• "Dance, dance, dance: Alaska stories"

      Wise, Zoë E.; Soos, Frank; Johnson, Sara; Heyne, Eric (2019-05)
      Dance, Dance, Dance: Alaska Stories is a collection of young women's coming of age stories. The protagonists range in age from teenager to middle aged, and the circumstances that provoke their epiphanies include events spanning from the mundane to the dramatic, such as looking through a photo album, and death. Protagonists who move through these cumulative events seek to emerge from past identities and understandings of themselves. In all of these stories the Alaskan setting is important. Physical environment, in some stories, is only perceived to be a barrier; in other stories, the setting functions as a conflict that frustrates characters' desires. Regardless, all protagonists, to a degree, ultimately realize themselves to be a barrier, and must overcome internal conflicts before coming to terms with--or abandoning--their external environment. A technical aspect of these stories that I have particularly focused on developing is the varied point of view. The ranges of points of view in these stories include retrospective first person, second person, and third person limited. In this collection I focused on the irony that each point of view, when working with a coming of age story, can provide. Narrative distance in these stories is used to highlight the difference between what the characters know and understand and what we, the readers, understand about their situations
    • Dance/movement therapy (DMT) for cancer survivors and caregivers in Fairbanks, Alaska

      Sharma, Dinghy Kristine B.; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Rivkin, Inna D.; Swift, Joshua K.; Goodill, Sharon W. (2016-08)
      Worldwide, the burden of cancer continues to grow and impact the quality of life of patients, their families, and caregivers. Aside from the physical effects and financial costs of cancer and its treatment, a significant portion of cancer patients and their caregivers experience emotional, social, and psychological distress throughout the trajectory of their illness and extending to long-term survivorship. Despite medical advances in cancer treatment, a cancer diagnosis is still often considered to be synonymous with death, pain, and suffering. It has been established that engaging in the creative arts could promote quality of life (QOL) especially for those suffering from chronic illnesses such as cancer. Specifically, studies on dance/movement therapy (DMT) have indicated its efficacy as a complementary and holistic intervention in providing social support, decreasing fatigue and stress, increasing mobility, and enhancing overall wellbeing of cancer survivors. Results from a pilot DMT study that explored the cultural suitability, feasibility, and benefits of using DMT in the post-treatment QOL of Alaska Native cancer survivors indicated positive impacts on participants' mobility, body awareness, emotional expression, self-care, and wellbeing. Participants from the pilot study highlighted the need for providing DMT in the community and opening the DMT group to both cancer survivors and caregivers. This suggestion was in consideration of the lack of support groups available to both cancer survivors and caregivers that focus on cancer survivorship and promotion of quality of life. Existing locally available cancer support groups emphasize cancer education but are limited in meeting the psycho-social, emotional and physical needs of both cancer survivors and caregivers. The encouraging results and feedback from participants not only supported existing studies on DMT's cross-cultural benefits in promoting QOL among cancer survivors but also provided the rationale for a larger dissertation study for survivors and caregivers in Fairbanks, Alaska. It was in this context that DMT's significance in increased survivorship and QOL among cancer survivors and caregivers in Alaska was examined. The study employed a sequential, mixed methods small-N design in investigating the therapeutic benefits of DMT among cancer survivors and caregivers (N = 16) in a practice-based setting in Fairbanks, Alaska. Adhering to the principles of community-based partnership research (CBPR), the study established a collaborative partnership with the Fairbanks Memorial Hospital as it piloted a 12- week, open DMT group intervention for cancer survivors and caregivers. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase 1: DMT Intervention (12 weeks) and Phase 2: Follow-up and Findings Meeting (3 months after the last offered DMT session), which assessed DMT’s lasting effects on participants. Quantitative and qualitative data were employed to examine DMT’s effects on participant’s mental health functioning, body awareness, subjective QOL, and sense of group cohesiveness and engagement with the DMT group. Quantitative findings indicated significant improvements in participants’ mental health functioning with a moderate effect size after participation in the DMT program. Although no significant pre- to post-change was found on participants’ subjective QOL, cancer survivors reported significantly better QOL (social, emotional and functional wellbeing) at the three-month follow-up, suggesting that DMT can offer late, but possibly lasting, positive changes. Additionally, participants’ ability for selfregulation and use of avoidance as a coping tool for pain were found to increase after their DMT participation. No significant changes were noted in participants’ level of cohesion with the DMT group. However, qualitative findings indicate that participants found that the DMT program was extremely beneficial in promoting their physical, psychological, social and spiritual wellbeing and expressed overall strong positive feelings toward their DMT group. Implications for research and clinic practice were discussed as informed by the study’s strengths and limitations. One the study’s strengths is its adherence to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) as an over-arching framework in guiding all aspects of the research process. By establishing a collaborative partnership between the UAF academic community and the local community hospital (Fairbanks Memorial Hospital), this study was able to build on the community’s strengths and resources in an effort to help promote cancer survivorship for cancer survivors and caregivers. Future recommendations include further strengthening collaborative community partnerships with a larger, DMT confirmatory study using a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) design, while integrating a mixed-methods approach. Implementing these strategies would help establish DMT’s efficacy as a holistic and ecologically valid intervention for cancer survivors and caregivers in Fairbanks, Alaska.
    • The deadly affairs of John Figaro Newton or a senseless appeal to reason and an elegy for the dreaming

      Campbell, Regan; Farmer, Daryl; Kamerling, Leonard; Coffman, Chris (2020-05)
      Are you really you? Are your memories true? John "Fig" Newton thinks much the same as you do. But in three separate episodes of his life, he comes to see things are a little more strange and less straightforward than everyone around him has been inured to the point of pretending they are; maybe it's all some kind of bizarre form of torture for someone with the misfortune of assuming they embody a real and actual person. Whatever the case, Fig is sure he can't trust that truth exists, and over the course of his many doomed relationships and professional foibles, he continually strives to find another like him--someone incandescent with rage, and preferably, as insane and beautiful as he.
    • Deconstructing the western worldview: toward the repatriation and indigenization of wellness

      Rahm, Jacqueline Marie; Koskey, Michael; Lewis, Jordan; John, Theresa; Leonard, Beth (2014-12)
      As Indigenous peoples and scholars advance Native histories, cultures, and languages, there is a critical need to support these efforts by deconstructing the western worldview in a concerted effort to learn from indigenous knowledge and ways of knowing for humanity's future wellbeing. Toward that imperative, this research brings together and examines pieces of the western story as they intersect with Indigenous peoples of the lands that now comprise the United States of America. Through indigenous frameworks and methodologies, it explores a forgotten epistemology of the pre-Socratic and Pythagorean Archaic and Classical Greek eras that is far more similar to indigenous worldviews than it is to the western paradigm today. It traces how the West left behind this timeless wisdom for the "new learning" and the European colonial settlers arrived in the old "New World" with a fragmented, materialistic, and dualistic worldview that was the antithesis to those of Indigenous peoples. An imbalanced and privileged worldview not only justified an unacknowledged genocide in world history, it is characteristic of a psycho-spiritual disease that plays out across our global society. This dissertation suggests that the healing of the western mind rests with shifting the dominant paradigm toward a fundamental axiom of holism found within the life-ways of American Indigenous peoples and also buried within the West's own ancestry, particularly within a misunderstood ancient Greek tradition at the cornerstone of the western world.
    • Deeper than blood

      Brownlee, Yavanna M. (2006-05)
      The poems in 'Deeper than Blood' present a mosaic of geographic location, intensely personal events, friends, family, and observations tied together by a feminine persona who is not afraid to explore her life and the lives of those around her. Section I reaches into the depths of the persona's sexuality and fears of dying, revealing a shadowed and troubled side of the persona. Section II mixes views of the persona from an outside and an inside perspective, looking at how others view her as she stands naked before them and how she observes herself through her past and her memories of people and places. Section III searches through childhood memories, family, and friends for an answer to what comes next in life and after life is over. Throughout the intricate life story presented by these poems, a peaceful mood prevails. By setting the mood as one of calm, the speaker presents the rollercoaster ride of life. Instead of seeming like she is on a wild ride, the persona flows like a boat over the swells of an ocean on a calm day, allowing the reader to take in all the eccentricities of life with the calm that pervades the poetry.
    • Deg Xinag Oral Traditions: Reconnecting Indigenous Language And Education Through Traditional Narratives

      Leonard, Beth R.; Barnhardt, Raymond J. (2007)
      "Deg Xinag," literally 'local language' is the westernmost of the Athabascan 1 languages. The language area is also referred to as "Deg Hit'an," literally, 'local people'. The Deg Hit'an are often referred to inappropriately in anthropological and linguistic literature as "Ingalik," a Yup'ik word meaning 'lice-infested'. There are currently three villages in western, interior Alaska where this language is spoken and about 20 fluent speakers of this language remaining. As I proceeded through my graduate research I came to understand the significance of indigenous language revitalization in relation to its potential contributions to indigenous and cross-cultural education. These contributions include establishing and enhancing self-identity and self-esteem for indigenous students, as well as contributing in-depth knowledge about local environments thereby enhancing place-based and funds of knowledge educational models (Bamhardt and Kawagley 2005: 15; Moll 1990). This dissertation presents an interdisciplinary analysis of a complex, cosmological Deg Hit'an narrative entitled "Nil oqay Ni'idaxin" or "The Man and Wife" told in the Deg Xinag language by the late Belle Deacon of Grayling Alaska (1987b). Deacon also told her own English version and titled this "The Old Man Who Came Down From Above the Second Layer of the World" (1987c). Underlying structures and meanings used in the contexts of Deg Xinag oral traditions are currently lacking in most published materials for this language, making it difficult to learn and consequently, develop culturally-appropriate language learning programs and curriculum. This analysis encompasses the fields of Alaska Native/indigenous studies, anthropology, and folklore/oral traditions using philosophical and pedagogical frameworks established by indigenous scholars including Gregory Cajete, Oscar Kawagley, and Greg Sarris. 1The term "Athabascan" has varied spellings within the literature, including "Athapaskan" and "Athabaskan." In 1997, Tanana Chiefs Conference (TCC), the interior Alaska tribal consortium adopted a resolution stating their tribes' preference of the spelling using "b" and "c."
    • Demographic and social consequences of oil and gas development in Siberia, 1960s-early 1990s

      Logunov, Eugene V.; Black, Lydia (1999)
      The main goal of this thesis is to study the demographic and social consequences of rapid oil and gas development in Siberia, to show the experience of solving or failing to solve of wide range of social and cultural issues, and to sum up the results of both the economic impact on the social-cultural processes and the social impact on industrial production. In three decades, the number of new settlers in the Tyumen province was no less than 2,000,000 people. Such a pace of settling previously uninhabited territories with extreme environmental conditions had never occurred before in world practice. This explosive growth of population, dominated by young single males, has resulted in a distorted demographic structure which is hardly capable of reproduction. The birth rate declined sharply, whereas the death rate grew because of accidents, diseases, alcoholism, narcotics addiction, etc. The situation has been aggravated by complete neglect of the development of a social infrastructure. Nearly half of population live in conditions conducive to the degradation of family, morals, health and cultural values. Oil and gas development had numerous negative effects on indigenous peoples of the North. Destruction of the environment has undermined the natural base and functioning of their traditional occupations. They were unable to adapt to the new kinds of economic activity, and social and physical problems have become aggravated. There has been growth of the disease rate and of alcoholism. The descent into poverty has been rapid, and they find themselves under threat of ethnic degeneration and extinction. It was the initial orientation toward creation of a new but permanent population, the politics of "development through settlement," that proved to be one of the main causes of the deep crisis which has affected the region. The formation of a large, heterogeneous, unstable population, taken together with all its problems, accompanied by the inability to create a favorable social environment, mismanagement of manpower resources and an inadequate social infrastructure, have become the leading causes of production failures in the oil and gas industry.
    • Developing a patient-driven, substantive definition of office-based opioid treatment success

      Hewell, Valerie Marie; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Fitterling, James; Rivkin, Inna (2016-08)
      Patients in office-based opioid treatments’ definitions of treatment success and recovery are not well understood. This is important because traditional ways of defining and measuring success focus on consumption, and usually abstinence. This definition does not encompass medication-assisted treatment, such as office-based opioid treatment, which do not necessitate abstinence. Moreover, there is evidence to support the efficacy of office-based opioid treatment in reducing the harm associated with opioid misuse, which is important as opioid misuse has increased and leads to serious consequences for individuals, families, and society. To address this gap in the literature, using a qualitative design, this dissertation explored patients’ ideas on defining office-based opioid treatment success, recovery, facilitators and barriers to treatment success, and recommendations for measuring success. This was achieved by conducting a focus group with seven participants and subsequent interviews with seven participants, two of whom were also in the focus group, for a total of 12 office-based opioid treatment patients in rural Alaska. Grounded theory, directed content analysis, and a community-based participatory research approach were used to collect and analyze focus group and interview data. Findings suggest that patients’ definitions of office-based opioid treatment success extend beyond consumption and include four main themes: functioning, such as contributing to society and living a functional lifestyle; accomplishing, such as reappraising life goals and having an intrinsic belief that one can accomplish success; relationships, such as family, friendships, and restoring relationships; and psychological factors, such as emotional wellbeing and addiction. Recovery was understood as a construct that was related to success, yet distinct, and involved healing and growth, a process, and a recovery attitude. Facilitators and barriers to treatment success include treatment factors, contextual factors, and psychological factors. Participants also recommended measuring success in a way that is individualized and flexible. This study suggests that providers should take a multifaceted and patient-driven approach when attempting to define and measure office-based opioid treatment success. Specifically, findings suggest that patients experience success in office-based opioid treatment in ways that extend beyond substance consumption. Findings also suggest that contextual barriers, such as availability and accessibility of treatment, should be addressed on a systemic level.
    • Developing sociolinguistic awareness through a digital lexicon project in a fifth grade classroom in rural Alaska

      Boynton, Julia F.; Martelle, Wendy; Siekmann, Sabine; Patterson, Leslie (2019-12)
      This teacher action research examines how teachers can build student awareness of language variations in order to help students make meaning during the learning process thus bridging the gap between home discourse and school discourse. In this study students built a digital lexicon using a class generated list of Village English terms that are present in Aniak, Alaska. The purpose of this study was to build students' sociolinguistic awareness through explicit instruction and the Aniak Digital Lexicon project. The findings showed that providing students with explicit instruction helped develop students during their meaning making process and students were able to differentiate between Village English and Standard Academic English. The findings in this research study can be used to inform educators interested in teaching students about language variations and in particular learning about their own dialectal variation of English.
    • Developing treatment fidelity measures in a wraparound program for severely emotionally disturbed children using the child and adolescent needs and strengths tool

      Sliefert, David (2002-08)
      This study utilized the strength-based components of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) assessment as a basis for creating the Treatment Fidelity Indicator (TFI). With a particular focus on strengths, this study initiated the development of a measure to assist agencies in recognizing whether each of the 19 strength-based dimensions were found in the case record. Seven cases were evaluated using two raters. Reliability was examined using the Cohen's kappa and memoing of the process. The growing expectations placed on agencies to provide proven treatment strategies and the limitations of resources available are challenges for quality conscious organizations. Increasing emphasis to integrate individual and family strengths into the assessment process to improve treatment outcomes has been encouraged ... TFI is being developed to build upon the successes of CANS and extend its functionality to include measuring the fidelity of treatment delivery.
    • Dew Line Passage: Tracing The Legacies Of Arctic Militarization

      Fritz, Stacey A.; Koester, David; Schweitzer, Peter; Klein, David; Shannon, Kerrie Ann (2010)
      Grounded within the context of modern American militarization, this dissertation is a descriptive, ethnohistorical, and ethnographic study focusing on the impacts and legacies of the development, implementation, and decommissioning of the western sector of the Distant Early Warning radar line (DEW Line) in northern Alaska and Canada's western Arctic. Understanding the localized social and environmental impacts of global militarization is a critical task for anthropology and one that coincides in the North with the need to gather histories from Inuit perspectives. This study's purposes are to elucidate how the global phenomenon of modern militarization penetrates and brings about change in small communities and to determine whether local attitudes towards security, the environment, industrialization, and political participation can be traced to the policies of the Canadian and American governments during the construction, operation, and clean up of the line. Ethnohistorical research and pilot studies in communities adjacent to radar sites provided background for the project. Personal narratives of arctic residents and employees, combined with documentation of the radar stations and remnants, were collected during a multi-season voyage along the western sector of the DEW line in the Canada's western Arctic and Alaska.
    • Diet and affinity from the middle neolithic to early bronze age, Estremadura, Portugal: a comparison of human dental remains from Feteira II and Bolores

      Horwath, Briana Christa (2012-05)
      The social and political changes accompanying the transition from the Neolithic through Early Bronze Age in southwestern Iberia are reasonably well understood; much less is known about population movements and dietary changes that accompanied these transformations. To address possible population movements and dietary change, human dental remains from the Middle Neolithic through Late Neolithic site of Feteira II (3600-2900 B.C.E) and the Late Neolithic through the Early Bronze Age site of Bolores (2800-1800 B.C.E) will be used to examine diet and affinity. Two hypotheses are tested: the period of social change was associated with dietary change between individuals interred at Feteira II and Bolores and groups interred at these sites are significantly different when observing non-metric dental traits. Microwear features were not significantly different between Feteira II and Bolores, lending evidence that the period of increasing social complexity and long distance interaction did not result in large-scale change in subsistence practices between groups interred at these sites. The investigation of biological distance observing dental morphology between sites determined that they were similar, meaning there was no evidence for population replacement between individuals interred at Feteira II and Bolores.
    • Diet And Dental Health In Predynastic Egypt: A Comparison Of Hierakonpolis And Naqada

      Greene, Tammy Renee; Irish, Joel D. (2006)
      Seven dietary indicators on 364 dentitions of working class Predynastic Egyptians from Hierakonpolis and Naqada are examined in this dissertation. The majority of the samples from both sites date to the Naqada 11 period (3500-3200 BC), during which these were the two main urban centers for Upper Egypt. Both sites are located on the west bank of the Nile approximately 130 km from one-another. The samples consist of adults and juveniles ranging from 6 years to over 50 years of age. The dietary indicators, which include caries, calculus, abscess, periodontal disease, macrowear, microwear, and hypoplastic enamel defects are used to look for statistically significant differences between working class inhabitants of the two sites as well as between the sex and age groups within each site. The analysis is used to address four main research questions. (1) What combination of the above indicators is the best for establishing an overall picture of diet and dental health? Results illustrate the importance of using a wide array of indictors. (2) Which of the available flora and fauna were being eaten? While each specific food could no be identified individually, cultivated items, such as wheat, barley or millet were being eaten in the form of bread, that raw vegetables were consumed by all individuals at Hierakonpolis but mostly women and children at Naqada, and that at least some meat and/or fish was consumed at both sites. (3) Were food types found as burial offerings were being eaten? Consumption of at least two burial offerings, bread and yellow nutsedge (Hierakonpolis only), are supported by the data. (4) Were the working class inhabitants of Hierakonpolis and Naqada consuming the same diet? Differences and similarities in the diet and dental health between inhabitants of the two sites are examined. While the major portions of the diet appear to be similar, this study found both dietary and behavioral differences between the working class members of these sites.
    • Digital Dead Ends Along Alaska's Information Highway: Broadband Access For Students And Teachers In Alaska's High School One-To-One Laptop Programs

      Lloyd, Pamela Jo; Monahan, John; Richey, Jean; Roehl, Roy; Eck, Norman; Crumley, Robert; Knight, Phil (2012)
      This dissertation analyzes the potential impact community broadband availability has on personal and classroom levels of technology adoption for high school students and teachers in Alaska. Community broadband availability was defined as, (a) terrestrial broadband availability; (b) satellite broadband availability; and (c) no broadband available. The theoretical framework for this study used a concurrent mixed methods design, beginning with quantitative surveys with open-ended questions administered to teachers and students. Open coding analysis produced themes from student focus groups and open-ended questions used to complement the quantitative analysis. The sample population included high school teachers and students in one-to-one laptop programs from 13 school districts in 39 communities in Alaska spread across three categories of community broadband availability. All participating schools met the criteria for a complete one-to-one laptop solution. Key findings using an analysis of variance resulted in a statistically significant difference in personal use levels of adoption among students compared across three categories of community broadband available. Students living in communities with no broadband access had lower personal use levels of adoption compared to students living in communities with terrestrial or satellite broadband availability. There was no significant difference in student classroom levels technology adoption compared across three categories of community broadband availability. There was no statistical difference among teachers in personal or classroom levels of adoption. There continues to be a need to study these digital learning environments to determine conditions under which positive learning outcomes may be achieved. A study based in Alaska, focusing on student and teacher levels of adoption in personal and classroom, given broadband availability will provide data for policymakers, administrators, and stakeholders to make decisions regarding the impacts of the digital divide. The investment in rural areas of Alaska is significant for not only jobs and long-term economic benefits, but also to the citizenry of Alaska in expanding the opportunities for all of our students to be globally competitive, no matter their zip code.
    • Diideets'ii in our pathway (in our future): Gwich'in educational philosophy and transformative praxis in K-12 education

      Fisher, Charleen; Leonard, Beth; Schneider, William; Aruskevich, Kas; Koskey, Michael (2018-05)
      Gwich'in pedagogy is largely undocumented in Western academia. Gwich'in epistemology includes holistic perspectives on all Western content areas, and crosses the usual segmented knowledge genres. Inter-generational transmission of Gwich'in knowledge occurs in many places including the natural environment, with long-standing cultural ties to place. Gwich'in pedagogy is relational, place-based, holistic, cooperative, purposeful and subjective. Gwich'in gaagwidandaii, or communal knowledge, predates the inception of many world societies. Gwich'in concepts presented in this paper will include the introduction of a framework called Kheegwadadhaak'a', translated to mean, "We just keep the fire going." This framework is a visualization. Important concepts of Gwich'in pedagogy include traditional ideas of assessments or standards using the phrases nil'ee t'ah'in and ch'aadaii, both meaning that someone has a natural talent or is adept at something, for girls and boys, respectively. Learning, or gik'yanjii in Gwich'in, also means "to find out, notice or sense." This comprehension includes a deep, contextual understanding of traditional Gwich'in knowledge. The three types of Gwich'in knowledge are gaagwidandaii, gihk'agwagwaanjik, and gaatr'oahtan. These translate as"collectively known, individually learned, and taught knowledge," respectively. Gwich'in have a complex and relational pedagogy. This pedagogy attempts to achieve contextuality, or duulee ginlii, which translates as "proficiency, agility, ability to do almost anything, being extremely good at anything they do, or overall 'sharpness' in life." This process is importantly both a communal and personal journey.
    • Diigwandak: stories from a Gwich'in language classroom

      Hayton, Allan; Siekmann, Sabine; Hishinlai', "Kathy R. Sikorski"; Marlow, Patrick (2013-05)
      This study describes a semester in an Indigenous language high school classroom during the spring of 2011. The goal of this research is to capture the experiences of a novice Indigenous language teacher, and his students. High and low points are shared as the researcher seeks to find his place in the work of Indigenous language revitalization, and students strive to learn a second language. Data for this qualitative research was collected through teacher auto-ethnographic journal entries, lesson plans, student journals and projects, exit interviews with students, and two recorded classroom observations. Emergent themes of Time, Responsibility, Community, Fluency, Emotions, and Self-Doubt capture significant moments in the classroom, and reveal close connections between teacher and student experiences. The purpose of conducting this research is to provide insights for novice Indigenous language teachers into their classroom dynamics. The researcher also discovered areas of possible future research for Indigenous language teaching and learning.
    • Discoverers & possessors: symbolic acts of possession and Spain's struggle for sovereignty on the North Pacific coast

      Allan, Timo C. (2002-05)
      Until the 18th century, the North Pacific coast of North America remained one of the last territories in the world unexplored by Europeans. As terra nullius, or land unclaimed by any Christian prince, this coastline became a coveted prize as Spanish, Russian, French, and British explorers raced to establish sovereignty on behalf of their respective monarchs. The use of symbolic acts of possession in the North Pacific and the indigenous reaction to those ceremonies has never been properly examined. Often dismissed as meaningless pageantry, symbolic acts were for centuries the principl means by which European powers established claims to territories too vast to be settled or defended militarily. By reexamining the accounts of Spanish explorers and their imperial rivals, this study reveals both the power of symbolic acts in the struggle for sovereignty and their weaknesses as ritual claiming yielded to the practical realities of effective occupation and military prowess.
    • Displacing phallogocentrism: fragmented subjects & transgendered bodies

      Knight, Tara N.; Coffman, Chris; Carr, Rich; Stanley, Sarah; Hirsch, Alexander (2017-05)
      "Displacing Phallogocentrism: Fragmented Subjects and Transgendered Bodies" synthesizes theories about gender construction and identity formation as proposed by Simone de Beauvoir, Judith Butler, Julia Kristeva, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Lacan, and proposes that the cultural sediment created by heteronormativity and phallogocentrism can be displaced by the proliferative re-conceptualization and re-signification of transgendered subjects. Because the relationship between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary, Simone de Beauvoir's theory about the inner identity's desire for transcendence and Judith Butler's theory about the materiality of the signifier demonstrate how subjects are 1.) always already transgendered, and 2.) constantly reshaping the material world through re-signification. Jeanette Winterson's Sexing the Cherry dramatizes the act of displacing phallogocentrism by allegorizing the notion through the corporations and Puritans that her fragmented female protagonist, the chemist/Dog-Woman, is fighting against. Because heteronormativity and phallogocentrism can only be displaced by the fragmented and transgendered subject, Winterson shows how it is only after her male protagonist, Nicolas/Jordan, has grafted a feminine identity onto himself and become a transgendered subject when he can finally be free from the shackles of phallogocentrism and re-signify the future. Because phallogocentrism compels subjects to reiterate socially-constructed sedimentations that unevenly distribute power to some subjects while disenfranchising others, this thesis highlights the imperative need to displace the sedimentation of phallogocentrism in order to transgender the body and re-conceptualize the world.
    • Distance Activism And The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

      Raymond-Yakoubian, Julie M.; Gladden, James (2002)
      The growing phenomenon of distance place attachment and distance activism can be seen in the extensive network of non-visitors involved in the protection of places like the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska. This type of activism is not an anomaly, but rather an increasingly significant global phenomenon, which has gone largely unexamined by researchers of environmentalism, activism, wilderness, and place attachment. Distance activism encompasses the standard definition of activism, with the addition that distance activists must not have had physical contact with the natural environment for which they are being active. I argue that distance activists' actions and beliefs can be understood, in part, in terms of the conceptual frameworks of geopiety, topophilia, and place attachment. Furthermore, I argue that distance activism deserves a proper place in place attachment theorizing. Distance activism on behalf of the Arctic Refuge is examined as a case study of this important phenomenon. <p>
    • Distant vistas: Bradford Washburn, expeditionary science and landscape, 1930-1960

      Sfraga, Michael P.; Pearson, Roger (1997)
      Bradford Washburn is primarily known for his Alaskan mountaineering accomplishments and mountain photography. Between 1930 and 1960, Washburn led 19 expeditions to Alaska and Canada's Yukon Territory on which he surveyed, photographed and mapped some of the last unexplored mountain regions in North America. This study, however, analyzes Washburn's lesser known role in directing interdisciplinary field research involving high altitude physics, glaciology, cartography and geology, which he accomplished by linking such disparate entities as the motion picture industry, geographic organizations, the U.S. military, and prominent U.S. scientists. Washburn's career can be viewed as an intersection of nineteenth and twentieth century geographic traditions. He combined emerging technologies with new and innovative vehicles of exploration to more accurately study geological, geographical and environmental phenomenon in mountainous regions. During the Second Great Age of Discovery, which began with the Renaissance, explorers ventured into the heart of the world's continents by utilizing various vehicles of exploration such as canoes and pack animals. This style continued into the middle of the twentieth century when the present day Third Great Age of Discovery, characterized by the use of remote sensing platforms and space age satellites, allows for a more accurate geographic study and inventory of our planet. Washburn's interdisciplinary field work reflects the fundamental goals and patterns of expeditionary science found in both ages of discovery. In this study three important themes are examined: Washburn's role as innovative field scientist; geography as a disciplinary bridge; and the work of the independent geographer. By analyzing Washburn's work in the pre World War Two and Cold War era, we gain an understanding of the ways in which expeditionary science was funded and carried out within two fundamentally different political and economic frameworks. Moreover, this study provides an important window into our understanding of interdisciplinary earth sciences in the mid twentieth century. It also explores the often unappreciated link between environmental science and geography in the American context.