• M.D. Snodgrass: The Founder Of The Alaska State Fair

      Colberg, Talis James (2008)
      This dissertation presents the life of M.D. Snodgrass as an example of how the Alaskan frontier transformed an unremarkable middle aged migrant into a socially prominent civic leader. The life of M.D. Snodgrass exemplifies how American frontier society provides ordinary people with exceptional opportunities to flourish and prosper. One of the end results of Snodgrass's taking advantage of Alaskan frontier opportunity was the Alaska State Fair. The dissertation divides the life of Snodgrass into four phases with the following findings: (1) The first thirty-one years of Snodgrass's life was spent outside of Alaska. His early life in Kansas demonstrates: the forces which formed Snodgrass, the absence of noteworthy activities and the habits he embraced that would remain constant in his long life. (2) The second thesis section documents: how upon arrival in Alaska he was immediately confronted with challenges and opportunities in the wilderness that built his self-confidence, and how he devoted most of the last six decades of his life to advancement of agriculture in Alaska. (3) The third part addresses his political career, with the following observations: the unsettled frontier society had no established upper class and he became socially mobile; being present at the creation of a political system allowed him to attain extraordinary prominence rapidly; and he learned to take risks, to lose and yet keep trying. (4) The final phase demonstrates that by definition a frontier society lacks institutions, and Snodgrass seized the opportunity to be a participant in the creation of two colleges and became the founding figure of the Alaska State Fair. The author concludes that had M.D. Snodgrass never left Kansas he probably would never have been a representative, senator, college trustee, founder of experiment stations, state presidential elector, or the founder of a state fair. A normal individual can accomplish exceptional feats in a frontier setting where the open environment encourages the development of human potential.
    • The maiden's firestorm

      Aruffo, Heather; Soos, Frank; Johnson, Sara Eliza; Carr, Rich (2019-05)
      The Maiden's Firestorm is a work of speculative fiction set in the fictional Solonian Worker's Republic, a country reminiscent of the Soviet Union in the 1940s. Geopolitically, the novel centers around the conflict between the Solonian Worker's Republic and the nomadic Kyzare, an ethnic group with terrifying telepathic abilities caused by an element called Yinitrium. The story is told through the point of view of two adult children of a mixed race Kyzare-Solonian family, who must navigate the consequences of their marginalized identities in a hostile world. The first point of view follows Rakell, an engineering student who is recruited to work on a top secret weapons project, and is given the choice between Party membership and denouncing her mother, a former Worker's Party member. The second point of view follows Rakell's older brother Yeordan, who is forced by the Solonian state to spy on their estranged father, a Kyzare nationalist in charge of the Mind Warriors. The stories are interwoven throughout the novel, and are used to develop themes of political and familial loyalty, as well as nationalism, and the role of personal relationships under extenuating circumstances. The novel uses speculative fiction to address real world historical and political questions. The relationship between the Kyzare's telepathic abilities and Yinitrium allows the speculative elements to function as metaphor, and mirrors Solonian attempts to weaponize Yinitrium. In this way, power is explored as a theme, as both groups use the element to exert control over the continent.
    • Maiyumerak Creek: late prehistoric subsistence and seasonality in northwest Alaska

      Shirar, Scott (2007-12)
      The Maiyumerak Creek Site (XBM-131) is a late prehistoric site located near the confluence of Maiyumerak Creek and the Noatak River in the Noatak National Preserve, Alaska. Excavations conducted at the site by the National Park Service during the 2006 field season focused on one of eight identified house pits. This thesis focuses on the faunal remains and artifacts collected from the living floor of this house (House Pit 8). The analysis centers on answering how subsistence resource use is reflected in the artifact and faunal assemblages and the relationship between these two classes of data. I also analyze the faunal remains to make an assessment of site seasonality.
    • Mamas, don't let your babies grow up to be cowboys: stories

      Goerger, Steve (2006-05)
      The stories of Mamas, Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys employ surreal plots and fabulist forms in an attempt to uncover the awe and wonder hidden in even the most trivial, mundane aspects of human life. The narrator of the title story, a time-traveling interstellar policeman, confronts the reality that his astounding occupation cannot gain him what he most desires, love; yet the confrontation itself rewards him with a tiny glimpse of love's existence. In 'L'Ecole du Ciel, ' the protagonist finds himself in a purgatory-cum-schoolhouse, where he must unlearn the futile knowledge he gained on Earth and submit unequivocally to his merciless school mistress. The result is a Candide like resolution; it suggests, as do all of these stories, that we 'cultivate our garden' and leave well-enough alone.
    • Margaret Keenan Harrais: A Biography In Four Voices

      Doetschman, Sarah; Carr, Richard (2011)
      Narrative strategies available to biography are explored through the life of Margaret Keenan Harrais---teacher, educational administrator, judge, and activist. Biography is a particular endeavor requiring flexible inquiry and creative presentation. Margaret is viewed through multiple lenses that explore personhood, encourage readers' introspection, and imply the importance of the individual in history. The four voices indicated in the title of this dissertation are editorial, analytical, sparsely Romantic, and expository. This biography aims to complicate readers' notions of what it means to be a person in relation to other people by focusing closely on selected episodes in Margaret's career; analyzing their historical, social, and literary import; and finally broadening the perspective to include the entirety of Margaret's life. The roles of the biographer and the reader are examined throughout in an attempt to explore the interconnections between biography and autobiography. Margaret's life is presented within the contexts of other women teachers in rural areas, as well as other men and women who wrote about territorial Alaska for a non-Alaskan audience. At heart this biography seeks to experiment with the narrative possibilities available to biographers, and to explore the ways in which the effects of these narratives allow for the contribution to general scholarship on the basis of particular experiences.
    • Masked rituals of the Kodiak Archipelago

      Desson, Dominique; Black, Lydia T.; Pierce, Richard A.; Schweitzer, Peter P.; Morrow, Phyllis; Leer, Jeff (1995)
      The traditional culture of the Alutiiq speakers of the Kodiak Archipelago is not well known, and information on their spiritual and ritual life has been lacking. In this thesis I use ethnographic, ethnohistoric, and iconographic materials to investigate the Koniag traditional world view and belief system and some aspects of the Koniag ritual system. Specifically, I analyze the individual, private masked rituals associated with whaling and the public masked rituals performed during the winter festivals. In the second part, I examine a large sample of surviving Alutiiq masks in order to determine aesthetic canons evident in the work of 19th and 20th century Koniag carvers. Visual preferences in mask making in terms of construction, volumes, shapes, colors, and designs are defined and differences in those preferences between the three Alutiiq speakers' groups of the Kodiak Archipelago, Prince William Sound, and the Alaska Peninsula are discussed.
    • Mass media theory and women's zines on the world wide web

      Wagaman, Jennifer Elaine (2000-08)
      Two mass media theories, 'Spiral of Silence theory' and 'Uses and Gratifications theory, ' have been used to explain and evaluate media usage from a feminist perspective. These theories both succeed and fail when used to analyze the World Wide Web as a mass medium. In order to effectively examine so-called 'fringe' groups and their publications on the Web, a new theory is needed that considers the more user-driven interface that the Internet and the World Wide Web provide for users. Using a modest case study of women's Web zines, (online underground magazines) this paper attempts to show how some young women use the World Wide Web to publish a different proportion of ideas and opinions than those currently available in the mainstream mass media, and goes on to show that the two current mass media theories used most by feminists are inadequate for the study of the World Wide Web as a mass medium. This paper takes into consideration historical theoretical approaches to the mass media, as well as the social constructionist principles important to looking at the media from a feminist point of view. Finally, it lays a framework of theoretical assumptions that should be considered when examining the Web as a mass medium.
    • Maybe An Answer Is In There: Life Story In Dialogue

      Carroll, Jennifer L. L.; Schneider, Bill (2010)
      This dissertation explores the ways in which Gwich'in women's lives have changed over the past century through the life story and historical and cultural reflections of Vera Englishoe, a Neets'qii Gwich'in woman in her late 50s from Venetie and Fort Yukon. Vera's story illustrates one woman's pathway through changing times and provides an example of resilience in the face of family and community turmoil. This work also shows how Vera uses stories to sustain herself and others amid dialogues that challenge Gwich'in identity and how the Gwich'in approach to knowledge, understanding, and stories emphasize personal experience and accountability, promotes independent thinking on the part of the listener and acknowledges ambiguity and multiplicity in meaning. Through Vera's dialogue we see how stories of personal experience are offered to help others understand their own experiences and how putting stories into writing can be an extension of this tradition. Vera hopes her stories will remind people of the strength of Gwich'in culture and community and that they help others with similar experiences: that "maybe an answer is in there." In this work I employ a dialogic approach to reading Vera's stories because this comes closest to Vera's and Gwich'in ideas about how knowledge and understanding is gained and passed on through stories. Each person's experiences lead them to engage in the dialogue differently and thus find their own understanding. Offering a story acknowledges the ambiguity of understanding and the fluidity of storytelling and story listening. Through exploring multiple discourses and providing a "reading" instead of an interpretation of Vera's narrative I hope that "maybe something is in there" that will help others understand Vera's words. Vera's approach to her life story illustrates a way of using life stories not simply to record culture and history, but to engage others in a broader attempt to create and reinforce shared meaning and identity. This requires a way of looking at the collaborative process in the production of life histories that emphasizes continuing dialogues and negotiated meanings between all parties.
    • Mediated Identity And Negotiated Tradition: The Inupiaq Atigi, 1850--2000

      Martin, Cydny Brynn; Lee, Molly (2001)
      The Inupiaq parka and associated activities constitute an unbroken practice from the prehistoric to modern times. The overall form and use of the garment remains constant while materials and technology evolve. Inupiaq parkas, often categorized as art because of their craft, creativity, and aesthetic appeal, also serve as tangible reminders of cultural abstractions. When considered within the age-old Inupiaq subsistence system, the position of women and the role of parka sewing suggests that both are critical to the maintenance of the human/animal relationship central to Inupiaq culture. The Inupiaq parka is seen to mediate between the physical and spiritual relationship of humans and animals and, in contemporary times, to make tangible the dialectic between tradition and modernity that defines Inupiaq identity today.
    • The meeting of worlds: postcolonialism and the game-worlds of Myst

      Klotz, Emily M.; Heyne, Eric; Harney, Eileen; Carr, Richard (2013-08)
      Remembered for its lush visuals and its impenetrable puzzles, Myst (1993) was a groundbreaking series whose influence on the medium of digital games can still be felt today. Weaving storytelling and puzzle-solving together, Myst constructs an elaborate transmedial family saga rife with issues of imperial conquest and subjugation the joy of exploration mingled with the destructive forces that arise from the meeting of worlds. But while the narrative material alone is rich enough for analysis, it only becomes more significant when viewed in relation to the nature of the games. By avoiding all reference to their own gameness, and by situating the player as merely a pair of disembodied eyes within the environment, the games allow for deep immersion in a fantastical world with its own internal coherence a world that offers the player the chance to become a virtual, bodiless tourist, venturing into a realm of infinite exotic landscapes to be visually consumed and conquered. Thus the appeal of the game itself is correlated with the postcolonial power-conflicts at the heart of the narrative a connection that raises questions not only about the relationship of game and narrative, but also about the source of our desire for "Myst-like" games.
    • Memory on trial: the manhunt for Alaska's most elusive mass murderer

      Retherford, Brittany A.; Cole, Terrence M.; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Snifka, Lynn M. (2014-12)
      The fallibility and malleability of human memory played a confounding and troublesome role in the investigation of the 1982 murder of eight people on a fishing boat, the Investor, in Craig, Alaska, and subsequent trials of law enforcements' only suspect, John Kenneth Peel. Human memory -- including its inherent subjectivity and susceptibility to coercion and change -- ultimately resulted in an unsatisfactory resolution for victims' families and friends, law enforcement, witnesses, and others associated with the events, investigation and legal proceedings. This thesis utilizes trial records, police investigation files, newspaper stories, and personal interviews to provide a summary view of the events surrounding the murders, including what is known about the murders, as well as, the subsequent investigation that led to the arrest, two civil grand juries, two jury trials, and the eventual acquittal of John Kenneth Peel. Limitations of memory are analyzed in the context of the overarching historical narrative of a booming commercial fishing industry and a rural justice system, including a focus on eyewitness testimony and collective memory. Together these frayed cords of memory helped ensure that despite the millions of dollars and thousands of hours that have been devoted to it, the 1982 Investor tragedy remains the largest unsolved mass homicide in Alaska history, a cold case that has not been forgotten.
    • Metanoia

      Murray, Mollie W. (2012-05)
    • A metric investigation of the cranial base and vertebrae among extant African homininae: discrimination across posturo-locomotory complexes

      Lukaszek, David Alexander; Irish, Joel D.; Hoover, Kara; Hemphill, Brian; Druckenmiller, Patrick (2017-05)
      Cranial base angle, vertebral dimensions, vertebral curvature, and locomotive behavior differ among Homo, Pan, and Gorilla; but many distinctions are obfuscated by dimensional and behavioral overlap among the genera and their fossil relatives. To address these issues, cranial and vertebral measurements (suites) were examined among Homo, Gorilla, and Pan as representative hominines for their posture and locomotion or positional-locomotory complexes. An additional analysis considered Australopithecus afarensis (A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 333) for comparative purposes. Using size-adjusted values with applied Bonferroni adjusted alpha levels, significant results for both the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests indicated statistically significant differences among species for cranial base angle (p = 0.000) and vertebral body dimensions with coronal and sagittal facet orientation (p = 0.000 -- 0.003). Detected significance was present for thoracic and lumbar curvature (p = 0.000) and positional-locomotory complex (p = 0.000) among species, albeit only cranial base angle was significant for the Pan-Gorilla comparison. Moreover, post hoc Spearman's rho tests indicated significant results (p = 0.000 -- 0.009) with strong positive and negative correlations throughout the column for each species. However, no pattern among vertebral measurements throughout the vertebral column was detected. Lastly, Multinomial Logistic Regression yielded a correct classification percentage with significant model fit (p = 0.000) of 86.4% for the cranial base, 82.8-97.0% for all subsequent vertebrae, and 80.3% for thoracic and lumbar curvature among species. Positional locomotory complexes were also significant (p = 0.000) and yielded a correct classification percentage of 82.2% among bipeds and the two modes of knuckle-walking practiced by Pan and Gorilla respectively. However, misclassifications between human and nonhuman primates for cranial base angle and calculated vertebral curvature suggest that these variables are not viable for assessing either genera or positional-locomotory complexes. Lastly, both Australopithecus afarensis specimens (A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 333) were incorrectly classified. The A.L. 288-1 specimen identified as Homo and the misclassification of A.L. 333 as Pan suggest either species or vertebra misidentification. Overall, the data indicate that both vertebral corpus dimensions and coronal and sagittal facet orientations differ significantly among hominine taxa and can distinguish species and their respective posturo-locomotory complex. As for the evolutionary implications, human bipedalism is distinct as related to cranial base angle and vertebral measurements; however significant differences between Pan and Gorilla suggest homoplasy among measurements and denote parallelism for the emergence of knuckle-walking.
    • Micromorphology, Site Spatial Variation And Patterning, And Climate Change At The Mead Site (Xbd-071): A Multi-Component Archaeological Site In Interior Alaska

      Gilbert, Phoebe J.; Potter, Ben; Irish, Joel D.; Bigelow, Nancy H.; Beget, Jim E. (2011)
      The Mead Site, located in the Tanana River Valley in Interior Alaska, is a deeply buried archaeology site with multiple occupations and excellent preservation. The site provides a rare opportunity to study the human/climate relationship in prehistory. Magnetic susceptibility, micromorphology, geochemical and spatial analysis were utilized to (I) determine the amount of post-depositional disturbance at the site, (2) see if there are detectable buried surfaces that indicate cultural occupation in the upper sratigraphic layers and, (3) investigate the paleosols at the site and determine if the occupations at the site correlate with ameliorating climate. The results show that the upper three cultural zones are heavily disturbed by taphonomic processes to the point that assignment of the remains to cultural zones is suspect. The lower two components have also been affected by post-depositional disturbance, but the patterning of cultural remains in these zones is primarily a reflection of the original depositional context. No buried surfaces were detected in the upper stratigraphic layers, and the paleosols are natural in origin but are anthropogenically enhanced. The cultural zones at the site are more closely associated with cool episodes than with periods of ameliorating climate.
    • The ministry of love

      Frost, Charles (Charles Ray); Farmer, Daryl; Jensen, Karen; Harney, Eileen; Burleson, Derick (2014-12)
      The Ministry of Love is a literary nonfiction memoir that follows the author's process of individualization. Using a narrative design, the author recounts his religious upbringing, his family dynamics, his dreams, and his failed attempts at winning the affection of his first love. The author uses these small events as a foray into meditations on the spiritual, the carnal, the physiological and the psychological transitions he experienced as an adolescent. The Ministry of Love achieves a narrative dreamscape as the author intertwines memory, illusion, and fantasy to capture the author's consciousness.
    • Misseri

      Aubuchon, David; Farmer, Daryl; Soos, Frank; Schell, Jen (2020-05)
      The nine stories in Misseri deal with the following themes: poverty, childhood abuse, sexism, and racism. These are the most obvious destructive components of what I will refer to as white trash culture. This thesis strives to honestly depict characters who have grown into adulthood in a white trash culture, regardless of whether they are white or male. The characters of these stories wrestle with destructive acts they have performed (or feel the impulse to perform), destructive acts they have witnessed, and destructive acts they have fallen victim to. Characters struggle for the self-awareness needed to give their actions agency: actions that follow a character's own sense of morals, rather than actions that are merely learned responses. The stories of Misseri are ordered by protagonists in the following way: from least selfaware male to most self-aware male, then from least self-aware female to most self-aware female. The collection starts with five first-person male narrators, hinges on a third-person omniscient narrator, and ends with three first-person female narrators. Half of the first-person stories are written from a close past-tense perspective. These narrators may not yet have the reflective distance or skills to contextualize and understand and respond to the story's events in helpful ways. The other half of the first-person stories are written with a present tense reflective voice. These present tense narrators recontextualize, explain, and often depart from their past perspective and past actions. These narrators model the act of learning from the past. It is my hope that the escalation of reflection and self-awareness throughout the collection can not only better contextualize the lives of white trash people but also show the progression one must often take to move away from socialized actions and reactions and toward agency, even if few of the characters perform monumental acts.
    • Misunderstanding Nietzsche

      Sprague, Nicole (2004-05)
      These poems attempt to excavate the unspoken frame of being in a circus of voices, many of which are subversive, volatile, and unspeakably female. The disparate voices achieve their crescendo in an overwhelming question: why exist? The nihilism they cultivate and share, the tragic and flawed experiences they echo, reinforce life, art, and all of its inevitable questions. Beauty is ultimately birthed in the wreckage of life, the poetry of which offers the possibility of transcendence.
    • A model of downward abusive communication: exploring relationships between cognitive complexity, downward communicative adaptability, and downward abusive communication

      Wallace, Elizabeth Adeline (2013-05)
      A model was proposed to understand the antecedents of abusive supervision. Relationships were explored between cognitive complexity, downward communicative adaptability, and downward abusive communication. Superiors from various organizations were asked to take an online survey which measured superiors' cognitive complexity, downward communicative adaptability and abusive supervision. There was no evidence to support H1, which linked cognitive complexity to downward communicative adaptability, but there was evidence for H2, which stated that downward communicative adaptability was negatively correlated with downward abusive communication. The RCQ proved to be reliable but its validity was questioned in the present study which is why H1 may not have been supported.
    • Moderators of bicultural self-efficacy and mental health among Asian Americans

      Shah, Dhara; David, E.J.R.; Lopez, Ellen; Campbell, Kendra; Buckingham, Sarah (2019-08)
      The relationship between acculturation and mental health among Asian Americans has been established. For example, the integration strategy, often associated with bicultural competence, has been shown to positively predict well-being and self-esteem, and negatively predict various indicators of distress (Nguyen, Messe, & Stollak, 1999; Oh, Koeske, & Sales, 2002; Yoon, Lee, & Goh, 2008). Further, biculturalism (Chen, Benet-Martinez, & Bond, 2008) and bicultural self-efficacy (David, Okazaki, & Saw, 2009) have been associated with positive mental health outcomes among Asian Americans. That is, perceiving oneself as capable of navigating various domains (e.g., values, behaviors) within two cultures is associated with better mental health. Little is known, however, regarding the factors that may influence the strength of this relationship. Thus, the present study aimed to identify some moderating factors of the relationship between bicultural self-efficacy and mental health among Asian Americans. Considering previous research examining the factors associated with acculturation and mental health (Berry, 1980; Nguyen & Benet-Martinez, 2007; Padilla, 2006), it was hypothesized that bicultural identity integration, cognitive flexibility, psychological flexibility, and resilience would each moderate the relationship between bicultural self-efficacy and satisfaction with life, and between bicultural self-efficacy and psychological distress. Results indicated that bicultural identity integration approached significance, indicating that of all the hypotheses presented in this study, it may be the only moderator of the relationship between bicultural self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Thus, viewing two cultures as compatible may act as a protective factor, or buffer, against the negative effects of low bicultural self-efficacy on some aspects of mental health. Further, the null findings suggest that the relationships between the measured variables may be more complex than simple moderation. It is recommended that future research continue to explore and test moderation and mediation models, while considering alternative measures and specific subscales. Recommended service implications for Asian Americans include interventions geared to increase one's level of bicultural identity integration or bicultural selfefficacy, as well as to encourage systems or communities to provide the appropriate resources needed to do so.
    • Molar size and shape in the estimation of biological affinity: a comparison of relative cusp locations using geometric morphometrics and interlandmark distances

      Kenyhercz, Michael W.; Irish, Joel D.; Druckenmiller, Patrick S.; Hoover, Kara C. (2014-12)
      The study of teeth has been a central tenet in biological anthropology since the inception of the field. Teeth have been previously shown to have a high genetic component. The high heritability of teeth has allowed researchers to use them to answer a myriad of anthropological questions ranging from human origins to modern variation due to microevolution. Traditionally, teeth have been studied either morphologically, through the assignment of nonmetric character states, or metrically, through mesiodistal and buccolingual crown measures. Increasingly, geometric morphometric techniques are being used to answer anthropological questions, especially dentally. However, regardless of analytical technique utilized, the biological affinity of modern U.S. individuals has often been limited to examination under a forensic lens (classification of either American Asian, black, Hispanic, or white) without consideration of parent populations. The current study uses geometric morphometric techniques on human molars for two main goals: 1) to examine biological affinity of each of the four largest population groups in regard to population history; and 2) examine the variation within and among the four modern groups as a means of classification. A total of 1,225 dentitions were digitized. Each of the four modern U.S. groups was compared to possible parental groups via discriminant function analysis (DFA). Additionally affinity was examined using Mahalanobis generalized distances (D²) wherein significance of distances between groups was calculated via permutation tests. Furthermore, the D² values were subjected to principal coordinate analysis, or classical multidimensional scaling, to visualize group similarity and dissimilarity. Each group demonstrated affinity with potential parental groups and geographically similar groups as expected given population histories; however, each was also significantly unique from the comparison groups. The four modern U.S. groups were then compared to one another using the same statistical tests. Total among-group correct classifications ranged from 33.9-55.5%, indicating a greater classification than random chance (25%). These classifications were negatively correlated with the reported intermarriage rates for each group: American whites and blacks have the lowest intermarriage rates, which resulted in the highest correct classifications. Conversely, American Asians and Hispanics have the highest intermarriage rates, which resulted in the lowest total correct classifications. Still, the DFA model created from the modern U.S. sample was able to accurately classify a holdout sample. Lastly, a comparison of the three most abundant groups in the U.S. (black, Hispanic, and white), achieved a total correct classification of 72.3%, which is comparable to other studies focusing on the same populations. Restricted gene flow through sociologically constructed barriers and positive assortative mating are the likely factors in the observed variation.