• Landscape Structure And Terrain-Based Hunting Range Models: Exploring Late Prehistoric Land Use In The Nutzotin Mountains, Southcentral Alaska

      Patterson, Jody J.; Murray, Maribeth; Gerlach, S. Craig; Irish, Joel; Mann, Dan (2010)
      Striving for better delineation of site function, land use, and settlement patterns, the data and analyses presented in this dissertation aim to explore more robust and objective avenues of inquiry for addressing the variability and distribution of surface lithic scatters using terrain-based hunting range models. Using large mammal distributions, Athabascan hunting ranges, and topography, landscape metrics, and an exploratory data analysis (EDA) framework, landscape structure is quantified and compared across much of the Alaskan Interior to identify reoccurring patterns related to hunting land use and the range characteristics of caribou, moose, and sheep. Key components of the landscape structure are contrasted with topographic matrices associated with protohistoric and late prehistoric sites via discriminant function classification models. Projectile points, scrapers and bifaces from surface scatters in the Nutzotin Mountains are examined in relationship to these models and their constituent elements. The results show that the association of certain chipped-stone tools and landscape structure are highly autocorrelated. This suggests that landscape structure models can be useful in the generation of constructive hypotheses to test ideas concerning inter-assemblage variability, site function and varied forms of land use.
    • Language Switching On English Compositions Of Latino Students In Alaska And Puerto Rico

      Jimenez-Lugo, Edna; Burleson, Derick (2007)
      The main objective of the research described in this dissertation was to explore how English second language (ESL) writers used their first language (L1) when composing in their second language (L2). This task was undertaken by identifying participants according to their L2 (English) proficiency level, Latino ethnic subgroup, and generational status. Another objective of this study was to better understand the writer's perspective regarding first language use in L2 writing, referred to as language-switching (L-S) in this study. Eight high school Latinos were recruited in Fairbanks, Alaska, and a group of twenty-three college-level participants in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire, provide a writing sample, and participate in a guided focus group discussion. Findings indicated that participants with low L2 proficiency were more likely to switch languages at the lexical level than participants at an intermediate or advanced level of English proficiency. Switching languages from English to Spanish at the lexical level was of no benefit for text coherence. Lack of L2 linguistic competence was a contributing factor for switching to the L1 as participants compensated for L2 difficulties with their L1 knowledge at the morphological, syntactical, and semantic level. A qualitative analysis of the focus group data suggests that thinking in the L1 is a common strategy for ESL learners, which they perceive to be an advantage for generating ideas faster and to decide what to write. However, participants' perceived writing text in the L1 for later content translation to be counterproductive. An important factor that cannot be discounted and that may have contributed to the language switching frequency among the participants in this study is the learning contexts: learning English in the U.S. versus learning English in Puerto Rico. Additional research is needed to explore the relationship between language switching and learning context. I conclude this dissertation by suggesting pedagogical implications regarding L2 writing instruction and for placement of L2 learners in ESL programs.
    • The Last Great Indian War (Nulato 1851)

      Wright, Miranda Hildebrand; Black, Lydia T.; Schweitzer, Peter P.; Morrow, Phyllis (1995-04)
      In this study, I review the causes of an Athabaskan conflict in western Alaska which occurred in 1851. This hostility is known in published sources as the Nulato Massacre. In oral tradition the same incident is referred to either as the Last Great Indian War or simply "The Nulato War". Critical reading and analysis of primary and secondary historical source materials offer insight into external pressures on the indigenous population, the analysis of oral tradition the resulting internal pressures. The combination of historic documentation and oral tradition provide a basis for the analysis of the Nulato Massacre as an internecine conflict. The Koyukon point of view reveals this conflict to be the result of a shamanistic power contest. While it may be argued that the conflict was precipitated ultimately by economic and social post-contact dislocations, the Koyukon perceive it as a disturbance of their concept of universal psychic unity, an overarching conceptualization which encompasses all aspects of Koyukon worldview. It was imperative in their view to regain control of their lives. The role of the shaman in such restoration was paramount.
    • Later that night: three studies in horror

      Michael, Kathryn; Kamerling, Leonard; Farmer, Daryl; Carr, Richard (2015-05)
      To write a successful screenplay is to form a blueprint, a set of dramatic instructions; a structural plan to be executed at a later date by film artists and technicians. It is vital not to become attached to the details; components such as character names and place settings will often change as a project undergoes different stages of development. Above all else, what must remain on the page is the story's dramatic structure, its intention. If this is accomplished, the integrity of the screenplay is intact, and the writer is in control. Later that Night: Three Studies in Horror is a compilation of three short screenplays, each showcasing a popular horror subgenre. The screenplays follow Anna and Gabriel, a pair of con-artists, as they try to maneuver their way through the back roads of Nebraska on one fateful summer night. In In Sight, the pair is wrapping up a con job when an unexpected guest turns up on the front porch in need of help, with surprising consequences. In Pit Stop, a routine fill-up at a local gas station takes a bloody turn for the worse when two men attempt a hold-up. Finally, in Overnight Guest, Anna's freedom from Gabriel is cut short when his spirit refuses to grant her peace. These three screenplays are written as stand-alone pieces that can be viewed in chronological order to form a continuous storyline. The purpose of this structure is to highlight specific subgenres of horror in each of the three scripts and to create an understanding of how each functions as a storytelling genre. In Sight is a psychological thriller, focusing on feelings of unease and impending action. Pit Stop is a "gore script", highlighting gratuitous amounts of blood and death. Overnight Guest is a story of the supernatural, with the protagonist's life being directly affected by an angry spirit.
    • Leading and following at a 21st century university: identifying desired outcomes for a student leadership program

      Trabant, Tonya Denise (2004-05)
      Leadership has been discussed, debated, practiced, and researched for millennia. In the 20th century alone, no less than ten types of leadership were defined and empirically studied. In the higher education context, student leadership development is addressed from a wide variety of theoretical and programmatic approaches and co-curricular leadership programs have been one of the fastest growing areas in higher education in the past decade. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Leadership Program was initially structured as adaptations of other models. Critical to the future success of the program is the reformation of elements to fit UAF's unique context and an adequate outcomes assessment plan to determine that elements are functioning as intended. In order to develop an understanding of leading and following at UAF, program stakeholders participated in focus group interviews, individual interviews, and a written assessment. Participant observation was also used to gather rich data about the institutional culture of leadership at UAF. Data was thematically analyzed as well as categorized using national standards. One final result is a model of desired student leadership competencies for the UAF Leadership Program.
    • Leadlight

      Dyer, Daniel; Burleson, Derick; Hirsch, Alexander; Coffman, Chris; Carr, Richard (2016-05)
      This collection of poems explores the spiritual experience of trauma and the diverse stimuli, such as violence, sexual abuse, loss, witness, and epiphany that may instigate fragmentation and repressions in the subconscious. The many allusions throughout the collection, from Homeric and Shakespearean characters to eastern religious figures, serve to imbue the work with a sense of variegation while also gentrifying and consecrating trauma. The poems take much inspiration from Jacques Lacan’s work on trauma, language, and the gaze, the writings of existentialists Sartre and Kierkegaard, and, of course, the poet’s own biography, and are arranged so as to suggest a coherent, albeit fragmented, narrative profluence. The collection as a whole attempts to emphasize the similarities between religious and traumatic experience and the ways in which language may or may not serve to reorient the traumatize mind.
    • Learning To Teach Where You Are: Preparation For Context-Responsive Teaching In Alaska's Teacher Certification Programs

      Vinlove, Amy Louise; Richey, Jean; Hornig, Joan; Hirshberg, Diane; Rickard, Anthony; Roehl, Roy (2012)
      Context-responsive teaching is defined in this project as teaching that responds to individual student needs and interests, linguistic backgrounds and family characteristics, the local community and the local natural environment. Context-responsive teaching, as defined in Chapter 1 of this dissertation, consolidates into one concept the pedagogical knowledge, skills and dispositions associated with culturally responsive teaching, place-based teaching, differentiated instruction, and purposeful collaboration with parents, families and communities. The research completed for this project examines current practices relative to preparing context-responsive teachers in Alaska's elementary and secondary teacher certification programs. A survey examining context-responsive teacher preparation experiences was developed and distributed to practicing teachers in Alaska who received their initial teaching certification from the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), or the University of Alaska Southeast (UAS), and who graduated in 2006, 2007 or 2008. The experiences of the graduates were juxtaposed with information on the three programs gathered through interviews with teacher educators currently working at UAA, UAF and UAS. Current practices at the three institutions are examined in relation to a literature-based framework of "best practices" in context-responsive teacher preparation. Following a presentation of the data gathered in this mixed-method investigation, nine research-based recommendations are offered for strengthening context-responsive teacher preparation in the state of Alaska.
    • Leaving Centralia and other stories

      Small, Sarah; Brightwell, Geri; Kamerling, Leonard; Harney, Eileen (2018-05)
      In the eight short stories within this collection, we encounter characters against a variety of backdrops, from the mundane--middle school shop class, and a short road trip--to the more bizarre--a town with an underground fire predicted to burn for two hundred years, and a forbidden island potter's field. Many of the protagonists are adolescents, positioned between their childhood, when they played a more passive role in their own lives, and adulthood, when they more deliberately make decisions about their own actions and lives. However, in all of these settings and regardless of age, the characters find that it is not under exceptional circumstances but through the course of the ordinary moments in their daily lives that they encounter testing points for their maturity and integrity.
    • Leaving King Island: The Closure Of A Bureau Of Indian Affairs School And Its Consequences

      Braem, Nicole M.; Schneider, William (2004)
      By 1966, the King Island Inupiat had moved from their island village and lived at Nome. Little has been written about the de facto relocation of the King Islanders---and how and why it happened. What follows is an ethnohistory of the relocation based on the anthropology and history of the Bering Strait region, archival records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and interviews with King Islanders in Nome. The heart of the matter was the village's school. Based on the evidence, the BIA closed the school because of the expense and inconvenience of operating at King Island. This accomplished what the BIA had been unable for decades to do by persuasion---to move the village to the mainland. The immediate result of the closure, the resettlement of the villagers in Nome, fits within the established pattern of BIA policy over time, one that had assimilation as its ultimate goal.
    • The legacy of shamans? Structural and cognitive perspectives of prehistoric symbolism in the Bering Strait region

      Qu, Feng; 曲, 枫; Potter, Ben; Schweitzer, Peter; Plattet, Patrick; Koester, David (2013-08)
      This research explores the meanings of prehistoric artistic artifacts discovered in the Bering Strait region. The research focuses on the prehistoric period between AD 100 and 1700, including Okvik culture, Old Bering Sea culture, Punuk Culture, Birnirk Culture, Thule culture, and Ipiutak Culture. My archaeological data in this research were collected from the archaeological collections of the Okvik site on Punuk Islands, the Kukulik site on St. Lawrence Island, and the Nukleet site at Cape Denbigh at the University of Alaska Museum of the North. Based on abundant ethnographic records from the Bering Strait region, this research relies on ethnographic analysis as methodology to approach prehistoric symbolism. Applying ethnographic analysis results in diverse interpretations of the archaeological artifacts, which bear potential spiritual or secular meanings. Theoretically, the research provides an assessment of contemporary archaeological theories such as cognitive archaeology, structural archaeology, and shamanism theory (general shamanism theory and the neuropsychological model) in order to examine the reliability of these theories in the study of prehistoric art. Due to the problems of cognitive, structural, and shamanism theories, the conclusion of this research builds on practice theory and animist ontology to interpret the variants of art productivity, cosmological structures, and relationship between humans and materials.
    • "Let us die trying": a post-colonial reading of Velma Wallis

      Myers, Seth G. (2006-05)
      This essay explores the work of Velma Wallis from the perspective of post-colonial theory. Her works, Two Old Women and Bird Girl and the Man who Followed the Sun are read within this theoretical framework as volatile and resistant texts, in opposition to readings that might limit their meaning as ethnographic or otherwise. I outline the generalities of my theoretical framework with reference to Edward Said and Homi K. Bhabha, before I approach a discussion of Native American literature and Velma Wallis specifically. Within this theoretical framework, I find that Wallis resists, not only generic definition, but the larger structures of colonialism, through an exploration of resistance within so-called colonized groups. She performs this resistance by demonstrating the power of language, that survival is itself resistant, the resistance of feminism, and the importance of positive dialogue in a world of cultural contact.
    • Letters as literature: semantic and discursive features of irony in "Letters to Howard"

      Cook, Corinna Jo; Schneider, William; Koester, David; Ruppert, James (2011-12)
      This thesis examines the literary features of the Letters to Howard, a series of letters to the editor of the Alaskan newspaper, the Tundra Times. Published over the course of several months in 1973, the letters were signed by two semi-fictional characters: an old Eskimo man, Naugga Ciunerput, and a lost VISTA volunteer, Wally Morton, the two lone inhabitants of the imagined Land's End Village, Alaska. Naugga and Wally had a pointed agenda: they were addressing editor Howard Rock and his readership with their concerns regarding the newly-passed Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, or ANCSA. In truth, Naugga and Wally's letters were written by two graduate students, Fred Bigjim (an Inupiaq from Nome studying education) and James Ito-Adler (a law student who had switched to anthropology). The use of irony in these letters is the subject of my analysis here; I focus first on the semantic layers of irony and second on its discursive dimensions. This thesis' ultimate goal is to illuminate the ways in which these letters contest history, frame the nature and distribution of power, and examine the myriad tensions at play between Native peoples' historic, cultural, and political ties to the land.
    • A lexical transducer for North Slope Iñupiaq

      Bills, Aric R.; Tuttle, Siri; Levin, Lori; Berge, Anna; Kaplan, Lawrence (2011-05)
      This thesis describes the creation and evaluation of software designed to analyze and generate North Slope Iñupiaq words. Given a complete lñupiaq word as input, it attempts to identify the word's stem and suffixes, including the grammatical category and any inflectional information contained in the word. Given a stem and list of suffixes as input, it attempts to produce the corresponding Iñupiaq word, applying phonological processes as necessary. Innovations in the implementation of this software include Iñupiaq-specific formats for specifying lexical data, including a table-based format for specifying inflectional suffixes in paradigms; a treatment of phonologically-conditioned irregular allomorphy which leverages the pattern-recognition capabilities of the xfst programming language; and an idiom for composing morphographemic rules together in xfst which captures the state of the software each time a new rule is added, maximizing feedback during software compilation and facilitating troubleshooting. In testing, the software recognized 81.2% of all word tokens (78.3% of unique word types) and guessed at the morphology of an additional 16.8% of tokens (19.4% of types). Analyses of recognized words were largely accurate; a heuristic for identifying accurate parses is proposed. Most guesses were at least partly inaccurate. Improvements and applications are proposed.
    • Liberation dreamin’ (a good time holiday eight-track for the real American)

      Sanders, Craig S.; Brightwell, Geraldine; Farmer, Daryl; Schell, Jennifer (2016-05)
      The eight short stories that make up Liberation Dreamin’ follow protagonists who yearn to be heroes, saviors, caretakers, and liberators. These are characters fueled by the power of metaphor, lost in the idea of America as they expose the fabulism of reality itself through their absurd attempts to realize their often idealistic wishes and longings. They hunt treasure in the forest of northwestern Pennsylvania, shoot hot air balloons out of the sky, run major celebrities down with their cars on nights of blinded judgment, and even kidnap roadrunners. They stage protests for bigots’ funerals, wage strange wars with dairy farm animals, have misguided epiphanies in checkout lanes, and write urgent letters to Santa Claus himself. These pieces seek to render the biblical commonplace and highlight the profundities of everyday trivialities. As is suggested by the collection’s parenthetical subtitle, A Good Time Holiday Eight-Track for the Real American, these are stories that strive to be musical. In this book of satire and ridiculous narratives, imaginary human beings are at home in their preoccupation with holidays and anniversaries. A sociopolitical commentary on the American Dream and dreams in general, Liberation Dreamin’ runs on anger, humor, foreign policy, and ultimately hope.
    • The life history of Effie Kokrine through personal recordings

      Freiburger, Annette J.; Schneider, William S.; Morrow, Phyllis; Mangusso, Mary C. (2013-08)
      This thesis is a combination of tape transcriptions and research to document the life history of Athabascan leader Effie Folger Kokrine. Effie Kokrine was well known in the Interior of Alaska, but her impact reached much farther, and in many directions, as she loved to travel and share her stories with people in many different states and in several other countries. Sharing stories was only one of her many talents. She was an Alaska Native culture educator, a champion dog musher, an expert seamstress, skin sewer and beader, hunter, fisher, cook and bottle washer. Effie stayed active and busy right until her sudden death from heart failure. She believed that every person should contribute to the well-being of the community, and she did her part by volunteering with the Junior Dog Musher's Association, the American Legion Post #11 Women's Auxiliary, the Badger Lion's Club, and speaking to almost every group that invited her, which was many. The only reason that she would turn someone down who invited her to speak was if she had a prior commitment. She was a favorite speaker of various groups, especially those involving children, because of her history, and because of her humor. The intent of this thesis is to attempt to capture some of that history and share some of the stories.
    • Life on two continents: understanding different roles of Chinese grandparents who have grandchildren born in the U.S.

      Qiao, Tianyu; 乔天钰; DeCaro, Peter A.; Taylor, Karen M.; Kan, Rosalind (2014-05)
      The present research explored the roles Chinese grandparents play regarding their grandchildren born in the United States. Due to the differences in language, cultures and family values in China and the U.S., these Chinese grandparents balance their lives between two continents and experience possible disconnect in communication with their U.S.-born grandchildren. In order to understand the lived experiences of these Chinese grandparents and to develop co-constructed meaning of their intercultural interactions, this research employs qualitative narrative analysis as the primary method. Eight conversational interviews were conducted and four emergent themes were discussed. This research shows that Chinese grandparents do encounter difficulties, cultural conflicts and disconnect with their grandchildren because they split their time between living in China and the U.S. There are insights provided to mitigate these problems.
    • Liitukut Sugpiat'Stun (We Are Learning How To Be Real People): Exploring Kodiak Alutiiq Literature Through Core Values

      Drabek, Alisha Susana; Barnhardt, Ray (2012)
      The decline of Kodiak Alutiiq oral tradition practices and limited awareness or understanding of archived stories has kept them from being integrated into school curriculum. This study catalogs an anthology of archived Alutiiq literature documented since 1804, and provides an historical and values-based analysis of Alutiiq literature, focused on the educational significance of stories as tools for individual and community wellbeing. The study offers an exploration of values, worldview and knowledge embedded in Alutiiq stories. It also provides a history of colonial impacts on Alutiiq education and an in-depth study of the early colonial observers and ethnographers who collected Alutiiq oral literature, clarifying the context in which the stories have been retold or framed. Collections of traditional Indigenous literatures are valuable on many levels. This collection is of historical and personal significance for local Kodiak Alutiiq tribal members' identity as it makes these resources more accessible for community members and educators, and therefore accessible to younger and future generations. The conclusion also provides recommendations for next steps for developing curriculum and revitalizing Alutiiq oral traditions. The book is intended to contribute to an understanding of the evolution of cultural traditions in Alaska, and to serve as a model for similar cultural reclamation and education efforts.
    • The limitations of service members' constitutional rights

      Leonard, Dene Ray (2003-12)
      This thesis reviews the constitutional rights of service members and how they are limited by the military. These affected rights include the First Amendment's rights to free speech, religious exercise and the ability to petition the government for redress of grievances; the Fifth Amendment's due process clause; and the Sixth Amendment's right to a jury of one's peers. The discussion section of this thesis argues two justifications used by the military for limiting service members' rights. The first justification is in support of good order, discipline and morale. The second justification is in support of uniformity. The latter discussion also identifies the U.S. Supreme Court's treatment of the military as a separate community and how the military is guided by a different standard. To support the separate community justification the U.S. Supreme Court has deferred most of its rulings on the rights of service members back to military leaders. At the conclusion of the discussion section an application of previous U.S. Supreme Court cases and military court cases is used to anticipate the future of the military's body art policy.
    • Lithic analysis at the Mead Site, Central Alaska

      Little, Allison A.; Potter, Ben; Irish, Joel; Plattet, Patrick (2013-08)
      The purpose of this study is to understand chipped stone technological behaviors at the Mead Site located in central Alaska. Lithics from each cultural occupation ranging in age from 11,460BP to 1420BP were analyzed and compared. Specific objectives include (1) characterization of variability in raw material and use for each cultural component, (2) description of lithic stages of reduction represented in each component, (3) description of the basic lithic industries represented. and (4) the identification and characterization of spatial organization and lithic behaviors. Results indicate (1) the tools and debris from Cultural Zone (CZ) lb and CZ2 show preferential use of local materials, while the tools from CZ3b and CZ4 are largely manufactured using nonlocal materials, and the debitage assemblage is dominated by locally available material, (2) CZ1b was a long term occupation, while CZ2, CZ3b, and CZ4 were short term camps, and (3) CZ4 is characterized by intensive primary reduction of a local quartz, while CZ2 is characterized by biface production. These patterns suggest similar technological strategies were employed at Mead in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene with an increase in tool form diversity and greater reliance on higher quality locally available materials during the Mid Holocene.
    • Lived ethnicity: identity, consciousness, and discursive practice in Grayling, Alaska

      Raymond-Yakoubian, Brenden (2000-12)
      This thesis is an analysis of data collected from academic, archival, and ethnographic inquiries into the lives, culture, and history of the residents of Grayling, Alaska. The main argument forwarded in this thesis is that forms of discursive practice provide a means, emic and etic, for critically engaging the historically and locally constructed web of meanings that inscribe and inform the lived social reality of ethnic identity of ethnic identity and consciousness in Grayling. Using a communicative-discursive theoretical framework, influences and forces which inform this 'lived ethnicity, ' the strands of the web, are understood dialogically - as discursive forms and 'voices'; they are presented in the shape of local narrative, theoretical debates, explorer's journals, social science observations, etc. The sociohistorical and individual construction of the concepts of 'culture, ' 'history, ' and 'identity' are given particular attention, using the above-mentioned discursive forms and their related contexts as guiding interpretive frameworks.