• Fa'ñague: a Chamorro epistemology of post-life communication

      Ho, Dan; Koskey, Michael S.; Leonard, Beth R.; Barnhardt, Raymond J.; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq (2018-05)
      The primary aim of this dissertation is to analyze a spiritual aspect of Chamorro cosmology known as fa'ñague, or visitations from the deceased, to shed light on how and why it exists in Guam, and how it differs among Chamorro Natives who experience it in the island and abroad. A secondary aim of the dissertation is to expand upon the scholarly documentation of Native Chamorro epistemologies concerning life and death, and the role of the spiritual realm in daily life of the people of the Marianas. The dissertation is structured as follows: Part I offers an in-depth exploration and personification of Guam, the place, the culture, and the people in order to balance longstanding and erroneous conceptions about the Island. Part II includes the rationale for the research, a methodological framework, and a literature review. In addition, a full chapter on Chamorro epistemology is included to reinforce the elements of the Native worldview and way of knowing to provide context for the research findings. In Part III -- the fruits of data gathering and analysis -- are offered using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Finally, this dissertation hopes to argue and position a new model of Indigenous research methodology, which I am calling Neo-Indigenous Methodology. Essentially, it is an evolution from the de-colonizing approach borne by founding Indigenous scholars who sought to break from Western scholarly dialect to express and inform Native wisdom. Instead, Neo-Indigenous Methodology proposes that Indigenous scholars embrace the dialect of all Western humanistic discourse to further clarify and magnify pure Indigenous knowledge.
    • The face of the waters: a season in Alaska's fisheries

      McGuire, Rosemary Desideria (2004-05)
      The Face of the Waters is the memoir of a spring and summer in Alaska's fishing industry. In March 2000, I found work as a deckhand in Cook Inlet. For the next five months I traveled from fishery to fishery, working on boats throughout coastal Alaska. Alaska's fisheries are deeply bound up with its identity as a state, supporting an independent, romantic way of life rare in the world today. Yet the existence of these fisheries is threatened by problems ranging from global warming to currency exchange rates. I have drawn on the record in my journal, interviews with fishermen, essays and archival material to chronicle an industry and a way of life beset by change. On a deeper level, The Face of the Waters uses the context of my adventures to explore the nature of personal fate, love, and the importance of place.
    • Factors that contribute to rural provider retention, service utilization, and engagement in mentorship by cultural experts

      Gifford, Valerie M.; Rivkin, Inna; Lower, Timothy; Koverola, Catherine; Brems, Christiane (2012-05)
      A substantial amount of time, money, and other resources are expended on recruiting behavioral health providers to fill vacant positions in rural Alaska. This exhaustive drain on resources is perpetual due to the high turnover rates of providers. This exploratory qualitative study utilized grounded theory methodology to investigate personal qualities of providers and other factors contributing to long-term retention of providers relocating to Alaska's Bering Strait Region from elsewhere, community members utilizing the provider's services, and the provider's engagement in cultural mentorship to facilitate the integration of culture into their practice. Furthermore, factors contributing to local provider retention were examined. Key informant interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare providers living and working in the region long-term. A theory emerged that connected provider retention to community member service utilization and cultural mentorship. Results indicated that providers who are open, willing to learn, good listeners, calm, friendly, respectful, flexible, compassionate, genuine and possess a sense of humor, humility, and ability to refrain from imposing personal values, beliefs and worldviews upon others are a good fit for living and work in rural Alaska. Such qualities facilitate a provider achieving professional and personal satisfaction through building relationships and creating opportunities for cultural mentorship, professional support, and social support. These opportunities enhance the delivery of quality services that are culturally appropriate and well-utilized by community members, which, in turn, increase provider satisfaction and retention. Recommendations are made to healthcare organizations regarding recruitment and retention strategies. Recruitment strategies include careful screening of potential applications for specific qualities and enlisting local community members and students into the healthcare field. Retention strategies include professional support by way of a comprehensive orientation program, clinical supervision, cultural mentorship, and continuing education training opportunities that focus on cultural competency. Recommendations for retention of local providers include professional development incentives and opportunities that qualify local providers for positions typically held by outside providers.
    • A familiar & favorite terror

      Medlin, Zackary; Burleson, Derick; Coffman, Chris; Hill, Sean; Stanley, Sarah (2013-12)
      The collection A Familiar & Favorite Terror explores love and violence, how the two are entangled and how that entanglement is constitutive of a self. It wants to show how love is a form of violence to the self, demanding a fracture. These poems view love, and not just romantic love, as a breaking of the self, both in its binding and its severing. With love there is always a hole, or a not quite whole. That's where these poems want to dig - but not dig up - and sift through the ways we fill this void. And while this collection is decidedly personal, tracing it lineage through books such as John Berryman's Dream Songs and Robert Lowell's Life Studies, it is not confessional - there is rarely guilt or shame associated with the speaker. Instead, the self in these poems, and the poems themselves, are unapologetically postmodern; if Berryman and Lowell are ancestors to these poems, then their immediate family would be contemporary poets like Bob Hicok, Tony Hoagland, Dean Young, and Matthew Zapruder. These poems build their foundation on the unstable, seismically active terrain of pop-culture and the mutable, multiple self that peoples that land. They are at times lyrical, surreal, referential, earnestly ironic, ironically earnest, recursive, discursive, and maybe even downright ugly. Ultimately, however, even though these poems are disparate insular experiences of a self, they are reaching out in the only way they know how to: by existing in the world. The speakers, by sharing these experiences, are asking the question: `I'm not alone it this, am I?' which is also a way of telling a reader, 'No, you are not alone in this.'
    • “FATE MUST FIND SOMEONE TO SPEAK THROUGH”: CHRISTIANITY, RAGNARÖK, AND THE LOSS OF ICELANDIC INDEPENDENCE IN THE EYES OF THE ICELANDERS AS ILLUSTRATED BY GÍSLA SAGA SÚRSSONAR

      Mjolsnes, Grete E.; Grossweiner, Karen; Ruppert, James; Bartlett, D.A. (2008-12)
      Iceland surrendered political control to the Norwegian monarchy in 1262, but immediately resented their choice. The sagas about reliance on the Norwegians, clearly illustrating that the Icelanders knew where this path was leading them. Gísla Saga is a particularly interesting text to examine in light of the contemporaneous political climate, as it takes place in the years leading up to the conversion but was written between the conversion and the submission to Norwegian rule. Though Gísla does not explicitly comment on either the conversion or the increase in Norwegian influence, close examination illuminates ambiguity in the portrayal of Christian and pagan characters and a general sense of terminal foreboding. This subtle commentary becomes clearer when one reads Gísla Saga in light of the story of Ragnarök, the death of the gods and the end of the Norse world. Characters and images in Gísla Saga may be compared with the events of Ragnarök, the apocalyptic battle between the Æsir and the giants, illustrating how the Christian conversion and Norwegian submission brought about the end of Iceland’s golden age by destroying the last home of the Norse gods. In order to closely compare the events of Gísla Saga with those of Ragnarök, I have chosen to work with the final battle as it is described in the Volspá, or The Prophesy of the Seeress, one of the Elder Edda, of which I have translated the Codex Regis and Hauksbók manuscript versions, in order to deal closely and specifically with the text. Finally I discuss images of Ragnarök, as it is told in the Voluspá, which appear in Gísla, drawing close the ties between Christianization and Norwegian rule and the ways in which Icelanders recognized this conversion as the end of their world.
    • Faunal analysis of the historic component at Healy Lake Village site, Interior Alaska

      Hilmer, Hilary A.; Potter, Ben; Clark, Jamie; Reuther, Joshua (2019-08)
      The historic period in Interior Alaska was a dynamic time that led to many cultural changes for Native Alaskan communities across the state. Starting in the early 1700s, Russian and Euroamerican explorers began interacting with Native Alaskan groups living on the coast and by the end of the 18th century - early 19th century, Interior Alaskan groups were being directly affected. Due to western influences, Native groups, such as the Upper Tanana Athabascans, began to rely on a cash economy, causing them to settle to year-round villages, trade with the Euroamericans for non-local goods (i.e., flour, guns, buttons, glass, and nails), and work on construction projects in order to provide for their families. All of these changes appeared to cause a division between the traditional way of life and the new Euroamerican way of living. Healy Lake Village site (XBD-00020) is a multi-component site with occupations spanning the terminal Pleistocene into the Holocene. It is located approximately 100 miles southeast of present day Fairbanks on the shores of Healy Lake in the Upper Tanana Athabascan territory. The village was a summer fishing camp until ~A.D. 1910; it became a year-round village soon after the construction of a trading post at Healy Lake. The well-preserved faunal remains excavated from the Upper Cultural level (dating to A.D. 1880 - 1946) at Healy Lake Village site provide a significant opportunity to address fundamental questions relating to subarctic hunter-gatherer subsistence economies. This research employs concepts from human behavioral ecology and world-systems theory to address questions relating zooarchaeological patterns in the data in terms of taphonomy, human procurement, and processing decisions, as well as historic period land use strategies and trade practices. In this thesis, I explore the possibility that the residents at Healy Lake Village site were affected by Euroamerican influences, specifically in regards to their subsistence economies. However, the results suggest that hunting practices were not drastically altered. The residents still relied heavily on local game as their primary source of subsistence with minor inclusions of western goods, such as canned meat and flour.
    • Faunal and lithic analyses from the Matcharak Peninsula site (AMR-00196) northern archaic context: Lake Matcharak, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

      Keeney, Joseph W.; Potter, Ben; Clark, Jamie; Reuther, Josh; Rasic, Jeff (2019-05)
      This thesis focuses on the Matcharak Peninsula site (AMR-00196 or MPS), located on the east side of Lake Matcharak in the upper Noatak River valley of Alaska's central Brooks Range. The MPS contains a substantial and well-preserved collection of faunal remains dating to between 6190±35 and 3780±35 14C years BP, along with side-notched projectile points and microblade technology. Radiometric dating and stone tools attribute the collection to the Northern Archaic tradition, making MPS unique for yielding the largest and most well-preserved collection of faunal remains reported from a Northern Archaic context to date. This project analyzed both faunal and lithic materials to identify a more robust suite of human behaviors, better assess post-depositional processes, and delineate between cultural components. This project first focuses on intrasite activities and site function within a larger system of land use, indicating that MPS functioned repeatedly throughout the middle Holocene as a short-term hunting camp and late-stage hunting tool repair location that was occupied between the late spring and early fall. A small number of individual caribou dominate the faunal assemblage, but a narrow range of other Brooks Range prey species are also present including Dall's sheep and locally available fish and Arctic ground squirrel. This project then develops broader interpretations about the Northern Archaic tradition, investigating technological, mobility, and subsistence strategies by mid-Holocene Brooks Range hunter-gatherers. The inhabitants practiced logistical mobility and organized special task groups when resources were leaner, and came together in aggregated communities to engage in communal hunts when caribou were reliably abundant. Lithic raw material use at MPS reflects a broader Northern Archaic trend of favoring less common obsidian for maintainable tool components, and more commonly available cherts for more heavily engineered and reliable implements such as inset-microblade weapons. Finally, this thesis explores side-notched and inset-microblade projectile weapon armatures in the context of hunting strategies at MPS and other sites, suggesting that bifacially-tipped projectiles were more effective at hunting medium-range targets while inset-microblades were designed for long-range strategies.
    • Federal policy and Alaska Native languages since 1867

      Alton, Thomas L.; Krauss, Michael (1998)
      Researchers and the general public have often contended that punishment of children for speaking their native languages in schools is the cause of the decline of those languages. But native language loss in Alaska is rooted also in the choices Natives made themselves to accept English for its social, economic, and political opportunities. Since the United States purchased Alaska in 1867, English has replaced native languages as the first language learned by children in nearly all homes. Although none of Alaska's twenty native languages is yet extinct, most are at a point of peril as English has replaced a pattern of linguistic diversity that existed from time immemorial. This study documents the history of language decline and the role of federal government policy in that process. Congress extended federal policies to Alaska in 1884 when it established civil government in the territory. In 1885 the Bureau of Education assumed responsibility for running rural schools. Federal policy during that era grew out of America's desire for uniformity of culture, religion, and language, and as a result schools often forcibly suppressed Native American languages and punished students for speaking them. Yet Alaska Natives have been active participants in change, not passive victims of an overwhelming bureaucracy. The switch to English occurred as Natives responded to the influx of American population with its systems of economy, society, politics, and justice. Natives abandoned their old languages when they became convinced through pressures from the outside world that English held more prestige and advantage than their native languages. Government policies defined the choices that were available, and Natives adopted English for the opportunities it afforded them in a modern system that was not of their own making. Once families began using English as the language of the home and thus interrupted the continuity of native language use from one generation to the next, the decline of native languages was assured. Punishment of school children for speaking their native languages, along with American social, economic, and political systems, created an environment in which Alaska Natives made the constrained choice to adopt English as the language of the home and community.
    • First Steps Into Late-Deafness: An Introductory Manual For Newly Deafened Adults

      Shannon, Candis; Cooper, Burns (2006)
      Late-deafened adults are individuals who lose their hearing in adolescence or adulthood. Whether the hearing loss is sudden or progressive, it forces immense psychosocial changes upon the individual, disrupting relationships and work, and impacting every area of the person's life. This manual serves as a guidebook for the newly deafened adult, giving her understanding, empathy and a road map to help make sense of the adjustment process. The first chapters detail what to expect during visits to the ear specialist and audiologist, and discuss the grieving process and the impact of deafness on identity formation. Information on how to develop new ways of communicating and how to build a support network is shared. An introduction to cochlear implantation, assistive technology, and legal rights for late-deafened adults follows. The manual closes with interviews of three late-deafened adults who share their journey into late-deafness.
    • Floating: ruminations from the open-air abyss

      Nyberg, Brandi Jo Petronio; Farmer, Daryl; Soos, Frank; Schell, Jennifer (2019-05)
      This thesis is a collection of environmentally centered personal essays, some of which are also research driven. Many of the essays within are place-based and several reflect on what the word 'home' means. The research-driven essays involved conducting literature reviews within academic journals and, in some cases, weaving that information with personal narrative. Throughout the thesis, there is a loose narrative arc that follows the author's nomadic wanderings and search for home. Although a home is never quite found, the author does find a deeper meaning on what it means to call a place 'home.' While the order of essays jumps from one place to the next geographically, they are ordered in a chronological sense - although not completely. Throughout the collection, the author is in direct conversation with many writers who have inspired her own writing, including Edward Abbey, Henry Thoreau, Barry Lopez, and Terry Tempest Williams. The purpose of this project is not only to entertain readers but also to educate. The author hopes that her writing will encourage readers to strengthen their connection to place and the environment and become engaged with pressing environmental issues, such as mountaintop removal mining.
    • Focus On Form In Writing In A Third Grade Yugtun Classroom

      Moses, Catherine; Siekmann, Sabine (2010)
      This present research attempts to discover the effectiveness of focus on form in a Yugtun First Language third grade classroom. The procedures for this particular research included two series of tasks, each focusing students' attention on a particular grammatical structure. The series includes a pretest, a discovery phase, a teacher guided mini lesson, a paired task, an individual post task and a delayed post task. Data include students' scores on the pre, post and delayed post test as well as video recordings of whole class activities, and audio recordings of student dyads as they work on the collaborative task. In my research I found how I, as a Yugtun classroom teacher, could help my students focus on areas of language features they seem to have trouble with. I learned I could use focus on form through feedback and questions. I also found that the Yugtun word endings mun/nun were rather difficult for the Yugtun third graders. As a result I encourage all Yugtun teachers as well as other language teachers to attend workshop or training on language acquisition in order to get a better understanding of what it means as they endeavor to help their students learn effectively.
    • Focus On Form Through Singing In A First Grade Yugtun Immersion Classroom

      Oulton, Carol S.; Siekmann, Sabine (2010)
      This study examines the impacts of singing as a focus on form in the Yugtun genitive endings. Genitive case endings refer to the case of ownership, such as in the sentence "My mother's eyes." The belief of this research is that singing will help the students to focus on form in the oral performance of the first grade second language learners of Yugtun. All the students in the classroom participated in the study. Their accuracy and progression were measured prior to teaching two songs with a pretest interview. After teaching of the songs, the students composed couple songs where the genitive forms were examined. A posttest and a delayed test were administered after the instructions of the songs. The results support the previous studies that focus on form can provide accuracy to second language development.
    • Food, sex, death, and quest: the literary legacy of Sir John Franklin

      Long, Maureen Eleanor (2003-05)
      The story of Sir John Franklin, nineteenth-century British Arctic explorer, has been reinterpreted and reworked by poets, novelists, essayists, and dramatists for more than a century and half. This thesis is an attempt to discover the character and significance of the literary legacy of Sir John Franklin by exploring authors' uses of four common tropes: food, sex, death, and quest. In analyzing these tropes, this thesis focuses primarily on five works of contemporary Canadian literature: Margaret Atwood's short story, "The Age of Lead"; Gwendolyn MacEwen's radio verse play, Terror and Erebus; Geoff Kavanagh's play, Ditch; Mordecai Richler's novel, Solomon Gursky Was Here; and Rudy Wiebe's novel, A Discovery of Strangers. In addition, other works of literature are considered. An appendix lists more than fifty creative works that incorporate Sir John Franklin.
    • Forget Everything

      Richardson, Jean Jolene; Reinhard, John (2003)
      These poems take place in a compromised world. People who have lost their visions of life find themselves on the other side of the crisis, and suddenly the goal is no longer simply to live, but to live authentically. The narrative voice that emerges through this collection is one that struggles to face reality without self-deception, and without comfortable simplifications. The poems themselves are embodiments of faith, because a sincere search for truth implies a belief that whatever the world is, it's worth knowing. <p> Most of these poems are lyrics, struggling to convey one feeling or set of feelings. Other revelations necessary to the narrative and emotional arc of the collection require different forms. A section poem addresses fragmentation; a villanelle embodies obsessive thinking; and prose pieces allow a linking of moments and reasons not possible in other forms, but necessary to the investigation of the material. <p>
    • Framing Complexity: Teachers And Students Use Of Technology In Alaska One To One Laptop Learning Environments

      Whicker, Robert E.; Monahan, John; Richey, Jean; Roehl, Roy; Eck, Norman; Crumley, Robert (2012)
      The topic for this dissertation is to investigate perceptions within the implementation of established one to one laptop learning programs in Alaska high schools. A primary purpose is to gain understanding of teacher and student perception of their technology use levels by establishing a level of adoption. A secondary purpose is to gain understanding of teacher perceptions regarding concerns and implementation concepts. The theoretical framework for this study used a concurrent mixed methods approach, beginning with a quantitative broad survey with supporting qualitative open-ended questions. The sample used for this study includes public high school teachers and students, who are part of a one-to-one laptop program in thirteen schools districts across Alaska. Analysis of frequencies of technology use and levels of proficiency for both students and teachers were made in areas of personal and classroom use. Teacher professional practice was also analyzed with an emphasis on professional development. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance of demographic measures and classroom use, correlation and regression of teachers' levels of proficiency. Findings indicated a mature implementation of one to one programs throughout the teacher population sample with teachers reporting high stages of concern and moderate levels of technology use focused on the students' use of technology for learning. Implementation recommendations indicated by this study include the use of a framework to measure program progress and to gather teacher voices through the life of a project, clear communication of program goals, and a professional development model suited toward teachers' needs. This study will provide a baseline of knowledge for future studies in Alaska.
    • Frances Anne Hopkins and the George Back connection: tracking through the Canadian landscapes of two nineteenth-century artists to find where lines converge

      MacDonald, Pamela K. (2004-08)
      My paper examines the artistic influence of the renowned British explorer and artist George Back on fellow Rupert's Land artist Frances Anne Hopkins, wife of Edward Hopkins, the man in charge of the Montreal Division of the Hudson's Bay Company in the mid-nineteenth century. The aesthetic gap between the two artists is wide in that Back's sketches depict a kind of terrifying wasteland quality best described as sublime. Hopkins' Canadian landscapes are colorful, on the other hand, and show people who are at ease with their surroundings. Other notable artists also documented nineteenth-century Canadian landscapes in visual images and may have had an indirect influence on Hopkins. I suggest, however, a more direct link may be made between the artists beyond the similarities drawn out of their sublime and beautiful images. My study proposes to show that influence may exist based on Hopkins' father and his Admiralty connection to Back. After a discussion on the important historical aspects coloring the artists' work, I will clarify the Hopkins family-tie relationship to Back, followed by a discussion of their art and potential evidence of influence.
    • From camps to communities: Neets'ąįį Gwich'in planning and development in a pre- and post-settlement context

      Stern, Charlene Barbara; Koskey, Michael; Leonard, Beth; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Aruskevich, Kas (2018-05)
      This study focuses on the Neets'aii Gwich'in, whose traditional territory is located in the northeastern interior of Alaska, and their experiences with planning and development. Prior to settling into permanent villages, the Neets'ąįį lived in widely scattered camps moving in relation to seasonal subsistence resources. Equipped with extensive knowledge of their country, Neets'ąįį people knew at any given time where the best places for certain animals and resources were and thus would camp closer to those areas. According to Neets'ąįį oral history, life in the "those days" was preoccupied with basic survival. Planning ahead, being prepared, and adapting to changing conditions were some of the key strategies that enabled the Neets'ąįį to survive from one generation to the next in one of the harshest climates in the world. The past 170 years has brought unprecedented change to the Neets'ąįį. The socio-economic and political context which historically defined the experience of the Neets'ąįį shifted dramatically as a result of colonization, the establishment of permanent settlements and the ensuing need for community infrastructure. Today, the Neets'ąįį are centralized in two villages, Vashrąįį K'ǫǫ (Arctic Village) and Vįįhtąįį (Venetie), located within the boundaries of the 1.8 million-acre Venetie Indian Reserve. The transition from Neets'ąįį camps to permanent communities has introduced many new needs including landfills, roads, power generation, etc. Whereas Neets'ąįį ancestors traditionally used planning as a survival strategy, their descendants today use planning to attract external investment for much needed infrastructure. This dissertation explores the ways in which the Neets'ąįį Gwich'in have engaged in planning and development in a pre- and post-settlement context.
    • Functional comparisons between formal and informal tools sampled from the Nenana and the Denali assemblages of the Dry Creek Site

      Hall, Patrick T.; Potter, Ben; Fazzino, David; Clark, Jamie (2015-12)
      This research involved low powered microscopic analysis of usewear patterns on the utilized edges of formal and informal tools sampled from the Nenana component (C1) and the Denali component (C2) of the Dry Creek Site. Dry Creek is one of the type sites for the Nenana Complex, which is often contrasted with the Denali Complex in Late Pleistocene archaeological studies of central Alaska (12,000-10,000 B.P.). There are twice as many unifacial scrapers than bifacial tools in the C1 formal tool assemblage. The C1 worked lithic assemblage contains a relatively high number of unifacially worked endscrapers and side scrapers when compared to the number of bifacial knife and point technology. The technological makeup of the formal tools sampled from the Denali component is characterized by the manufacture and use of a higher number of bifacial knives and projectile points. The presence of microblades within C2 and the absence of microblades in C1 are often cited as the most significant technological difference between these two tool kits. The analysis presented here suggests that with or without microblades, the Nenana and Denali components are different tool kits. However, differences in utilization signatures between formal bifacial knives and scrapers tools indicate that technological variability within C1 and C2 at Dry Creek may largely be shaped by early hunting and butchering versus later stage butchering and processing activities.
    • Functional inferences for groups of stone tools from a late Pleistocene archaeological site found in central Alaska: use-wear analysis of experimental stone tools and a sample of lithic from component I of the Walker Road site (HEA-130)

      Flanigan, Thomas Howard; Powers, W. Roger; Irish, Joel D.; Gerlach, S. Craig (2002-05)
      This report is a discussion of use-wear analysis conducted on an experimental tool assemblage (n=36), and a sample of lithic artifacts (n-114) from component I of the Walker Road archaeological site (WR-CI). WR-CI is a late pleistocene human occupation site located in the Nenana Valley of Alaska, that is assigned to the Nenana complex (Goebel and Hamilton 1999). The experimental basis for this project, in combination with the results of other use-wear studies, is employed to infer the functions of the tools from the WR-CI sample.
    • Gender Of Perpetrator, Gender Of Victim, And Relationship Between Perpetrator And Victim As Factors Influencing How Adults View Coercive Sexual Behavior In Childhood

      Bosek, Rebecca Lynn; Connor, Bill; Risley, Todd (2002)
      The sexual abuse of children by adults is a serious social problem. Some sexually abused children become sexually abusive toward others. This is sometimes called coercive sexual behavior, and little is known about how adults view these acts. A better understanding of how adults view coercive sexual behavior between children is critical due to the harm it causes victims, perpetrators, and society. Also, parents are typically held legally responsible for their minor children, and it is their responsibility to intervene in this type of behavior. Three hundred and eighty-five college students participated in a study that examined descriptions of coercive sexual behavior between elementary school-aged children. This study used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design to examine how gender of a child perpetrator, gender of a child victim, and relationship between a child perpetrator and child victim (peer or sibling) influence how adults view coercive sexual behavior in childhood. Participants read one of eight vignettes describing an incident of coercive sexual behavior between two children and answered a twenty-eight-item questionnaire based on it. Data was analyzed using correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings from the present study suggest that the gender of the children and the relationship between them are factors influencing how adults view coercive sexual behavior in childhood.