• Haa léelk'w hás ji.eetí, our grandparents' art: a study of master Tlingit artists, 1750-1989

      Jones, Zachary R.; Heaton, John; Jonaitis, Aldona; Schneider, William; Walz, Robin (2018-12)
      This dissertation examines the lives and creations of twenty-three master Tlingit artists that practiced in Southeast Alaska between 1750 and 1989. Biographical examination of master Tlingit artists showcases how artists created sacred art objects, known as at.óow, which play a central role in the social and spiritual life of the Tlingit people. Historic Tlingit artists came from the aanyádi, the aristocratic class, and were tasked with the responsibility of not only creating sacred art, but also serving as community leaders and exemplifying Tlingit values throughout their lives. The study of Tlingit artists and their creations also sheds light on objects omitted by previous scholars, highlights the overlooked work of female artists, and challenges outdated approaches to the study of Northwest Coast Indian art.
    • Healing from within: the wellness team concept

      Burnham, Violet (2006-08)
      This project was created to chronicle one community's effort to stem the tide of alcohol abuse and address issues of trauma that had plagued the community for many years despite services provided by the State. It is the story of a group of people who came together despite differences to form a team of service providers that would begin a journey of healing for themselves and the community. The results are coming slowly, but indicate less drinking, less tolerance for any form of abuse, and a healthier lifestyle. Although the journey has not ended, there are many more indicators showing that the community is taking responsibility for their problems. The team members as well choose a healthier lifestyle maintaining sobriety, eating healthier, and exercising regularly.
    • Health And Empires: Implications For Political Development On The Health Of The Inhabitants Of Great Moravia (9Th--10Th Centuries)

      Ellicott, Megan Michelle (2012)
      The early medieval period was a time of great change in Europe. Politically thee empires ruled Europe: Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. During this time early cities began to form in Europe, and new patterns of settlement developed. Great Moravia was a state level society in the southeastern region of the Czech Republic during the late 9th and early 10th centuries. This thesis explores the impact of urban development on the health of its inhabitants. In order to do this, rural (Josefov and Lahovice) and urban (Mikulcice-Kostelisko) skeletal populations were examined for cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH). Cribra orbitalia had a consistently low frequency in all populations. This suggests that anemia (often due to chronic parasitic infection and subsequent malnutrition) was present, but at a low level. LEH frequency was significantly higher, with more age of occurrence variation in the urban population. The results of this thesis suggest that despite the advantages of greater wealth and access to greater amount of food (and food varieties) urban populations were under more stress than rural populations. These results have implications about the impact of urban development and migration in modern developing nations.
    • Health in predynastic Egypt: using skeletal stress indicators to assess the overall health of a working class population in hierakonpolis

      Matovich, Jeanette; Irish, Joel D.; Odess, Daniel P.; Murray, Maribeth S.; Gerlach, S. Craig (2002-05)
      The present project attempts to assess the overall health of a Predynastic Egyptian working class population, based on skeletal stress indicators. This study contributes to a growing knowledge base regarding the biological anthropology of Predynastic Egyptians. Information generated from this research may help address larger questions, such as: how do Predynastic Egyptian mortality profiles compare with each other, and with other groups from around the world? Fifty-three skeletons were examined from Hierakonpolis' HK43 cemetery. Data were collected according to conventional osteological methods. Most skeletal stress indicators observed were mild. Evidence of degenerative disease in adults reflected lifetimes of hard, physical labor. The presence of dental caries, calculus deposits and hemopoietic lesions suggested a grain-dependant diet. Interestingly, the majority of these people appeared to be young or middle-aged adults in good health. Whatever caused their deaths is not immediately apparent from their skeletal remains.
    • Hearing colors

      Blackwood, Adrianne; Brightwell, Gerri; Farmer, Daryl; Reilly, Terry (2020-05)
      This thesis project is the first part of a historical fiction novel. It takes place in the Outer Banks of North Carolina in 1910 and imagines the perspective of a sound-color synesthete named Bert Beasley, who witnessed the Wright brothers complete the first engine-powered flight. Bert wants to leave his home to pursue aviation but is unable to do so because he is needed to help run his family's failing general store. When Elisabeth Lavoie, a French musician, moves to town and buys a dilapidated house, Bert believes he'll be able to solve his problems by earning extra money as her repairman. However, her voice is purple--the only color he's never heard before--and her music changes colors, which shouldn't be possible. As he grows closer to Elisabeth, Bert becomes less sure that he wants to leave, but his decision is complicated once more when he learns that the Wright brothers have opened a flying school. The novel switches between the third-person points of view of Bert and Elisabeth. The dual perspectives provide insight into their individual inner conflicts--Bert longs to leave a home he loves as Elisabeth struggles to find a home she has lost--and demonstrates how their respective relationships with sound have shaped them into two people who have the potential to be a home for each other. The descriptions of synesthesia in this project present a creative interpretation of how color-sound combinations manifest themselves in synesthetes, both visually/audibly and emotionally. I conducted research to accurately portray the visual/auditory experiences of synesthesia, but I also took some artistic license in that the story implies that Bert's emotions, or the emotions of the musician playing the music he hears, has an effect on the color of the sound. This is not based on the known science of synesthesia but allowed for a deeper exploration of the characters' relationship and the question of home.
    • Highland Hunters: Prehistoric Resource Use In The Yukon-Tanana Uplands

      Smith, Gerad M.; Potter, Ben (2012)
      The purpose of this study was to conduct a first approximation of explorations and excavations throughout the White Mountain and Steese Conservation areas during the summer field seasons of 2010 and 2011 in the Yukon Tanana Uplands. An analysis of the lithic artifacts from five site excavations (the Big Bend, Bachelor Creek, Bear Creek, US Creek and Cripple Creek) was then undertaken. These assemblages were then examined and modeled using risk-assessments, optimal resource use, and behavior processes in order to explore the interdependence of environment, ecology, and material culture that drove prehistoric subsistence cycles in this area. This archaeological research will supplement ethnographies to indicate patterns of change in landscape value, trade networks, and local economic strategies.
    • Historical archaeology of Alaskan placer gold mining settlements: Evaluating process-pattern relationships

      Mills, Robin Owen (1998)
      The objective of this research is to explicate appropriate methods for investigating relationships between past historical processes and variables, and resulting contemporary patterns in archaeological and historical data sets. Turn-of-the-twentieth century placer gold mining in interior Alaska is used as a case study to evaluate these relationships. By linking observable patterns in historical data sets with the variables and processes that in part create and shape them, a more-complete, context-specific explanation of past events and actions emerges when the data are evaluated in specific historical settings. The methodological approach used here is to just formulate explicit "expectations," and then to evaluate them against independent Alaskan historical and archaeological data sets. The expectations derive from independent comparative historical geographical, and archaeological research. One series of nine expectations evaluates attributes of artifacts relating to site and feature abandonment processes relating to curation and scavenging, including specific traits of artifacts in curated and scavenged deposits; the changing effects of continued curation and scavenging on an artifactual assemblage through time; and spatial characteristics of artifacts within curated and scavenged foundations. Four types of data are used evaluate the expectations, including the size of artifacts, whether they are still functional or usable, their spatial provenience within excavated structures, and a feature's data range. Seven of these expectations are corroborated, one is falsified, and one requires further data for a full evaluation. A second series of seven expectations examines aspects of placer gold mining settlement and transportation systems, including the core-peripheral relationship between Alaska and the United States; the nature of expansion of gold mining settlements into new areas; locational, demographic, and physical layout characteristics of settlement systems; the mining settlement hierarchy and its changing components through time; and characteristics of the supporting transportation supply system. These expectations, while also corroborated by the Alaskan data, lend themselves more to historical context-specific understanding and interpretation, as opposed to the strict corroboration-falsification dichotomy of the abandonment analyses.
    • Historical trauma and approaches to healing among Choctaw American Indians

      Woods, Ashley; Rivkin, Inna; Gifford, Valerie; Lardon, Ce'cile; David, E.J.R. (2018-08)
      Native Americans have experienced a number of historically traumatic events that are believed to contribute to the development of behavioral health symptoms that negatively affect Native American quality of life across generations. Despite the trajectory of trauma experienced in some Native American communities, Native Americans exhibit extraordinary resilience and cultural strengths. Stress and coping models have been developed to explain how historical trauma is related to current health disparities among Native Americans and how enculturation may serve as a buffer against the negative effects of historical trauma. However, these models apply meta-theories to understanding historical trauma rather than tribally specific conceptualizations of historical trauma and historical trauma responses. Therefore, it is important to understand tribally specific manifestations of historical trauma so that intervention and prevention efforts are culturally appropriate. Choctaws are one of the largest Native American groups in the United States. They have experienced a history of forced removal and relocation from traditional homelands, yet the Choctaw Nation itself exhibits continuous growth and success as a tribe. This study used a qualitative, phenomenological, and community based participatory research (CBPR) approach to explore how Oklahoma Choctaw American Indians experience historical trauma and define well-being and enculturation. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with Choctaw American Indians in three different age categories 18-29; 30-49; and 50 and over to examine generational differences in how concepts of historical trauma, enculturation, and well-being are conceptualized. The theoretical construct of historical trauma was informed by themes of assimilation and colonization; resurgence of the Choctaw identity; awareness of historical losses and affective responses; forms of coping; current barriers to accessing Choctaw Nation services; and varying degrees of cultural involvement among tribal members. The theoretical construct of well-being was described in terms of physical health, faith, family, and culture. The theoretical construct of enculturation included pride in heritage, having Choctaw blood, being involved, and social connectedness. Choctaw participants reported social problems related to substance abuse and a sense of diminishing social connectedness to other tribal members. Recommendations on how to upscale behavioral health treatment and strengthen community ties are described. Adapted measures of historical trauma and enculturation for use in future research endeavors with Oklahoma Choctaw American Indians are also provided.
    • History of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest

      Fukunaga, Tatsuya (2004-05)
      From the mid 1860s to the eve of World War II, Asian workers, predominantly Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, constituted a significant part of the labor force in the Pacific Northwest cannery industry. In contrast to the prevalent notion of Asian workers' exploitation, their struggles in the industry have long been marginalized. Asian workers endured cruel working conditions and attempted to find ways to achieve their individual ambitions. Despite the hardships they faced in the course of their participation in West Coast capitalism, the Asian workers in the Pacific Northwest began adapting to the new environment, and their social status grew at the same time. Development of the labor contract system and its conflict with unionization were Asian workers' ways to sustain their places in the labor market. Outside of the cannery industry, the demographical dynamism of Asian immigrants also complexly influenced those in the industry. As Asian immigrants developed their own communities, they significantly shaped their distinctive identities in the U.S. and created ethnic solidarity, which led to ethnic labor competition in the cannery industry. Hence, history of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest demonstrated ways of Asian workers' responses toward the demands of capitalism on the West Coast.
    • The history of this house

      Holzhauser, Christina L. (2007-05)
      'The History of this House' is a collection of personal essays focusing on one woman's attempt to explain her profound need to preserve and understand cultural and family history. The collection explores this theme as the narrator excavates a Native American burial mound and postulates that her chosen profession makes symbolic headstones in an endeavor to celebrate and immortalize the past. Her need to identify with the past is also apparent in other essays as she assists with an autopsy, investigates her sexuality through religion, searches for her biological mother, and comes to terms with her position as a female athlete in a family of male baseball players. She realizes at a family auction that though her family tries to keep the past alive by buying and selling tangible goods; she can never live in the past, but can only preserve and learn from it.
    • Hitchhiking up Mount McKinley

      Benowitz, Jeff Apple (2004-05)
    • Holding

      Devers, Marie (2004-05)
      'Holding' is the first-person account of a young woman coming to terms with her father's illness, her cousin's death, and her family's dysfunction. The novel explores the developing need of the narrator to understand a sexual relationship she shared with her cousin. At the beginning of the novel, the narrator romanticizes this relationship, but as she confronts layers of disillusionment-denial, self-destruction, codependence-her perception transforms into a more realistic view of the past. The narrator uses pop songs as a metaphor for her idealized definition of love. To her, love is an absolute, a perfect bond. Over the course of the novel, she comes to a more mature definition of love. In the end accepting and admitting that what she perceived as love was actually abuse doesn't erase her problems, but proves the first step in the process of recovery.
    • Holocene volcanism and human occupation in the middle Susitna River Valley, Alaska

      Mulliken, Katherine M.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Potter, Ben A.; Clark, Jamie L.; Wallace, Kristi L. (2016-05)
      Archaeological and stratigraphic evidence from the middle Susitna River Valley, Alaska, reveals a rich record of human occupation during the Holocene, punctuated by volcanic ash deposits locally referred to as the Devil, Watana, and Oshetna tephras. Deposition of tephra in the middle Susitna River Valley had the potential to affect subsistence resources and lifeways of prehistoric peoples; however, ambiguities remain in dating both tephra deposits and cultural occupations, and in characterization of the tephra deposits. In addition, there has been little formal consideration of how deposition of tephra may have affected prehistoric hunter-gatherers using the middle Susitna River Valley (mSRV) during the Holocene and this research seeks to fill that gap. Electron probe microanalysis is used to geochemically characterize the middle Susitna River Valley tephra, enabling correlation to reference tephra from Hayes Volcano and aiding in determining the number of volcanic events present in the stratigraphic record of the middle Susitna River Valley. Assimilation of existing radiocarbon dates from multiple sources with new AMS radiocarbon dates produced as part of this study allows for estimating the timing of tephra deposition and evaluating the timing of cultural occupation of the area with greater precision. Characteristics of archaeological assemblages bounded by tephra deposits are also evaluated relative to existing frameworks for understanding prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior in interior Alaska. Interpretation is aided by consideration of other tephra depositional events and their environmental and ecological effects. Results suggest that at least four tephra depositional events took place in the middle Susitna River Valley. The Devil tephra was deposited between 1625-1825 cal yr B.P. (calibrated years before present). The Watana tephras, which correlate to the Hayes Volcano tephra set H, were deposited between 3360-4400 cal yr B.P., with the upper and lower portions of this tephra deposited either in rapid succession or separated in time by only a few hundred years. The Oshetna tephra was deposited between 6570-7970 cal yr B.P. While the Devil, upper and lower Watana tephras represent discrete volcanic events, the Oshetna tephra has multiple glass compositions and therefore it is unclear whether this tephra represents an eruption with a heterogeneous composition or multiple discrete tephrafalls compounded in the mSRV. Potential hiatuses in cultural occupation of the mSRV occur following deposition of these tephras, but characteristics of archaeological assemblages in the mSRV are in accordance with general transitions in central interior Alaskan archaeology. Information from other volcanic events suggests that tephra deposition in the middle Susitna River Valley would have affected resource procurement in the area and therefore likely contributed to cultural hiatuses, especially following deposition of the Watana tephra. This project has clarified the Holocene stratigraphic sequence of the middle Susitna River valley, Alaska, and provided a more complete context for interpretation of the archaeological record.
    • Home Schooling In Alaska: Extreme Experiments In Home Education

      Hanson, Terje Ann (2000)
      This study explores the history of home schooling in Alaska. The 49<super> th</super> state offers an unusual degree of freedom from regulation that allows diverse and innovative experiments in home education to flourish. Currently, Alaskan home schoolers enjoy more freedom to practice their craft than in any other state of the United States. <p> Alaska has never had enough money to deliver quality education to its children. Trying to establish an education system, to serve a small population scattered over more than half-a-million square miles, required the development of innovative methods: one of these was home schooling. Home schooling provides a low cost answer to educate Alaska's children, and became an accepted institution in Alaskan education. Today home schooling continues to deliver lower cost education to both the remote and urban student, in the North, but also offers myriad options for parents who demand more and greater flexibility in educating their children. <p>
    • Homology and cohomology of diagrams of topological spaces

      Sarnowski, Krzysztof; Piacenza, Robert J.; Cooper, Charles L.; Coutant, Basil W.; Morack, John L.; Santoni, Larry; Tape, Walter R. (1994)
      Homology and cohomology of objects other than ordinary topological spaces have been investigated by several authors. Let X be a G-space and ${\cal F}$ be a family of all closed subgroups of G. The equivariant cellular structures are obtained by attaching n-cells of the form G/H $\times$ B$\sp{\rm n}$, where B$\sp{\rm n}$ is the unit n-ball and H $\in\ {\cal F}$. A construction of the equivariant singular homology and cohomology for X and ${\cal F}$ was given by Soren Illman. In this thesis ${\cal F}$ is replaced by a small topological category and the G-space X is replaced by a functor taking values in k-spaces and called a diagram of topological spaces. The cellular structures for diagrams are obtained by attaching cells D$\sb{j}\times\rm B\sp{n}$ where D$\sb{j}$ is a representable functor. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate homology and cohomology for diagrams. We review the foundation of homotopy theory and cellular theory for diagrams. We propose axioms for homology and cohomology modeled on Eilenberg-Steenrod system of axioms and prove that they, as in the classical case, determine uniquely homology and cohomology for finite cellular diagrams. We give the generalization of Illman's equivariant singular homology and cohomology to diagrams of topological spaces and we prove that this generalization satisfies all introduced axioms. Also we prove the comparison theorem between the sheaf cohomology for diagrams developed by Robert J. Piacenza and the singular cohomology for diagrams developed in this thesis.
    • Honda country: relocalization through technology in Nanwalek Alaska

      DeHass, David; Nakazawa, Anthony; Koskey, Michael; Gerlach, Craig; Pullar, Gordon (2014-12)
      It should not be assumed that the introduction of a new technology automatically wipes out past cultural practices. Instead, it is often the case that these offerings are integrated into a current routine. For the Sugpiat of Nanwalek, Alaska, there is a constant need to negotiate between what to change and what to preserve. My research explores how a cultural group judges a new technology based upon shared boundaries and understandings. I examine how the decision to accept all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has allowed for increased participation in subsistence practices, effective resource management, and material and emotional reunification with those things that went before. Many of the activities and "places that count" are no longer merely fragments of memory for many in the village; rather, they are physical and contemporary in their importance. In my dissertation, I define relocalization and demonstrate how relocalization was made possible through purposeful decision-making and adaptive traditions and did not simply occur because of the existence of ATVs and their random internalization.
    • The hound at the end of the road: stories

      Woolley, Caitlin E.; Farmer, Daryl; Mellen, Kyle; Schell, Jennifer (2015-05)
      The Hound at the End of the Road is a collection of fictional stories that examines loneliness, isolation, and loss through a lens that is by turns magical and horrific. The stylistic choices in these stories are magic and lyricism, used to amplify the powerful imaginations of their characters to present a world that is as familiar as it is unfamiliar. A father deals with his teenage daughter's transformation into a beast; two children get lost in the woods on a vital winter hunt; and a woman is willing to endure anything to keep her late-in-life pregnancy. The stories choices in this thesis are meant to make the wonderful out of the ordinary. They illuminate the strange to remind us that being human means being fallible, and that being human is often mystifying and rewarding.
    • How much does a man cost? A dirty, dull, and dangerous application

      Hatfield, Rebecca A.; Taylor, Karen; DeCaro, Peter; Carlson, Cameron (2017-05)
      This study illuminates the many abilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). One area of importance includes the UAV's capability to assist in the development, implementation, and execution of crisis management. This research focuses on UAV uses in pre and post crisis planning and accomplishments. The accompaniment of unmanned vehicles with base teams can make crisis management plans more reliable for the general public and teams faced with tasks such as search and rescue and firefighting. In the fight for mass acceptance of UAV integration, knowledge and attitude inventories were collected and analyzed. Methodology includes mixed method research collected by interviews and questionnaires available to experts and ground teams in the UAV fields, mining industry, firefighting and police force career field, and general city planning crisis management members. This information was compiled to assist professionals in creation of general guidelines and recommendations for how to utilize UAVs in crisis management planning and implementation as well as integration of UAVs into the educational system. The results from this study show the benefits and disadvantages of strategically giving UAVs a role in the construction and implementation of crisis management plans and other areas of interest. The results also show that the general public is lacking information and education on the abilities of UAVs. This education gap shows a correlation with negative attitudes towards UAVs. Educational programs to teach the public benefits of UAV integration should be implemented.
    • How The Devils Went Deaf: Ethnomycology, Cuisine, And Perception Of Landscape In The Russian North

      Yamin-Pasternak, Sveta; Schwitzer, Peter (2007)
      Arctic tundra is rich mushroom country and a number of high latitude fungi species can potentially be used as food. Different regions often play host to many of the same or similar mushroom varieties. Yet, people's attitudes toward the same mushrooms---and mushrooms in general---vary widely both in temporal and geographical senses. The given work presents a study in ethnomycology---a field of inquiry concerned with human beliefs and practices associated with mushrooms, carried out in the Bering Strait area of Chukotka, Russia. Once avoided by the Native people living on the Russian and American sides of the Bering Strait, wild mushrooms are now considered to be deliciously edible among the Yupiit and Chukchi of Chukotka. In addition to its dietary contribution, mushroom gathering is also valued as a social, spiritual, and recreational activity which cultivates particular relationships between the people and the land. Prior to the influences of the mushroom-loving Russian cuisine, Yupik people in Chukotka regarded mushrooms as "devil ears," while the Chukchi largely viewed them as reindeer food unfit for human consumption. As an ethnographic study of a single commodity, this thesis examines past and present meanings of mushrooms in Chukotka, exploring local beliefs, practices, and knowledge associated with their use. It shows that the transformations in Yupik and Chukchi ideas about mushrooms are deeply connected with multiple aspects of social change taking place in Chukotka during and after the Soviet period.
    • How to disappear completely (and never be found)

      Mata, R. (2005-05)
      'How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found)' is a collection of six short stories that explore the theme of disappearance. The disappearance in each story works as a metaphor for the character's condition : the failure to act upon a definitive moment, the realization that everything is about to be lost, the inability to reverse an action. Another important theme that emerges is the way in which children are the unwitting victims of these characters' failures. How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found) uses a variety of narrative styles, from magic realism to fragmentation of stories within stories, as means of rendering the subjective reality of the characters in each story,