.