• The linear algebra of interpolation with finite applications giving computational methods for multivariate polynomials

      Olmsted, Coert D.; Gislason, Gary A.; Lambert, J. P.; Lando, C. A.; Olson, J. V.; Piacenca, R. J. (1988)
      Linear representation and the duality of the biorthonormality relationship express the linear algebra of interpolation by way of the evaluation mapping. In the finite case the standard bases relate the maps to Gramian matrices. Five equivalent conditions on these objects are found which characterize the solution of the interpolation problem. This algebra succinctly describes the solution space of ordinary linear initial value problems. Multivariate polynomial spaces and multidimensional node sets are described by multi-index sets. Geometric considerations of normalization and dimensionality lead to cardinal bases for Lagrange interpolation on regular node sets. More general Hermite functional sets can also be solved by generalized Newton methods using geometry and multi-indices. Extended to countably infinite spaces, the method calls upon theorems of modern analysis.
    • A Descriptive Analysis Of Yakutat Tlingit Musical Style.

      Morrison, Dorothy; Johnston, Thomas F. (1988)
      Ninety-nine songs from Yakutat, Alaska were analyzed in an effort to determine a musical style of the Gulf Coast Tlingit. Songs were grouped into seven categories from which general trends of style were deduced. Analysis, which was based on the transcriptions of David P. McAllester, included interval distribution, range, tone systems, weighted scales, melodic contour, tempo, duration and rest values, drumming patterns, formal structure, and song length. The transcriptions and data for drumming patterns, formal structure and song length were provided by McAllester in "Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit," by Frederica de Laguna, 1972, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Volume 7, Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press. Stylistic differences in the areas of interval distribution, range, tone systems, weighted scales, melodic contour, and tempo were discovered between the two largest categories, the traditional Sib Potlatch songs and the songs of more recent composition called Haida Mouth songs. <p>
    • Mute Llama

      Ober, Richard Holmes; Soos, Frank; Bishop, Wendy; Perkins, Leroy (1988-09)
      The novella Mute Llama and the short story "The Keeper of Dogs" "both deal with the role that the imagination plays in the articulation of reality through symbols. At its core, this is an issue which involves the very essence of the creation of fictive worlds. In both pieces, the protagonist is engaged in a second-person, internal soliloquy as he is confronted with the startling fluidity of the "real" world of objects. When the objective world is encountered by an active imagination, as it is by each of us every day, the result is a reality that is created, rather than simply observed. The protagonist of each of these pieces comes to this realization and discovers that it produces both existential despair and self-empowerment. In the end, this paradox is central to the understanding of postmodernist art.
    • The Akulmiut: Territorial dimensions of a Yup'ik Eskimo society

      Andrews, Elizabeth Frances; Ellanna, Linda J. (1989)
      This monograph is an ethnohistoric and ethnographic study of 19th and 20th century land and resource use of the Akulmiut, a Yup'ik-speaking Eskimo society that occupied the inland tundra region between the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers of western Alaska. The study examines the relationship between the patterns of spatial organization and wild resource utilization and resource distribution. Ethnographic studies have shown there is considerable variability in socioterritorial organization, which according to one recent theory, applied to this study, can be accounted for by examining the distribution of critical food resources in terms of density and predictability. The Akulmiut were selected for this study because of their unique situation among Alaskan Eskimos in terms of their subsistence economy and geographic location. With an economy based on fishing, utilizing non-salmon species of the low, marshy moist and wet tundra ecosystems, the adaptation of the Akulmiut is distinct among Alaskan Eskimos. Using data for the Akulmiut, this study tests the hypothesis that a territorial system occurs under conditions of high density and predictability (in time and space) of critical resources. Between groups or societies, the Akulmiut exhibited a territorial system of land use and occupancy as predicted when critical resources are dense and predictable. The study found that the key resource species of whitefish (Coregonus sp.) and northern pike (Esox lucius) exhibited resource distribution parameters characterized as predictable in time and location and were abundant or dense. Spatial organization showed that all primary villages and storage and processing facilities were situated where pike and whitefish could be readily intercepted during their annual migrations. The Akulmiut maintained exclusive use through overt defense, but also by means of cultural principles of land and resource use, ceremonial activities, and naming conventions. Dispersion of the population at other times ensured maintenance of a broader area for use in harvesting another key resource, blackfish (Dallia pectoralis). Dispersion was an efficient means of signaling areas used by the group, but also served to monitor incursions throughout the territory. This type of analysis was found to hold promise for explaining the diversity of socioterritorial organization among Alaskan Eskimos.
    • A fully two-dimensional flux-corrected transport algorithm for hyperbolic partial differential equations

      Huang, Sen-Wei; Gislason, Gary (1989)
      Numerical solutions of the hyperbolic partial differential equation, $\partial p\over\partial t$ + $\vec\nabla \cdot (p\vec u)$ = 0, will generally encounter the difficulties of large diffusion and oscillations near steep gradients or discontinuities. The method of Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) developed by Boris and Book has conquered these difficulties for the one-dimensional case. Motivated by this one-dimensional FCT algorithm, a fully two-dimensional FCT algorithm is developed in this present work. This fully two-dimensional FCT algorithm is a two-step procedure: (1) the transport scheme, and (2) the antidiffusion scheme. The second step of the procedure could also be replaced by an application of the one-dimensional antidiffusion algorithm in the x direction and the y direction separately. The stability, phase shift errors and positivity for the fully two-dimensional transport scheme are analyzed. Test results are presented. The possibility of the extension of the FCT method to three dimensions are discussed.
    • Aleut Settlement Patterns In The Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

      Corbett, Debra Garland (1991)
      This thesis presents a settlement pattern analysis of prehistoric midden sites in the Near Islands, Alaska. It represents the only such study to date, which focuses on an entire island group inhabited by a distinct social/political entity. This is also one of the few settlement pattern studies to address maritime hunting-fishing people. Aerial photography was an important part of the analysis. Coupled with other site inventories, photographs were used to "survey" the Near Islands. A total of 106 sites, including 91 middens were located, with the middens forming the basis of the analysis. Site sizes and locations were correlated with a range of environmental and social factors, and functions and seasons of use proposed for about half the sites analyzed. Further elaboration of resource distributions could extend these predictions to more sites. <p>
    • Walk Softly With Me: Adventures Of A Woman Big-Game Guide In Alaska

      Mcleod-Everette, Sharon Esther; Murray, John A. (1993)
      Walk Softly With Me: Adventures of a Woman Big-Game Guide in Alaska is a memoir blending adventure, description, dialogue, and humor. The animals and landscapes in Interior Alaska are revealed through the eyes of a woman tackling the male-dominated arena of big-game guiding. The thesis describes the author's evolution from hunting rabbits and tender moose for subsistence to leading clients in search of trophies. In an attempt to provide an objective view of the ethics of hunting and game management, the author explores the question of why we hunt and our relationship with the animals we pursue.<p> The thesis is written in informal first person point of view, beginning with early homesteading life and moving through scenes with hunters and other guides. The natural history of animals is woven into the narrative, as are the changes that the author experiences. The thesis culminates with the author's introspective look at why she guides and whether she will continue. <p>
    • Alutiiq ethnicity

      Partnow, Patricia Hartley; Black, Lydia T.; Dauenhauer, Richard; Morrow, Phyllis; Schneider, William S.; Ellanna, Linda J.; Leer, Jeff; Stolzberg, Richard J. (1993)
      In this project I consider how Alaska Peninsula Alutiiqs (Pacific Eskimos) maintain and express a sense of continuity with their past and how in today's world they use their understanding of the past to renegotiate and reenact their ethnic identity. I do so through an ethnohistorical reconstruction of Alutiiq ethnic identity from precontact days to the present and through a consideration of the role oral tradition and community ritual play in the constant reformulation of Alutiiq identity. I discuss the symbols considered most diagnostically Alutiiq (i.e., those which make up the Alutiiq identity configuration) and explore their meanings as Alutiiqs utilize and manipulate them in a variety of settings. Originally based on a common language, the Alutiiq identity developed into a full-blown ethnicity over a period of 200 years of contact with non-indigenous peoples, first the Russians and then the Americans. As Alutiiq identity became more uniform and pervasive throughout the Alaska Peninsula, its uniformity was balanced by a cultural tendency toward emphasis on local society. Today's Alutiiq identity configuration is characterized by ties to the land, a belief in a shared history with other Alutiiqs, acknowledgement of Alutiiq as the ancestral language, adherence to some level of subsistence lifestyle, and a kinship link to Alutiiqs of the past. For this study I undertook both archival research and fieldwork, the latter focusing on folklore transmission and performance (particularly ethnohistorical narratives and ritual performances). I discuss how verbal and dramatic folklore performances, considered in historic, social, and cultural context, serve as a vehicle for defining, reconceptualizing, and reinforcing ethnicity. I employ a situational (in contrast to a group-with-boundaries) model of ethnicity in conjunction with ethnohistoric and folklore analysis to illuminate the processes which have led to today's Alutiiq identity configuration. I further consider the ramifications the Alutiiq case has for general ethnicity theory.
    • Transfer and Steenrod squares

      Litvanyi, Peter Ivo; Piacenza, Robert (1993)
      Commutators between the transfer and Steenrod squares have been investigated by several authors. Let X be a finite simplicial complex and $\tau$ be a regular involution on X. If $\tau$ has no fixed point, then the commutator is trivial by certain results in generalized cohomology theory. For involutions with possible fixed points, the commutator was first expressed by Bott as $\Delta\sp*$Sq$\sp{\rm i}$ + Sq$\sp{\rm i}\Delta\sp* = \mu$Sq$\sp{\rm i-1}\Delta\sp*.$ Here $\Delta\sp*$ is the transfer map and $\mu$ denotes the connecting morphism of the Smith sequence. Another formula, closely related to the one above, was given by Kubelka and gives the commutator in terms of the cohomology class restricted to the fixed point set and certain characteristic classes arising from the double cover of the complement to the fixed point set. In this thesis, I prove the generalization of the formulas above for sheaf cohomology. As one of the consequences, due to the powerful nature of sheaf theory we gain the results without serious restrictions on the space: X is required to be paracompact, Hausdorff. In Chapter 1, I review the standard sheaf-theoretical constructions for both the transfer and the Steenrod powers based on Bredon's results. I state and prove a few technical lemmas on Smith sequences that are necessary in my setting. In Chapter 2, I state and prove the analogue of Bott's formula for paracompact Hausdorff spaces. In Chapter 3, we derive a generalization of Kubelka's formula for spaces as above.
    • Homology and cohomology of diagrams of topological spaces

      Sarnowski, Krzysztof; Piacenza, Robert J.; Cooper, Charles L.; Coutant, Basil W.; Morack, John L.; Santoni, Larry; Tape, Walter R. (1994)
      Homology and cohomology of objects other than ordinary topological spaces have been investigated by several authors. Let X be a G-space and ${\cal F}$ be a family of all closed subgroups of G. The equivariant cellular structures are obtained by attaching n-cells of the form G/H $\times$ B$\sp{\rm n}$, where B$\sp{\rm n}$ is the unit n-ball and H $\in\ {\cal F}$. A construction of the equivariant singular homology and cohomology for X and ${\cal F}$ was given by Soren Illman. In this thesis ${\cal F}$ is replaced by a small topological category and the G-space X is replaced by a functor taking values in k-spaces and called a diagram of topological spaces. The cellular structures for diagrams are obtained by attaching cells D$\sb{j}\times\rm B\sp{n}$ where D$\sb{j}$ is a representable functor. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate homology and cohomology for diagrams. We review the foundation of homotopy theory and cellular theory for diagrams. We propose axioms for homology and cohomology modeled on Eilenberg-Steenrod system of axioms and prove that they, as in the classical case, determine uniquely homology and cohomology for finite cellular diagrams. We give the generalization of Illman's equivariant singular homology and cohomology to diagrams of topological spaces and we prove that this generalization satisfies all introduced axioms. Also we prove the comparison theorem between the sheaf cohomology for diagrams developed by Robert J. Piacenza and the singular cohomology for diagrams developed in this thesis.
    • The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Siberia

      Goebel, Frank E. (Ted); Powers, W. Roger; Scott, G. Richard; Hopkins, David M.; Guthrie, R. Dale; Gerlach, S. Craig (1994)
      This dissertation presents results of recent research in Siberia directed at (1) developing an accurate archaeological chronology for the mid-Upper Pleistocene of Siberia (chiefly through accelerator radiocarbon methods), and (2) defining and characterizing the region's Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Eleven Middle Paleolithic sites are now known from southwest Siberia. Relative age estimates of these cultural occupations range from the Last Interglacial (oxygen-isotope substage 5e, 128,000-118,000 years ago) to the mid-Middle Pleniglacial (oxygen-isotope stage 3,50,000-40,000 years ago). Associated lithic industries are Levallois and Mousterian. Middle Paleolithic interassemblage lithic variability is hinged on the differential production of Levallois points and Levallois flakes, and the intensity of side scraper reduction. Hominid remains from two sites, Denisova Peshchera and Peshchera Okladnikov, appear pre-modern and exhibit affinities to Neanderthals from southwest Asia. At least 15 sites have been assigned to the Siberian early Upper Paleolithic. Radiocarbon dates range from 42,000 to 30,000 years ago. Occupations at Kara-Bom (component IIa), Makarovo-4, and Varvarina Gora predate the effective range of radiocarbon dating (40,000 years ago), and may be considerably older than radiocarbon dates suggest. Initial Upper Paleolithic industries are characterized by the detachment of blades from "flat-faced" parallel blade cores, the absence of Levallois techniques, the presence of bifacial and burin secondary reduction technologies, and tool kits with end scrapers, angle burins, wedges, gravers, bifacial knives, and slender retouched points on blades. Also occurring for the first time are worked bone, ivory, and antler points, awls, and needles, pendants and other items of personal adornment, and rare examples of mobiliary art. Diagnostic hominid fossils are absent. The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition involved dramatic and multi-faceted changes in tool technologies and tool forms. Patterns of change are discrete rather than discontinuous; no transitional industries have been identified. Stratigraphic evidence indicates rapid succession from one technocomplex to the other. This evidence supports population replacement rather than continuity for the origins of the Siberian Upper Paleolithic. Whether this event also signals the appearance of modern humans in this and surrounding areas of inner Asia must await additional hominid fossil discoveries.
    • Understanding Loglan.

      Rice, Stephen Leon (1994)
      Loglan is a language designed to help test Whorf's hypothesis that language shapes thought. Specifically, Loglan should encourage more creative and logical thought in its users. Such future users will need a readable textbook of the language; that is the purpose of the present work. <p>
    • Indigenous Television In The Canadian North: Evolution, Operation, And Impact On Cultural Preservation.

      Neuheimer, William Joel (1994)
      Indigenous television broadcasting in the Canadian North has evolved as a successful response to help mitigate the cultural domination imposed over the aboriginal people in the Canadian North via television which originates in the Canadian South and other dominant television producers such as the United States. I have concluded, based on my research and the results from a survey of indigenous people in the Canadian North, that the evolution of indigenous television in the Canadian North has enabled the indigenous people of the Canadian North to achieve greater cultural stability within the increased political empowerment and self-determination that their television programming has been able to afford them. A brief discussion of the evolution of indigenous television in Australia compares the evolution of a similar system in another context and emphasizes the success of the Canadian experience. <p>
    • Alaska's First Wolf Controversy: Predator And Prey In Mount McKinley National Park, 1930-1953.

      Rawson, Timothy Mark; Cole, Terrence; Read, Colin; Erickson, Karen (1994)
      The decision in the 1930s by the National Park Service to quit eliminating predatory animals in parks arose from evolving attitudes among scientists toward predation, but had little public support. Of the various parks, only Mount McKinley National Park still held wolves, and the National Park Service received considerable opposition to wolf protection from the eastern Camp Fire Club of America and from Alaskans. The former desired permanent protection from wolves for the park's Dall sheep, while the latter could not understand protecting wolves when, throughout Alaska, efforts were made to minimize wolves. Using material from the National Archives and Alaskan sources, this historical study examines the role of public opinion as the Park Service attempted to respond to its critics and still adhere to its protective faunal management philosophy, in what was the nation's first argument over offering sanctuary to our most charismatic predator. <p>
    • Masked rituals of the Kodiak Archipelago

      Desson, Dominique; Black, Lydia T.; Pierce, Richard A.; Schweitzer, Peter P.; Morrow, Phyllis; Leer, Jeff (1995)
      The traditional culture of the Alutiiq speakers of the Kodiak Archipelago is not well known, and information on their spiritual and ritual life has been lacking. In this thesis I use ethnographic, ethnohistoric, and iconographic materials to investigate the Koniag traditional world view and belief system and some aspects of the Koniag ritual system. Specifically, I analyze the individual, private masked rituals associated with whaling and the public masked rituals performed during the winter festivals. In the second part, I examine a large sample of surviving Alutiiq masks in order to determine aesthetic canons evident in the work of 19th and 20th century Koniag carvers. Visual preferences in mask making in terms of construction, volumes, shapes, colors, and designs are defined and differences in those preferences between the three Alutiiq speakers' groups of the Kodiak Archipelago, Prince William Sound, and the Alaska Peninsula are discussed.
    • Technological development and culture change on St. Lawrence Island: A functional typology of toggle harpoon heads

      Lewis, Michael A. (1995)
      Our understanding of the culture history of the Bering Strait region is based on the chronology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed by Henry Collins in 1937. Subsequent attempts to develop harpoon head typologies from other parts of the Bering Strait are built on Collins' stylistic classification, which does not account for the full range of variation in St. Lawrence Island harpoon heads. The resulting confusion of harpoon head categories has clouded the interpretation of patterns in the material remains and has perpetuated a unilineal theory of culture change in Bering Strait Eskimo groups. This dissertation critically examines previous investigations and interpretations of archeological sites on St. Lawrence Island and Punuk Island. A contextual analysis of radiocarbon dates from these sites serves to evaluate the currently accepted chronology of occupation. The typology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed is based on a structural analysis of the raw materials and a functional analysis of the components of the harpoon head. The concept of functional strategies explains variation in harpoon head styles and gives meaning to the statistical analysis of attribute associations. A series of dendrochronological dates from the Kukulik site is compared with radiocarbon dates from other sites and combined with the harpoon head typology to develop a chronology of St. Lawrence Island occupations. The harpoon head typology reveals the presence of two distinct culture groups co-resident on St. Lawrence Island and the Bering Strait region from approximately 1600 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P. The Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group, associated with a generalized Eskimo subsistence adaptation, was present from 1600 to 1300 cal C-14 B.P. The Okvik/Ipiutak group, focused on sea mammal and whale hunting, is undated on St. Lawrence Island. Based on comparison with date ranges in other Bering Strait sites, the Okvik/Ipiutak group is assumed to be roughly contemporaneous with the Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group. The interaction of these two groups on St. Lawrence Island, interpreted by Collins as the Punuk culture, was present from 1300 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P.