• The Kandik map: cultural exchange along the Yukon River

      Johnson, Linda R. (2007-05)
      The Kandik Map drawn in 1880 by Yukon Indian Paul Kandik and annotated by French Canadian fur trader François Mercier and U.S. Census Agent Ivan Petroff is a unique record in the documentary history of Northwestern North America. It traces the Yukon, Tanana, and Kuskokwim Rivers from their headwaters to the Pacific, showing trading posts, trails, and place names in several Athabascan languages, as well as French and English. As one of the oldest maps of the Alaska-Yukon borderlands it documents indigenous knowledge and the dynamic cultural exchange between Native residents and non-native newcomers along the Yukon River prior to the Klondike Gold Rush. Using oral traditions, archival and published sources, this thesis examines the significance and meanings of the map from 1880 to the present. The original map is preserved at The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
    • Keeper Of The Seal: The Art Of Henry Wood Elliott And The Salvation Of The Alaska Fur Seals

      Morris, Lisa Marie; Lee, Molly; Woodward, Kesler (2001)
      This thesis examines the art of Henry Wood Elliott (1846--1930) and its role in Elliott's successful crusade to save the Pribilof Island fur seals from probable extinction, its importance as a visual record of the nineteenth-century Pribilof Aleut people during a time of societal transition, and how the art reveals the guiding aspirations of the artist. Elliott was one of the first American artists to work in Alaska. An experienced field artist who had served on two prior government expeditions before his assignment to the Pribilof Islands, Elliott used his watercolors of the fur seals in a successful nationwide campaign to reverse the depletion of the herds. Less well known are Elliott's ethnographic watercolors of the Pribilof Aleut people. Created only a few short years after the 1867 Alaska Purchase, these works show the Native people accommodating their Aleut-Russian culture to American societal expectations. These images, then, are a significant visual record for safeguarding the Aleut people's past. Nettled by scientific opponents, Elliott also turned his artistic talents to retaliation. Just as William Hogarth (1697--1764) and Honore Daumier (1808--1879) used caricature to comment on society, Elliott created hundreds of cartoons (ca. 1910--1926) to ridicule his opponents and promote his own point of view. It is in these previously unexamined works that Henry Elliott achieved a synthesis of art and documentation. Elliott's art also reveals his own thwarted aspirations to achieve recognition as a serious artist. His experiences as an expedition artist encouraged both his enthusiasm for science and talent for documentation. Elliott's desire to pair his watercolors with descriptive written details and snippets of government documents, however, transformed them into visual record. Elliott may not have realized his dream of winning respect as an artist, but his documentary images aroused more interest in the declining fur seal herds than the thousands of pages of dry testimony documenting the controversy. The attention generated by his artwork was a major contributor to the successful resolution of the Pribilof Island fur seal debate.
    • Keeping The Home Fires Burning: The Effects Of Military Induced Separations On Marital Intimacy From A Female Perspective

      Cynar, Deborah J.; McWherter, Pamela (2008)
      In this study, a convenience sample of 56 female, married, military wives in northwestern community responded to a survey questionnaire concerning intimacy promoting communication skills, marital satisfaction, and military induced separations. The results indicated a strong correlation between marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. This study also explores the difference between the type and frequency of military induced separations and their influence on marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. To further describe this military population, several post hoc tests for difference found significance between military branch affiliation, and between those who had or had not received premarital counseling on levels of perceived marital satisfaction, and intimacy promoting communication skills. Further, no significant difference was found to exist between education level or employment status of the at home spouse on levels of perceived marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. A description of the implications of the findings, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    • Kids Getting Away With Learning: Student Perceptions Of Learning In One To One Laptop Programs

      Standley, Mark; Monahan, John; Crumley, Robert; Jorgensen, Spike; Lang, Rob; Richey, Jean; Roehl, Roy (2012)
      This research explores students' perceptions of learning in one to one laptop programs in rural Alaska. This research used constructing grounded theory methods by conducting five focus groups in rural high schools in order to gather and analyze data from the students themselves. The research intent was to let the students' words and experiences shape a new theory how about they learn with these laptop programs. From an epistemological standpoint the goal of this qualitative research was to create a more complete picture of learning in one to one programs using grounded data through gathering, analyzing, and working directly with the students in these programs as "co-participants" to learn from their perceptions of learning using laptops. The new literacies student develop through being 21st century learners were reflected in the student perceptions in one to one programs and challenge researchers to re-examine learning theory in light of the ubiquitous nature of digital learning. This research was part of a larger collaboration with the Tech Cohort (Appendix A) to conduct mixed methods research using the same population to create a more complete picture of the research topics and participants.
    • The Kyoto protocol and the Arctic Region: a case study of Finland and Canada

      Shnoro, Reija (2006-08)
      The Kyoto Protocol is part of the international climate change regime. Its objective is to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This thesis uses three criteria derived from regime theory to evaluate the effectiveness of the Protocol: objectives of a regime, the difference a regime makes, and regime evolution. But the Protocol has proven ineffective in both a regional policy framework and in the context of a national and sub-national framework. In this thesis Finland - a member of the European Union - is presented as an example of implementation through a regional framework. Canada - a federal state - provides an example of implementation through a national and sub-national framework. Three categories of analysis are used to evaluate national approaches: interests, institutions, and policies. This thesis concludes that the Kyoto Protocol is not a viable vehicle for policy on greenhouse gas emission reduction, regardless of a member state's institutional structures, due to critical flaws in the Protocol itself in Finland's and Canada's political structures; an over-reliance on flexible (market-based) mechanisms, unrealistic targets, inability to compensate for unanticipated events, and inability to overcome political and economic resistance at the national level.
    • Landscape Structure And Terrain-Based Hunting Range Models: Exploring Late Prehistoric Land Use In The Nutzotin Mountains, Southcentral Alaska

      Patterson, Jody J.; Murray, Maribeth; Gerlach, S. Craig; Irish, Joel; Mann, Dan (2010)
      Striving for better delineation of site function, land use, and settlement patterns, the data and analyses presented in this dissertation aim to explore more robust and objective avenues of inquiry for addressing the variability and distribution of surface lithic scatters using terrain-based hunting range models. Using large mammal distributions, Athabascan hunting ranges, and topography, landscape metrics, and an exploratory data analysis (EDA) framework, landscape structure is quantified and compared across much of the Alaskan Interior to identify reoccurring patterns related to hunting land use and the range characteristics of caribou, moose, and sheep. Key components of the landscape structure are contrasted with topographic matrices associated with protohistoric and late prehistoric sites via discriminant function classification models. Projectile points, scrapers and bifaces from surface scatters in the Nutzotin Mountains are examined in relationship to these models and their constituent elements. The results show that the association of certain chipped-stone tools and landscape structure are highly autocorrelated. This suggests that landscape structure models can be useful in the generation of constructive hypotheses to test ideas concerning inter-assemblage variability, site function and varied forms of land use.
    • Language Switching On English Compositions Of Latino Students In Alaska And Puerto Rico

      Jimenez-Lugo, Edna; Burleson, Derick (2007)
      The main objective of the research described in this dissertation was to explore how English second language (ESL) writers used their first language (L1) when composing in their second language (L2). This task was undertaken by identifying participants according to their L2 (English) proficiency level, Latino ethnic subgroup, and generational status. Another objective of this study was to better understand the writer's perspective regarding first language use in L2 writing, referred to as language-switching (L-S) in this study. Eight high school Latinos were recruited in Fairbanks, Alaska, and a group of twenty-three college-level participants in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire, provide a writing sample, and participate in a guided focus group discussion. Findings indicated that participants with low L2 proficiency were more likely to switch languages at the lexical level than participants at an intermediate or advanced level of English proficiency. Switching languages from English to Spanish at the lexical level was of no benefit for text coherence. Lack of L2 linguistic competence was a contributing factor for switching to the L1 as participants compensated for L2 difficulties with their L1 knowledge at the morphological, syntactical, and semantic level. A qualitative analysis of the focus group data suggests that thinking in the L1 is a common strategy for ESL learners, which they perceive to be an advantage for generating ideas faster and to decide what to write. However, participants' perceived writing text in the L1 for later content translation to be counterproductive. An important factor that cannot be discounted and that may have contributed to the language switching frequency among the participants in this study is the learning contexts: learning English in the U.S. versus learning English in Puerto Rico. Additional research is needed to explore the relationship between language switching and learning context. I conclude this dissertation by suggesting pedagogical implications regarding L2 writing instruction and for placement of L2 learners in ESL programs.
    • The Last Great Indian War (Nulato 1851)

      Wright, Miranda Hildebrand; Black, Lydia T.; Schweitzer, Peter P.; Morrow, Phyllis (1995-04)
      In this study, I review the causes of an Athabaskan conflict in western Alaska which occurred in 1851. This hostility is known in published sources as the Nulato Massacre. In oral tradition the same incident is referred to either as the Last Great Indian War or simply "The Nulato War". Critical reading and analysis of primary and secondary historical source materials offer insight into external pressures on the indigenous population, the analysis of oral tradition the resulting internal pressures. The combination of historic documentation and oral tradition provide a basis for the analysis of the Nulato Massacre as an internecine conflict. The Koyukon point of view reveals this conflict to be the result of a shamanistic power contest. While it may be argued that the conflict was precipitated ultimately by economic and social post-contact dislocations, the Koyukon perceive it as a disturbance of their concept of universal psychic unity, an overarching conceptualization which encompasses all aspects of Koyukon worldview. It was imperative in their view to regain control of their lives. The role of the shaman in such restoration was paramount.
    • Later that night: three studies in horror

      Michael, Kathryn; Kamerling, Leonard; Farmer, Daryl; Carr, Richard (2015-05)
      To write a successful screenplay is to form a blueprint, a set of dramatic instructions; a structural plan to be executed at a later date by film artists and technicians. It is vital not to become attached to the details; components such as character names and place settings will often change as a project undergoes different stages of development. Above all else, what must remain on the page is the story's dramatic structure, its intention. If this is accomplished, the integrity of the screenplay is intact, and the writer is in control. Later that Night: Three Studies in Horror is a compilation of three short screenplays, each showcasing a popular horror subgenre. The screenplays follow Anna and Gabriel, a pair of con-artists, as they try to maneuver their way through the back roads of Nebraska on one fateful summer night. In In Sight, the pair is wrapping up a con job when an unexpected guest turns up on the front porch in need of help, with surprising consequences. In Pit Stop, a routine fill-up at a local gas station takes a bloody turn for the worse when two men attempt a hold-up. Finally, in Overnight Guest, Anna's freedom from Gabriel is cut short when his spirit refuses to grant her peace. These three screenplays are written as stand-alone pieces that can be viewed in chronological order to form a continuous storyline. The purpose of this structure is to highlight specific subgenres of horror in each of the three scripts and to create an understanding of how each functions as a storytelling genre. In Sight is a psychological thriller, focusing on feelings of unease and impending action. Pit Stop is a "gore script", highlighting gratuitous amounts of blood and death. Overnight Guest is a story of the supernatural, with the protagonist's life being directly affected by an angry spirit.
    • Leading and following at a 21st century university: identifying desired outcomes for a student leadership program

      Trabant, Tonya Denise (2004-05)
      Leadership has been discussed, debated, practiced, and researched for millennia. In the 20th century alone, no less than ten types of leadership were defined and empirically studied. In the higher education context, student leadership development is addressed from a wide variety of theoretical and programmatic approaches and co-curricular leadership programs have been one of the fastest growing areas in higher education in the past decade. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Leadership Program was initially structured as adaptations of other models. Critical to the future success of the program is the reformation of elements to fit UAF's unique context and an adequate outcomes assessment plan to determine that elements are functioning as intended. In order to develop an understanding of leading and following at UAF, program stakeholders participated in focus group interviews, individual interviews, and a written assessment. Participant observation was also used to gather rich data about the institutional culture of leadership at UAF. Data was thematically analyzed as well as categorized using national standards. One final result is a model of desired student leadership competencies for the UAF Leadership Program.
    • Leadlight

      Dyer, Daniel; Burleson, Derick; Hirsch, Alexander; Coffman, Chris; Carr, Richard (2016-05)
      This collection of poems explores the spiritual experience of trauma and the diverse stimuli, such as violence, sexual abuse, loss, witness, and epiphany that may instigate fragmentation and repressions in the subconscious. The many allusions throughout the collection, from Homeric and Shakespearean characters to eastern religious figures, serve to imbue the work with a sense of variegation while also gentrifying and consecrating trauma. The poems take much inspiration from Jacques Lacan’s work on trauma, language, and the gaze, the writings of existentialists Sartre and Kierkegaard, and, of course, the poet’s own biography, and are arranged so as to suggest a coherent, albeit fragmented, narrative profluence. The collection as a whole attempts to emphasize the similarities between religious and traumatic experience and the ways in which language may or may not serve to reorient the traumatize mind.
    • Learning To Teach Where You Are: Preparation For Context-Responsive Teaching In Alaska's Teacher Certification Programs

      Vinlove, Amy Louise; Richey, Jean; Hornig, Joan; Hirshberg, Diane; Rickard, Anthony; Roehl, Roy (2012)
      Context-responsive teaching is defined in this project as teaching that responds to individual student needs and interests, linguistic backgrounds and family characteristics, the local community and the local natural environment. Context-responsive teaching, as defined in Chapter 1 of this dissertation, consolidates into one concept the pedagogical knowledge, skills and dispositions associated with culturally responsive teaching, place-based teaching, differentiated instruction, and purposeful collaboration with parents, families and communities. The research completed for this project examines current practices relative to preparing context-responsive teachers in Alaska's elementary and secondary teacher certification programs. A survey examining context-responsive teacher preparation experiences was developed and distributed to practicing teachers in Alaska who received their initial teaching certification from the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), or the University of Alaska Southeast (UAS), and who graduated in 2006, 2007 or 2008. The experiences of the graduates were juxtaposed with information on the three programs gathered through interviews with teacher educators currently working at UAA, UAF and UAS. Current practices at the three institutions are examined in relation to a literature-based framework of "best practices" in context-responsive teacher preparation. Following a presentation of the data gathered in this mixed-method investigation, nine research-based recommendations are offered for strengthening context-responsive teacher preparation in the state of Alaska.
    • Leaving Centralia and other stories

      Small, Sarah; Brightwell, Geri; Kamerling, Leonard; Harney, Eileen (2018-05)
      In the eight short stories within this collection, we encounter characters against a variety of backdrops, from the mundane--middle school shop class, and a short road trip--to the more bizarre--a town with an underground fire predicted to burn for two hundred years, and a forbidden island potter's field. Many of the protagonists are adolescents, positioned between their childhood, when they played a more passive role in their own lives, and adulthood, when they more deliberately make decisions about their own actions and lives. However, in all of these settings and regardless of age, the characters find that it is not under exceptional circumstances but through the course of the ordinary moments in their daily lives that they encounter testing points for their maturity and integrity.
    • Leaving King Island: The Closure Of A Bureau Of Indian Affairs School And Its Consequences

      Braem, Nicole M.; Schneider, William (2004)
      By 1966, the King Island Inupiat had moved from their island village and lived at Nome. Little has been written about the de facto relocation of the King Islanders---and how and why it happened. What follows is an ethnohistory of the relocation based on the anthropology and history of the Bering Strait region, archival records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and interviews with King Islanders in Nome. The heart of the matter was the village's school. Based on the evidence, the BIA closed the school because of the expense and inconvenience of operating at King Island. This accomplished what the BIA had been unable for decades to do by persuasion---to move the village to the mainland. The immediate result of the closure, the resettlement of the villagers in Nome, fits within the established pattern of BIA policy over time, one that had assimilation as its ultimate goal.
    • The legacy of shamans? Structural and cognitive perspectives of prehistoric symbolism in the Bering Strait region

      Qu, Feng; 曲, 枫; Potter, Ben; Schweitzer, Peter; Plattet, Patrick; Koester, David (2013-08)
      This research explores the meanings of prehistoric artistic artifacts discovered in the Bering Strait region. The research focuses on the prehistoric period between AD 100 and 1700, including Okvik culture, Old Bering Sea culture, Punuk Culture, Birnirk Culture, Thule culture, and Ipiutak Culture. My archaeological data in this research were collected from the archaeological collections of the Okvik site on Punuk Islands, the Kukulik site on St. Lawrence Island, and the Nukleet site at Cape Denbigh at the University of Alaska Museum of the North. Based on abundant ethnographic records from the Bering Strait region, this research relies on ethnographic analysis as methodology to approach prehistoric symbolism. Applying ethnographic analysis results in diverse interpretations of the archaeological artifacts, which bear potential spiritual or secular meanings. Theoretically, the research provides an assessment of contemporary archaeological theories such as cognitive archaeology, structural archaeology, and shamanism theory (general shamanism theory and the neuropsychological model) in order to examine the reliability of these theories in the study of prehistoric art. Due to the problems of cognitive, structural, and shamanism theories, the conclusion of this research builds on practice theory and animist ontology to interpret the variants of art productivity, cosmological structures, and relationship between humans and materials.
    • "Let us die trying": a post-colonial reading of Velma Wallis

      Myers, Seth G. (2006-05)
      This essay explores the work of Velma Wallis from the perspective of post-colonial theory. Her works, Two Old Women and Bird Girl and the Man who Followed the Sun are read within this theoretical framework as volatile and resistant texts, in opposition to readings that might limit their meaning as ethnographic or otherwise. I outline the generalities of my theoretical framework with reference to Edward Said and Homi K. Bhabha, before I approach a discussion of Native American literature and Velma Wallis specifically. Within this theoretical framework, I find that Wallis resists, not only generic definition, but the larger structures of colonialism, through an exploration of resistance within so-called colonized groups. She performs this resistance by demonstrating the power of language, that survival is itself resistant, the resistance of feminism, and the importance of positive dialogue in a world of cultural contact.
    • Letters as literature: semantic and discursive features of irony in "Letters to Howard"

      Cook, Corinna Jo; Schneider, William; Koester, David; Ruppert, James (2011-12)
      This thesis examines the literary features of the Letters to Howard, a series of letters to the editor of the Alaskan newspaper, the Tundra Times. Published over the course of several months in 1973, the letters were signed by two semi-fictional characters: an old Eskimo man, Naugga Ciunerput, and a lost VISTA volunteer, Wally Morton, the two lone inhabitants of the imagined Land's End Village, Alaska. Naugga and Wally had a pointed agenda: they were addressing editor Howard Rock and his readership with their concerns regarding the newly-passed Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, or ANCSA. In truth, Naugga and Wally's letters were written by two graduate students, Fred Bigjim (an Inupiaq from Nome studying education) and James Ito-Adler (a law student who had switched to anthropology). The use of irony in these letters is the subject of my analysis here; I focus first on the semantic layers of irony and second on its discursive dimensions. This thesis' ultimate goal is to illuminate the ways in which these letters contest history, frame the nature and distribution of power, and examine the myriad tensions at play between Native peoples' historic, cultural, and political ties to the land.
    • A lexical transducer for North Slope Iñupiaq

      Bills, Aric R.; Tuttle, Siri; Levin, Lori; Berge, Anna; Kaplan, Lawrence (2011-05)
      This thesis describes the creation and evaluation of software designed to analyze and generate North Slope Iñupiaq words. Given a complete lñupiaq word as input, it attempts to identify the word's stem and suffixes, including the grammatical category and any inflectional information contained in the word. Given a stem and list of suffixes as input, it attempts to produce the corresponding Iñupiaq word, applying phonological processes as necessary. Innovations in the implementation of this software include Iñupiaq-specific formats for specifying lexical data, including a table-based format for specifying inflectional suffixes in paradigms; a treatment of phonologically-conditioned irregular allomorphy which leverages the pattern-recognition capabilities of the xfst programming language; and an idiom for composing morphographemic rules together in xfst which captures the state of the software each time a new rule is added, maximizing feedback during software compilation and facilitating troubleshooting. In testing, the software recognized 81.2% of all word tokens (78.3% of unique word types) and guessed at the morphology of an additional 16.8% of tokens (19.4% of types). Analyses of recognized words were largely accurate; a heuristic for identifying accurate parses is proposed. Most guesses were at least partly inaccurate. Improvements and applications are proposed.
    • Liberation dreamin’ (a good time holiday eight-track for the real American)

      Sanders, Craig S.; Brightwell, Geraldine; Farmer, Daryl; Schell, Jennifer (2016-05)
      The eight short stories that make up Liberation Dreamin’ follow protagonists who yearn to be heroes, saviors, caretakers, and liberators. These are characters fueled by the power of metaphor, lost in the idea of America as they expose the fabulism of reality itself through their absurd attempts to realize their often idealistic wishes and longings. They hunt treasure in the forest of northwestern Pennsylvania, shoot hot air balloons out of the sky, run major celebrities down with their cars on nights of blinded judgment, and even kidnap roadrunners. They stage protests for bigots’ funerals, wage strange wars with dairy farm animals, have misguided epiphanies in checkout lanes, and write urgent letters to Santa Claus himself. These pieces seek to render the biblical commonplace and highlight the profundities of everyday trivialities. As is suggested by the collection’s parenthetical subtitle, A Good Time Holiday Eight-Track for the Real American, these are stories that strive to be musical. In this book of satire and ridiculous narratives, imaginary human beings are at home in their preoccupation with holidays and anniversaries. A sociopolitical commentary on the American Dream and dreams in general, Liberation Dreamin’ runs on anger, humor, foreign policy, and ultimately hope.
    • The life history of Effie Kokrine through personal recordings

      Freiburger, Annette J.; Schneider, William S.; Morrow, Phyllis; Mangusso, Mary C. (2013-08)
      This thesis is a combination of tape transcriptions and research to document the life history of Athabascan leader Effie Folger Kokrine. Effie Kokrine was well known in the Interior of Alaska, but her impact reached much farther, and in many directions, as she loved to travel and share her stories with people in many different states and in several other countries. Sharing stories was only one of her many talents. She was an Alaska Native culture educator, a champion dog musher, an expert seamstress, skin sewer and beader, hunter, fisher, cook and bottle washer. Effie stayed active and busy right until her sudden death from heart failure. She believed that every person should contribute to the well-being of the community, and she did her part by volunteering with the Junior Dog Musher's Association, the American Legion Post #11 Women's Auxiliary, the Badger Lion's Club, and speaking to almost every group that invited her, which was many. The only reason that she would turn someone down who invited her to speak was if she had a prior commitment. She was a favorite speaker of various groups, especially those involving children, because of her history, and because of her humor. The intent of this thesis is to attempt to capture some of that history and share some of the stories.