Now showing items 1-20 of 568

• #### The 1951 Bristol Bay salmon strike: isolation, independence and illusion in the last frontier

Many people consider Alaska the last frontier, isolated and independent from the rest of the United States. An analysis of the salmon industry in Bristol Bay and a strike that occurred in 1951 cast doubt upon this belief. The labor dispute and preceding events paint a vivid picture of a population clearly dependent on a fishing industry controlled by absentee owners who manipulated events from Seattle and San Francisco. The strikers included Natives and Non-Natives who joined together to fight the powerful cannery owners and west coast unions who sought to expand their membership. Some of these unions had suspected communist members, and Alaska joined in the paranoia that seized the rest of the United States in their cold war fear of Communism. The strike and the actions of participants in the strike illustrate how Alaska's isolation and independence was but an illusion in the last frontier.
• #### 575 Tlingit verbs: a study of Tlingit verb paradigms

The Tlingit language, indigenous to Southeast Alaska and neighboring parts of British Columbia and the Yukon territory, is related to the Athabascan languages and the recently extinct language Eyak. Like Athabascan and Eyak, Tlingit verbal morphology is highly complex. The conjugation of Tlingit verbs is unpredictable in certain respects, making the documentation of verb forms from native speakers critical, due to the highly endangered state of the language, and because this has never before been documented for Tlingit. The objectives of the research presented here are twofold: 1) to document complete paradigms for 575 verbs, and; 2) to create a reference for second language learners and teachers of Tlingit. For each of the verbs included in the research, twelve modes were systematically documented through consultation with a group of native speakers. The newly documented forms were compiled into a database using Toolbox software and additionally organized into a user-friendly online database, hosted on the Goldbelt Heritage Foundation website. Based on the documented forms, descriptions of each of the twelve modes were written, with second language students and teachers as the target audience. The descriptions of each mode include information pertaining to the semantics, morphology, and verb stem variation, and are intended to assist second language learners in mastering the difficult task of conjugating Tlingit verbs. Another critical item included for each verb entry is the verb theme, which illustrates all of its component parts including thematic prefix, conjugation prefix, classifier, and stem. The accompanying detailed description of each element of the verb theme serves as a grammatical sketch of the Tlingit verb for language learners. An additional result of the research is a set of nine prefix combination charts. Because the Tlingit verb has many prefix positions, there are a number of regular contractions that take place in conjugating a verb. The prefix combination charts illustrate the regular contractions that take place between the thematic prefixes, conjugation prefixes, aspect prefixes, subject prefixes, and classifiers, to name a few. These charts show language learners how to switch between subject prefixes for a given verb.
• #### A Communication Perspective Of Alcoholism Recovery: Narratives Of Success

Understanding alcoholism and how it wreaks havoc upon the human condition has been and continues to be a prime concern for social scientists, psychologists, physicians, therapists, the legal system, a host of other concerned professionals, and society in general, particularly those who suffer from this "dis-ease" (Denzin, 1987a). Much past research has focused upon physiological concerns, suggesting disease, genetic, or even allergic connections. While such research certainly carries significant import and credibility, this study focuses on the social construction of the alcoholic identity and eventual evolution into a recovering identity. The methodology of narrative inquiry with conversational interviewing as method provides insight into six individuals' shifting perceptions of self and relationships from their alcoholic experiences to increasingly more viable social interactions and eventual positive self identity construction. Emergent themes focus on interactive social context, divided feelings toward alcohol, communication of individual responsibility, and realignment of human values.
• #### A Descriptive Analysis Of Yakutat Tlingit Musical Style.

Ninety-nine songs from Yakutat, Alaska were analyzed in an effort to determine a musical style of the Gulf Coast Tlingit. Songs were grouped into seven categories from which general trends of style were deduced. Analysis, which was based on the transcriptions of David P. McAllester, included interval distribution, range, tone systems, weighted scales, melodic contour, tempo, duration and rest values, drumming patterns, formal structure, and song length. The transcriptions and data for drumming patterns, formal structure and song length were provided by McAllester in "Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit," by Frederica de Laguna, 1972, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Volume 7, Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press. Stylistic differences in the areas of interval distribution, range, tone systems, weighted scales, melodic contour, and tempo were discovered between the two largest categories, the traditional Sib Potlatch songs and the songs of more recent composition called Haida Mouth songs. <p>
• #### A fully two-dimensional flux-corrected transport algorithm for hyperbolic partial differential equations

Numerical solutions of the hyperbolic partial differential equation, $\partial p\over\partial t$ + $\vec\nabla \cdot (p\vec u)$ = 0, will generally encounter the difficulties of large diffusion and oscillations near steep gradients or discontinuities. The method of Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) developed by Boris and Book has conquered these difficulties for the one-dimensional case. Motivated by this one-dimensional FCT algorithm, a fully two-dimensional FCT algorithm is developed in this present work. This fully two-dimensional FCT algorithm is a two-step procedure: (1) the transport scheme, and (2) the antidiffusion scheme. The second step of the procedure could also be replaced by an application of the one-dimensional antidiffusion algorithm in the x direction and the y direction separately. The stability, phase shift errors and positivity for the fully two-dimensional transport scheme are analyzed. Test results are presented. The possibility of the extension of the FCT method to three dimensions are discussed.
• #### A Maritime Sense Of Place: Southeast Alaska Fishermen And Mainstream Nature Ideologies

This thesis portrays Southeast Alaska fishermen's 'senses of place' on the sea, elicited through interviews. The distinctiveness of a fishing culture, and the demands and opportunities of the occupation and environment, result in a relationship to place different from the majority society. Themes discussed include being at home on the sea, the environment as a basis for occupational choice, territorial flexibility, preference for wild nature, and wild nature produces exploitatable surpluses. The variability of the environment affects patterns of learning, models of nature, and values in inter-personal interactions. Relationship to 'place' is found to be central to the culture, but as the area becomes identified by outsiders as "wilderness," national environmental organizations and others regard fishermen as 'out of place'. Differences from modern Western society in relationship to 'place' and 'nature', highlighted by the Glacier Bay National Park case, are proposed to explain negative perceptions of these fisheries. <p>
• #### A Narrative Study Of The Lived Experience Of Contemporary American Women In Intimate Relationships With Men Who Have Chronic Low Back Pain

Everyone experiences pain to one degree or another, but pain that has outlived its usefulness in assisting the body to avoid injury, and causes other physical and emotional complications, is known as chronic pain. In American medicine, chronic pain is described as that which persists longer than six months and is not relieved by standard medical care. Chronic pain usually leads to a spectrum of other physical and emotional complications, including sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, and severe depression, among many others. Creating and maintaining relationships with others takes effort and energy, and this is especially true in a marital relationship. Marriage between two able-bodied people is challenging enough, so the added variable of chronic pain forms new dimensions of relationship difficulty that must be addressed.
• #### A Parent's Choice

In one rural Alaska school district, parents have a choice to place their child in an English only school or a Yup'ik immersion school. In the English only school, all subjects are taught in English. In the dual immersion school, English is introduced at third grade and progressively increases with each grade level until the sixth grade, when students exit the program. The researcher will seek to find why parents choose to place their child in the English only school or in the Yup'ik Immersion School. This inquiry is to help the researcher understand the thoughts and perceptions that are being held by parents and members in the community about each of the schools. The study will use qualitative research methodology that includes questionnaires and personal interviews to find out the thoughts and feelings that are being held by the parents. This research seeks to find the reasons why parents choose one school over the other. After reviewing the questionnaires, the researcher will select five parents from each school with various backgrounds to interview. The researcher will conduct ethnographic interviews designed to elicit more in-depth information. The interviews will be coded and emergent themes identified. Through data analysis, the researcher hopes to discover the reasons why parents are choosing each of the schools.
• #### A statewide training model for supported employment using master trainers

Alaska's vast land mass and diversified urban, rural, and remote communities require innovative training curricula to meet training needs in supported employment. A competency-based training program using an independent learning format and master trainers was developed to meet these extreme needs. These training methods were evaluated with survey instruments at the time of training and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year follow up. The data demonstrate that the training materials as well as the independent study format and master trainer model were effective training methods. We conclude that the training methods developed are effective in meeting the diverse training needs of urban, rural, and remote sites.
• #### A World Of Difference: Emma Wolf, A Jewish-American Writer On The American Frontier

"A World of Difference: Emma Wolf, A Jewish-American Writer on the American Frontier" is the first dissertation to undertake a scholarly inquiry of Wolf's Jewish novels, Other Things Being Equal and Heirs of Yesterday. Emma Wolf (1865--1932) was a Jewish-American literary pioneer who interrogated prevailing models of late nineteenth-century femininity, Judaism, and bifurcated, Jewish-American identity. This study retrieves the fiction of this native Californian from the margins of both Jewish and American literature. At the close of the nineteenth century, nearly all interest in American-Jewish life focused on the Eastern European Jewish immigrants on the Lower East Side of New York City. Emma Wolf's fiction imparts a singular glimpse of a Western American enclave of Jewish life. Remarkably, Wolf's Jewish novels resist the prevailing patterns of assimilation espoused by most Jewish writers at the end of the century. Instead of abandoning culture, faith, and family, Wolf embraces Jewish particularity. The preservation of Jewish identity in Wolf's fiction is a consequence of her American birth, her California origins, and her conviction that Jewish difference is as important as American conformity. Other Things Being Equal (1892) scrutinizes the struggle of a young Jewish woman who wants to marry a Christian. In sanctioning intermarriage, the novel abrogates religious precepts and contravenes the customary marital patterns of Jewish women. The implications of intermarriage afford Wolf the opportunity to expand on issues of Jewish affirmation and Jewish difference. In Heirs of Yesterday (1900) Wolf examines divergent responses of Jewish-Americans to anti-Semitism. In order to protect himself from discrimination, Dr. Philip May hides his Jewish birth. Wolf suggests that Jews who are forgetful of their ethnic identity are as misguided as the segment of American society that discriminates against them. This study of Emma Wolf's Jewish novels concludes that we must take a new literary census, one that embraces minority writers, like Emma Wolf, in order to appreciate the pluralism of the American literary canon and the full panoply of the nation's cultural productivity.
• #### About time: chronological variation as seen in the burial features at Ipiutak, Point Hope

The burials at Ipiutak, Point Hope, Alaska, are best known for their spectacular grave goods and burial practices, considered by the excavators to be suggestive of a 'ghost cult', and more recently to be evidence of social complexity. Collections from the National Museum of Denmark, the American Museum of Natural History, and the University of Alaska Museum are studied and re-inventoried, and burial features on the Ipiutak peninsula are re-mapped. Examination of burial practices reveals four burial types, defined in terms of the structure and organization of associated wood. Differences between burial types and variation in artifact inventories are ascribed to taphonomic processes, and to variation in mortuary behavior over time. Accelerator Mass Spectronomy dates support the view that the cemetery was formed over at least 500 years, and reflects long term site use rather than differences in gender and social status.
• #### An acoustic study of stem prominence in Hän Athabascan

Observations in many studies of Athabascan languages have indicated that the stem syllable displays phonetic prominence, perhaps due to its semantic or structural importance, which is realized through a variety of acoustic means. Features such as voicing, duration, manner of articulation, voice quality, and vowel quality pattern differently in stems and prefixes, both in the diachronic developments of Athabascan phonology as well as in the synchronic, phonetic realizations of individual phonemes. This acoustic study of the Hän language investigates the synchronic realization of this morphological conditioning in fricatives, stops, and vowels, and attempts to unify several different phonological effects into a single theory of stem prominence. The results show that the most regular and predictable of these correlates of stem prominence is the increase in duration of segments in stem onsets (consonants) and nuclei (vowels). Additional variations in features that pattern according to morphological category, such as voicing (in fricatives), voice quality (in ejectives), and vowel quality are considered secondary effects largely influenced by duration.
• #### Adolph Murie: Denali's Wilderness Conscience

Denali National Park, Alaska substantially owes its stature as Alaska's premier wilderness park to Adolph Murie. Forty years after he retired as park biologist, Murie still influences the perception and management of Denali National Park. Murie's development from childhood to esteemed scientist and wilderness advocate followed a linear progression. His rural upbringing under the tutelage of his older brother, Olaus Murie, cultivated his desire to be a biologist and his appreciation for wild places. His academic training in animal ecology solidified his belief that the management of natural areas must consider all species as essential and equally valuable. His pioneering wildlife studies as one of the National Park Service's first biologists changed national opinion. He led the opposition against plans for extensive construction and development in Denali National Park during the Mission 66 era. In doing so he left the imprint of his wilderness ethic on the park.
• #### Adult ancestral language learning and effects on identity

This qualitative study explored the relationship between Gwich'in adult language learning and identity development. Identity is dynamic, fluid and reflects how a person positions themselves and is positioned by others. A person's sense of self influences their feelings, actions, and behaviors. Using grounded theory as an analytical tool and activity theory as a theoretical lens, this study offers self-as-a leading activity as a way to conceptualize the identity formation of two adult Gwich'in language learners. The way a person looks is not a factor in Gwich'in identity, and also to claim the identity of being Gwich'in, one does not have to know the language. There are other strong identity markers, such as cultural knowledge, knowing who your ancestors were and where you came from. However, those who are learning the Gwich'in language feel a stronger connection to gain deeper insights into the Gwich'in worldview. The final outcome of this research are the implications of Activity Theory, which can be used as an analytical tool. Using Activity Theory can help explain for language learners and others, the rules, division of labor, and help identify tensions or contradictions between what the community want to see happen for language learning. The data in this research identifies tensions or contradictions that the main participants experienced, such as the need for positive support, language usage, and practicing to gain proficiency.
• #### African rooster

'African Rooster' takes place in Lesotho, a tiny country surrounded by South Africa at a time of considerable tension. In 1994, South Africa is in the infancy of its democracy and Lesotho is thrown into turmoil with its own coup d'état. John David ("Jed") Kendall, a white, middle-class American, is thrown into this world as a nominal missionary balancing his own cultural and moral baggage with African sensibilities. My first choice of first person narrative allows for an examination of racial and cultural questions in African society without my narrator having to assume an air of authority that a third person might convey. It also allows more sympathy with Jed's sometimes unsympathetic character. Thematic notions of loyalty, justice, and racism propel the principal relationship between Jed/Senate and his 'brother, ' Tsediso. Their interactions become the primary vehicle for examining cultural, racial, and moral conflicts within Jed
• #### Agentive And Patientive Verb Bases In North Alaskan Inupiaq

This dissertation is concerned with North Alaskan Inupiaq Eskimo. It has two goals: (i) to provide a grammatical sketch of the Upper Kobuk dialect of this language; (ii) to investigate agentive and patientive verb bases. Chapter 2 is a grammatical sketch of the Upper Kobuk dialect of North Alaskan Inupiaq. Chapter through 5 deal with two types of verb bases in this language, called agentive and patientive. As we see in Chapter 3, agentive and patientive verb bases are verb bases that can inflect either intransitively or transitively, and they differ in the following ways: (i) prototypical agentive bases have the intransitive subject corresponding with the transitive subject, and do not require a half-transitive postbase to become antipassive; (ii) prototypical patientive bases have the intransitive subject corresponding with the transitive object, and require a half-transitive postbase to become antipassive. In Chapter 4, I present the polarity---the property of being agentive or patientive---of all the verb bases that can inflect either intransitively or transitively, sorted by meaning, in order to uncover semantic features that characterize agentive and patientive bases. I identify 13 semantic features, such as indicating the agent's process for agentive bases and the lack of agent control for patientive bases. All these semantic features are related with the saliency of the agent or patient. In Chapter 5, I investigate several pieces of evidence that show that the dividing line between the agentive and patientive classes is not rigid: (i) There are verb bases that can have the intransitive subject corresponding with either the transitive subject or object. (ii) Some verb bases may or may not take a half-transitive postbase to become antipassive. (iii) Certain postbases or a certain verb mood turn agentive bases into patientive or patientive bases into agentive. Although two classes of verbs similar to the agentive and patientive classes in Inupiaq are found in many languages, such phenomena as described in this chapter are seldom studied. This chapter purports to be the fast coherent study of its kind. The appendices contain two Inupiaq texts.
• #### Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky--one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.
• #### Alaska Native attachment: a qualitative study with four Athabascan participants

Attachment between caregiver and child is an affectional, nurturing bond that develops through the provision of sensitive, constantly available, and responsive care for the child. The attachment bond evolves around diverse interactive experiences that encourage the development of cognitive-emotional schemata and the internalization of a cognitive-emotional working model of relationships. Different cultural experiences encourage the development of different cognitive-emotional schemata. Using a semi-structured interview, behavior, values, and the developmental endpoint associated with attachment was collaboratively explored with four Athabascan research participants, and concepts that emerged were compared and contrasted with those articulated by mainstream attachment theory within Western psychology. Attachment domains that emerged from triangulated interview data were (1) caregiver sensitivity, (2) trust development, (3) exploring, and (4) social competence. In mainstream attachment theory, one caregiver is the primary secure base for a child. Athabascan primary caregivers were a component of a larger community-wide secure base that included important secondary caregivers within a large kinship structure. In mainstream attachment theory, Western cultural values guide a social attachment process toward autonomy and self-direction for the individual. Athabascan community encourages values such as sharing of materials and community solidarity; an endpoint to the attachment process is instead social competence.
• #### Alaska Native claims settlement act and the unresolved issues of profit sharing, corporate democracy, and the new generations of Alaska Natives

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was an experiment and a radical departure from policies in creating corporations with all shareholders being equal. The replication of publically traded corporate governance has created frustrations, inequities and unintended consequences for thousands of Natives which can be righted only if the experiment is continued. This is not a history of land claims but an attempt to unravel a tangled web of leadership, political, and rural development issues that are intimately interwoven with the ANCSA corporations. This paper is not about second guessing the leadership of the movement but about the need to understand how difficult it is to create rural development on corporate lands whose shareholders may or may not be residents and may not be Native.