Now showing items 21-40 of 3790

    • The doctor, the publisher and the curmudgeon: how personalities, politics and the press set the stage for Alaska statehood

      Snifka, Lynne M. (2009-12)
      "Much has been written about Alaska's struggle for statehood in 1959. But before there was a unified push for statehood, before World War II changed the face of Alaska forever and people such as Bob Atwood, Bill Egan and Bob Bartlett fought the good fight, there was a "perfect storm" of personalities, politics and press coverage that prepared Alaska for what would become its greatest triumph. This thesis examines the lives, motives and politics of Territorial Governor John Troy, Territorial Governor Ernest Gruening and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. Their individual vendettas, drive and quests for power directly influenced conditions in the Alaska Territory that would lead it to become a state. Along the way, the press corps, notably the Juneau Empire, held sway over the population and used partisanship and agenda setting to keep statehood boosters at bay for more than a decade"--Leaf iii
    • A storm like no other: changes that shaped Seward Peninsula communities at the turn of the 20th century

      Russell, Amy (2009-12)
      "This thesis explains how four events at the turn of the twentieth century--the start of an American administration, the introduction of schools and missions, the introduction of reindeer, and the 1918 influenza epidemic--brought sweeping changes to Inupiat on the Seward Peninsula, and contributed to the decline of two formerly-prominent Seward Peninsula communities: Kingegan and Kauwerak"--Leaf iii
    • Modeling of road surface condition data for the prediction of road icing

      Panda, Rupali (2009-12)
      "Road icing is a common problem in cold regions, such as Alaska, where it poses serious threat to drivers and result in the disruption of transportation facilities. Road surface temperature (RST) is considered as the most crucial factor for icing conditions. The objective of this research is to predict RST in Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and three-layer back propagated Neural Network (NN) models using an optimum number of input variables (air temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind gust, wind speed average, wind gust and wind directions). The data were analyzed using both randomized and chronological schemes. The results obtained from different models were compared to find the most suitable model for predicting RST. The performance of both MLR and NN models were very comparable. Therefore, in the interest of reducing modeling complexity the MLR models could be preferred instead of the complex neural network models for the aimed accuracy levels in RST prediction. It was also observed that models developed on the chronological data provided better prediction accuracy as compared to models developed on the randomized data indicating RST should probably be predicted from models that honor the time sequence"--Leaf iii
    • Synoptic climatology of the eastern Brooks Range, Alaska: a data legacy of the international geophysical year

      March, Jennifer R. (2009-12)
      "Data from three International Geophysical Year (1957-1958) expeditions and one International Hydrological Decade National Science Foundation project (1969-1972) to the eastern Alaska North Slope have been rescued and made available in digital form: Chamberlain Glacier, Lake Peters, and McCall Glacier. Comparisons between these sites and US and Canadian Weather Service stations within 500km of McCall Glacier were conducted to determine the broad temperature climatology of the region. McCall Glacier is generally a swing site, and the climatology of the region often was linked most closely to the Beaufort Sea coast, though on some occasions, was more closely related to the Mackenzie River Delta and on other occasions, to the Interior. These early data represent an important addition to the Arctic data legacy by allowing a more complete climate record to be developed that focuses on a region demonstrably sensitive to climate change and yet lacking in data. Key words: glacier, meteorology, International Geophysical Year, Alaska, McCall Glacier, Brooks Range, data rescue"--Leaf iii
    • Theoretical and experimental investigations of resonance fluorescence lidar for measurements of N₂ in the auroral atmosphere

      Light, Agatha S. (2009-12)
      "In this thesis, a series of experimental and theoretical studies of the resonance fluorescence lidar system at Poker Flat Research Range (located in Chatanika, Alaska) for use in obtaining measurements of aurorally produced molecular nitrogen ions (N₂) are presented. Obtaining measurements of N₂ is made challenging by both the operational performance of the resonance lidar system and the high degree of geophysical variability inherent in the aurora. Analyses are conducted of measurements obtained by the operational sodium and iron resonance lidar systems to verify the lidar system performance. To increase the strength and quality of the lidar measurements, the telescope in the lidar receiver system was upgraded from a 0.6 in Newtonian telescope to a Cassegrain telescope with a 1.02 m diameter primary mirror. Lidar measurements from the system operating with this telescope are presented and compared to previous measurements to confirm an improvement to the overall operation. A spectroscopic analysis of the laser dye used in the previous development of the molecular nitrogen resonance lidar system is conducted to determine the cause of decreased lidar system performance at the operational wavelength relevant for studies of N₂. A total of ten laser dyes are tested in the dye laser system. Based upon the performance of these dyes in the resonance lidar system, it is concluded that successful measurements of the strongest emission band in N⁺₂ are unlikely due the transmittance of the diffraction grating at the relevant wavelength and low system efficiency in the dye laser. Therefore, the resonance lidar system is being developed to obtain measurements of the second strongest band of emissions in N⁺₂ . To assess the capabilities of this system to obtain statistically significant measurements of aurorally produced N⁺₂, the expected resonance lidar signal is simulated by modifying an existing model. It is found that to obtain N⁺₂ resonance lidar measurements of reasonable strength with the current operational system, the data would be obtained at high resolution and post integrated over selected temporal and spatial ranges"--Leaf iii
    • Analysis of adult sport fishing lesson choices and their application to post-secondary curriculum development

      Jones, Shann Paul; Hebert, Michele; Wipfli, Mark; Bomar, Charles R.; Johnson, Terry L.; Carlson, John (2009-12)
      "Post-secondary angler education offerings have increased nationally, but little is known about what sport fishing skills anglers desire. I noticed variations in such curricula while developing the University of Alaska Fairbanks course, Fundamentals of Fly Fishing. My study objectives were to 1) determine what fly-fishing skills potential students desire so they invest both time and money attending my education events; 2) refine my offerings; and, 3) determine if students gained angling-related knowledge. I developed a questionnaire gauging the public's fly-fishing educational desires and requirements, and distributed it from 2003 to 2005. After analyzing the results, I revised my class to include more science-based angler knowledge and practical skills. The target audience for my classes is people under 55 years of age with less than three years angling experience who fish less than twice monthly. They want preparatory topics that allow them to continue with the sport once they complete the educational event. After incorporating the results into my offerings, enrollments more than doubled from 2003 to 2008. Students made measurable advances in understanding the sciences behind sport fishing. By surveying potential participants' educational desires and needs, adult educators should be able to build sustainable personal enrichment programs as demonstrated here"--Leaf iii
    • The impact of sea kayak tourism and recreation on harbor seal behavior in Kenai Fjords National Park: integrating research with outreach, education, and tourism

      Jezierski, Caroline M.; Norcross, Brenda; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Wynne, Kate M.; Polasek, Lori (2009-12)
      "Increasing numbers of sea kayakers in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska prompted a study to evaluate human disturbance on harbor seals. Harbor seal behavior recorded during the molt from 2004-2006 via remotely controlled cameras and direct field observations were used to evaluate effects of human activities. Behaviors of the seals observed in the presence and absence of kayakers/walkers were contrasted by method of collection, year, presence of humans, presence of a guide, and guide training. Results demonstrated that harbor seals abandoned the ice and were more alert when kayakers were present than when humans were absent. Harbor seals became progressively sensitive to the presence of walkers. Sea kayak guides were advised to observe seal behavior and minimize contact by avoiding areas with high concentrations of hauled-out seals. Educational training provided to sea kayak guides effectively reduced the impact of human disturbance on harbor seals"--Leaf iii
    • Ecological linkages between headwater streams and riparian and downstream habitats in the eastern Cascade Range, Washington, USA

      Green, Elizabeth C. (2009-12)
      "I examined how headwater streams are ecologically linked with the terrestrial environment and upstream waters. I examined relationships between fish (rainbow and cutthroat trout), invertebrates, and habitat in 15 headwater streams in two ecoregions (wet, dry) and timber harvest scenarios (logged, unlogged) in the Wenatchee River sub-basin in the eastern Cascade Mountain Range, Washington state, USA. Fish biomass, density, and size were not related to ecoregion or to logging history. Invertebrate drift manipulations in 13 streams influenced fish movement (fish moved downstream in sites that were not supplemented with food) and diet (fish consumed less prey when drifting invertebrates were removed), but not fish growth or abundance. This study demonstrated that fish utilize drifting prey originating from upstream fishless waters, and that they are not able to compensate for the loss of this food. Headwater forest management may affect fish populations by altering prey resources where fish are food-limited"--Leaf iv
    • Secrecy in committed relationships due to career: a communication perspective

      Brander, Amanda Lassiter (2009-12)
      "Professional secrecy, which is mandated in certain careers, seems to affect partners in their committed relationships. Partners of those with work-mandated secrecy may perceive that they enact certain behaviors based upon how they communicate around the imposed secrecy. The communication privacy management theory (CPM) aids in understanding how partners make decisions about how they communicate around secrecy within their relational culture and how they manage dialectical tensions due to work-mandated secrecy. This Human Science study is grounded in constructionism, informed by the theory of social construction of reality, guided by narrative inquiry, and used conversational interviewing and thematic analysis to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of those whose partners are constrained by work-mandated secrecy. The following five themes emerged: (a) Protection against adverse consequences: Do I need to know?, (b) We have our system: Coded language, similes, and so on, (c) It's different when my partner is not at home, (d) I try not to bury my head but I try not to probe either, sometimes curiosity just gets the best of me, and (e) Do I measure up?. These themes allow for a discussion that demonstrates how partners in committed relationships may be affected by work-mandated secrecy"--Leaf iii
    • Total serum immunoglobulin Y in Steller's eiders and a surrogate species as a marker of humoral immune status and viral response

      Bozza, Maryann; Hollmen, Tuula; Hofmeister, Erik; Polasek, Lori (2009-12)
      "Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and other sea duck species have undergone population declines in recent decades, and the causes for the declines remain largely unknown. As part of a study to investigate the role of disease in sea duck population declines, I further characterized Steller's eider humoral immunity by quantifying total serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY). Baseline values of total serum IgY were determined for a captive flock of Steller's eiders housed at the Alaska SeaLife Center using species-specific assays. There were no significant differences in total serum IgY between males and females or between seasons (molt and winter) for captive birds. For free-ranging Steller's eiders, mean total serum IgY was significantly higher during molt and mid-winter compared to captive baseline values, suggesting increased disease exposure. As a further investigation of the humoral immune response, experimental inoculations (low pathogenicity avian influenza and adenovirus) were conducted in mallards (Anas platyrhyncus) as a surrogate species. Quantification of total serum IgY from captive Steller's eiders provides a baseline for comparative studies of total serum IgY from free-ranging Steller's eiders. This study also provided first quantitative information about circulating IgY in free-ranging Steller's eiders"--Leaf iii
    • Environmental gradients and prey availability relative to glacial features in Kittlitz's murrelet foraging habitat

      Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Piatt, John; Weingartner, Thomas; Mueter, Franz (2009-12)
      "The goal of this study was to characterize Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) foraging habitat relative to prey availability and oceanography in Kenai Fjords National Park, a glacial-marine system. I conducted oceanographic, hydroacoustic, trawl, beach seine, and marine bird surveys monthly from June-August in 2007 and 2008. High sediment load from glacial river runoff shaped the marine ecosystem, and this appeared critically important to Kittlitz's murrelets at sea. Submerged moraines influenced inner fjord habitat that was characterized by cool, fresh, stratified, and silt-laden waters. This silty glacial runoff limited light availability to chlorophyll near tidewater glaciers, but zooplankton abundance was enhanced in the surface waters, perhaps due to the absence of a photic cue for vertical migration. Zooplankton community structure was influenced by glacial features and varied along an increasing temperature gradient over the summer. Acoustic measurements suggested that low density aggregations of fish and zooplankton were available in the surface waters near glacial river outflows where murrelets typically forage. Dense fish aggregations moved into the fjords by August. Kittlitz's murrelets were more likely to occur in areas with higher acoustic biomass near glaciers, making these birds more susceptible to climate change than the congeneric marbled murrelet (B. marmoratus), which was most associated with shallow, ice-free areas"--Leaf iii
    • In defense of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides): the distribution and roles of phenolic glycosides and extrafloral nectaries within and among trees

      Young, Brian D.; Wagner, Diane; Wolf, Diana; Doak, Patricia; Clausen, Thomas (2009-05)
      "I studied the concentrations of phenolic glycosides (PGs) from leaves with and without extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in Populus tremuloides during an outbreak of the aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, in interior Alaska. P. populiella feeds on the contents of epidermal cells from both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of P. tremuloides leaves. The objective of this study was to assess the association of chemical and biotic defenses in P. tremuloides and their interaction with the insect herbivore P. populiella. The concentration of PGs (salicortin and tremulacin) was approximately 70% greater in leaves bearing EFNs than in those without EFNs from short trees (<2.5 m); leaves with and without EFNs did not differ significantly in PG concentration for tall trees (5-8 m). Leaf mining caused the induction of the foliar PGs following eight days of mining. There was no difference in the ability of leaves with and without EFNs to induce PGs in response to mining. The extent of mining damage was significantly and negatively related to the PG concentration, whereas EFNs were not related to the extent of mining. At the site level, I found no evidence for a tradeoff between these two putative forms of defense in P. tremuloides"--Leaf iii
    • Historical archaeology of Marion Creek, Alaska: placer gold mining and the capitalist world-system

      Whitney, James W. (2009-05)
      "Archaeological investigations of two placer gold mining sites on Marion Creek, Alaska, a tributary of the Koyukuk River, challenge the myth of the independent prospectors of the last frontier and reveal their dependence on the capitalist world-system. The Grassy Mound Cabin site (CHN-024) consists of a small cabin and trash scatter representing individual placer mining dated to the first decade of the 20th century. The Marion Creek Mining Complex site (WIS-286) is a multi-feature site reflecting capital and labor-intensive mining from multiple occupations during the first and second decades of the 20th century. The historical context of gold mining in the Koyukuk district is reconstructed from historical documents, exploring the process by which Alaska was incorporated into the capitalist world-system. Functional analysis of the assemblages and application of the Commodity Flow Model demonstrate how material culture and site economy changed as investments of capital and labor increased"--Leaf iii
    • Lessons from the river: identifying factors that influence the comprehension of genetics research in a Yup'ik Eskimo community

      McGlone West, Kathleen; Boyer, Bert; Fryer-Edwards, Kelly; Hopper, Kim (2009-05)
      "The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) follows a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach to study genetic, nutritional, behavioral and cultural protective factors for obesity and Type 2 diabetes in Yup'ik Eskimo communities. As a multidisciplinary center, investigators have returned results of many of their research projects to participants and participating communities. However, traditionally, genetics research results are only returned to participants under specific conditions, which are not necessarily compatible with a CBPR approach. I ask how CANHR can improve its dissemination efforts, especially in the area of genetics research. I identify factors that influence how community members receive and understand health information, including genetics information. This study uses a grounded theory approach to qualitatively analyze interviews and focus group discussions with Yup'ik community members, identify themes and construct a theoretical narrative. The primary factors that emerged include communication pathways (ways in which information is transmitted in the community); health beliefs (what people already know and believe about health); and social location (a person's role in the community). I examine each of these through the framework of a river metaphor to provide recommendations for improving CANHR's dissemination efforts with the communities, including genetics research results"--Leaf iii
    • Assessing utilitarian wildlife value orientations of Alaska residents: an urban and rural perspective

      Tracy, Quinn G. (2009-05)
      "A large body of literature supports value theory as an integral component to the management of natural resources. Value theory provides managers with an effective tool for natural resource allocation and stakeholder mitigation by predicting attitudes and behaviors of populations. This study explored the protection or use wildlife value orientation dimension of 2,264 Alaskans with an emphasis on comparing urban and rural populations, and new and long term residents. This study also investigated relationships among value orientations, demographic characteristics, and outdoor activity participation. Data were collected using a mail survey sent to a random sample of 10,003 people registered to vote in Alaska. In an effort to achieve adequate representation from rural Alaskans, the sample was stratified into five geographic regions, with a goal of receiving at least 400 returned surveys from each region. As hypothesized, rural and long term residents were more use oriented or 'utilitarian' than urban and short term residents. As hypothesized, and supported by existing literature, value orientation differences were found within gender, education, and age. Females, educated, and younger residents were more protection oriented then their counterparts. Significant relationships were found between value orientations and outdoor activity participation; however, correlations were too weak to provide predictive capabilities. Although, this study compared rural areas, with predominately Native populations, to urban areas, with predominately non-Native populations, race comparisons were not analyzed, but results signify that differences may exist. Future research should seek to validate value orientation differences by culture and race and longitudinal studies should assess shifting value changes over time"--Leaf iii
    • The cedar grove and other sorrows

      Stephens, Jacob Robert (2009-05)
      "The Cedar Grove and Other Sorrows chronicles a rural community in western Montana after the deaths of several young men from the town of Stick. Through epistolary, elegaic, and narrative poems, a web of characters address the dead and engage each other in ways that reveal consequences of loss. The sorrows involved are many, but those affected must go on. The accounts are varied, from a tragic drowning and severed friendships to the grief endured by parents outliving their children. Driving the collection is the recapitulation of a failed love affair, which requires of its participants perhaps a similar recognition as those confronting the dead: the awareness of one's life without the other"--Leaf iii
    • Balancing biological sustainability with the economic needs of Alaska's sockeye salmon fisheries

      Steiner, Erin M.; Criddle, Keith R.; Adkison, Milo D.; Kruse, Gordon H. (2009-05)
      "The total revenue of the Bristol Bay, Alaska sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, fishery has continued to decline despite strong run sizes. This decline is primarily attributed to increases in production of farmed Chilean rainbow trout O. mykiss and coho salmon, O. kisutch. Although wild salmon managers have less control over production than salmon farmers, there may be some opportunity to regain value to the fishery by altering management strategies. To explore this potential, we first simulated three management strategies for sockeye salmon: a fixed escapement range strategy, a fixed harvest strategy and a fixed harvest rate strategy. Yields from these simulations were then combined with a forecast of farmed Chilean trout and salmon production and a model of international trade flows for Alaskan sockeye and Chilean coho salmon and rainbow trout to generate forecasts of exvessel price and total revenue for 2010. All three management strategies were able to achieve a run size equilibrium indicating biological sustainability. The highest median yield resulted from the fixed escapement strategy and the lowest median yield was generated by the fixed harvest strategy. Exvessel prices and total revenue were highest under the fixed harvest strategy. These results demonstrate a switch to an inelastic market environment and reveal the need to modify current management strategies to improve the economic health of the fishery"--Leaf iii
    • Holocene vegetation and climate change at Canyon Lake, Copper River basin, Alaska

      Shimer, Grant (2009-05)
      "The regional vegetation response to Holocene warming and the recession of glacial Lake Atria is recorded by environmental proxies in cores from Canyon Lake, near the northern limit of the Copper River Basin. Pollen, spores, plant macrofossils, and stable isotope analyses of C, N and H indicate that conditions in the northern margins stabilized fairly quickly following the recession of Lake Atria around 10740 cal yr BP. The development of a shallow lake ecosystem surrounded by Betula (birch) shrub-tundra was followed by the migration of Picea (spruce) and Alnus (alder) into the Copper River Basin around 9800 cal yr BP and the eventual development of the Picea-dominated boreal forest that persists to this day. The stable isotope record indicates that lake systems are more sensitive to neoglacial cooling, Medieval warming, and the Little Ice Age than the surrounding boreal forest during the middle to late Holocene. The magnitude and severity of these events may have been limited in the Copper River Basin, but climate and vegetation change may have had significant effects on the available resources to the human populations of the region"--Leaf iii
    • The God machine

      Raines, James Arthur (2009-05)
    • Investigation of the impact of ship emissions on atmospheric composition and deposition into remote, coastal landscapes of Southwest Alaska

      Porter, Stacy E. (2009-05)
      "Every summer season, the Gulf of Alaska experiences an influx of shipping traffic, yet ship emissions are only modestly regulated allowing for substantial amounts of pollutants to be released. These pollutants can be transformed and transported affecting atmospheric composition and deposition of contaminants in even remote landscapes. The fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting meteorology and chemistry transport model, WRFChem, is used to simulate physical and chemical processes such as transport, transformation, and deposition. Model simulations for a tourist season are performed without and with the inclusion of a ship emission inventory developed for this study. Ship emissions are shown to significantly increase both primary and secondary pollutant concentrations in the Gulf of Alaska causing reduced visibility and contributing greatly to accumulated deposition into coastal ecosystems. Complex topography also plays a role in regions most affected by ship emissions including Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula. Meteorological conditions govern the temporal evolution of air quality and deposition throughout the season. Evaluation of WRFChem with meteorological observations reveals that it well captures the synoptic situation during the season. WRFChem underestimates aerosol concentrations, but aerosol monitoring sites are sparse within the Gulf of Alaska and may not accurately reflect overall performance"--Leaf iii