• Natural histories of Yup'ik memoirs

      Crecelius, Caroline R.; Shoaps, Robin; Charles, Walkie; Plattet, Patrick (2017-12)
      This thesis explores how cultural knowledge is committed to textual form and circulated within and outside of linguistically marginalized communities. Working within a Central Yup'ik context, I have focused my research on collections of Yup'ik elders' memoirs housed within the Alaska Native Language Archive. Published Yup'ik elders' memoirs offer rich descriptions of Yup'ik cultural histories, epistemologies and statements about language, the expression and inclusion of which varies based on the interactional contexts, participant frameworks and funding institutions through which they were produced. This study incorporates both Indigenous and non-Indigenous theoretical frameworks related to the process of entextualization, or text creation, and the transmission of cultural knowledge. Drawing from archival materials and interviews with participants involved in their production and circulation, I identify the relevant linguistic ideologies and participant frameworks involved in the creation of these publications or "text artifacts" and frame my analysis with respect to the following research questions: How have published memoirs of Yup'ik elders emerged as a culturally salient genre of text? Who are the primary participants in the production, publication and circulation of Yup'ik memoirs? How do issues of identity, agency, authenticity and essentialism shape the form, thematic content and circulation of Yup'ik memoirs in Alaska? This thesis seeks to identify the primary participants and ideologies contributing to the publication of Yup'ik elders' memoirs, as well as the visibility or erasure of these actors within the published text of the memoirs. I further explore the specific ways in which individual voices, tribal, political and academic institutions and their ideological goals presuppose and contribute to broader cultural processes and shape the linguistic structure and content of textual artifacts produced. Although the documentation, description and analysis of Yup'ik language and culture has received sustained attention both within and outside the academy, this project is the first to investigate the processes and participant frameworks through which traditional Yup'ik cultural knowledge is entextualized and circulated as contemporary published text. This research offers significant insights into the collaborative efforts of Native and non-Native participants in the production of Yup'ik textual materials, while also contributing to a broader understanding of ideological goals and obstacles relative to processes of entextualization within communities facing marginalization or language endangerment within, and outside of, the circumpolar north. An analysis of the participants and ideologies shaping the production and circulation of Yup'ik memoirs provides and empirical framework for understanding the relationship between text artifacts and ongoing cultural processes, and contributes to an increasingly reflexive approach to anthropological and sociolinguistic research concerning identity, authenticity and the entextualization of traditional knowledge.
    • Negotiating the languages of landscape: place naming and language shift in an Inupiaq community

      Marino, Elizabeth K. (2005-12)
      This thesis examines the correlations between language shift, language death, and cultural change through the use of place names in White Mountain, Alaska. Traditionally Inupiaq place names have served as descriptive tools for navigating the landscape and as memory markers for oral histories, taboos, and places of harvest. Local Inupiaq place names have been inscribed in social memory for generations and, according to Inupiaq elders in White Mountain, none are without significance. As English replaces the Inupiaq language, these traditional place names fall out of use, as well as the local histories and other information associated with them. English place names used today continue to inscribe information into the land, but of a different sort. This thesis finds that cultural change and cultural resiliency can be clearly observed through and are related to language shift in White Mountain. Included in this thesis are listings and maps of traditional Inupiaq place names from White Mountain, Alaska.
    • Networks of change: extending Alaska-based communication networks to meet the challenges of the anthropocene

      Hum, Richard E.; Taylor, Karen; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Koskey, Michael; Brower, Pearl Kiyawn Nageak; Carlson, Cameron (2017-08)
      The Anthropocene is a contested term. As I conceptualize it throughout this dissertation, the Anthropocene is defined by an increased coupling of social and environmental systems at the global scale such that the by-products of human processes dominate the global stratigraphic record. Additionally, I connect the term to a worldview that sees this increased coupling as an existential threat to humanity's ability to sustain life on the planet. Awareness that the planet-wide scale of this coupling is fundamentally a new element in earth history is implicit in both understandings. How individuals and communities are impacted by this change varies greatly depending on a host of locally specific cross-scale factors. The range of scales (physical and social) that must be negotiated to manage these impacts places novel demands on the communication networks that shape human agency. Concern for how these demands are being met, and whose interests are being served in doing so, are the primary motivation for my research. My work is grounded in the communication-oriented theoretical traditions of media ecology and the more recent social-ecological system conceptualizations promoted in the study of resilience. I combine these ideas through a mixed methodology of digital ethnography and social network analysis to explore the communication dynamics of four Alaska-based social-ecological systems. The first two examples capture communication networks that formed in response to singular, rapid change environmental events (a coastal storm and river flood). The latter two map communication networks that have formed in response to more diffuse, slower acting environmental changes (a regional webinar series and an international arctic change conference). In each example, individuals or organizations enter and exit the mapped network(s) as they engage in the issue and specific communication channel being observed. Under these parameters a cyclic pattern of network expansion and contraction is identified. Expansion events are heavily influenced by established relationships retained during previous contraction periods. Many organizational outreach efforts are focused on triggering and participating in expansion events, however my observations highlight the role of legacy networks in system change. I suggest that for organizations interested in fostering sustainable socialecological relationships in the Anthropocene, strategic intervention may best be accomplished through careful consideration of how communicative relationships are maintained immediately following and in between expansion events. In the final sections of my dissertation I present a process template to support organizations interested in doing so. I include a complete set of learning activities to facilitate organizational use as well as examples of how the Alaska Native Knowledge Network is currently applying the process to meet their unique organizational needs.
    • New places to burn: stories

      Notaro, Eric; Farmer, Daryl; Mellen, Kyle; Heyne, Eric; Hirsch, Alexander (2014-05)
    • Nietzsche in a train station

      Moore, Steven (2007-05)
      Although Nietzsche in a Train Station is referential, the poems are not written for the scholar with a pen in hand, but are for the average reader with a laptop by his or her side. The "Mr. Everidge" poems attempt to capture the frenetic pace and fragmented consciousness of the information age, while maintaining a core identity. Although some poems directly take the narrative aspect of the short story and compress it as much as possible, using the sound of the language as much as the literal meaning to tell the story, every poem is a self-contained narrative. Many of the poems in this collection follow traditional forms and subjects, such as Shakespearian sonnets that explore kinds of love; however, a majority of the poems explore less traditional forms and rhythms. Stylistically, the poems tend to use long, complex sentences, with the occasional willful rebellion against traditional grammar. The poems drive toward a resolution, and everything structurally serves this purpose. Each poem is in essence a question about the things existing outside of everyday experience, the constructions created for and by the individual, constructions that both sustain and limit a life.
    • Niugneliyukut (We Are Making New Words): A Community Philosophy Of Language Revitalization

      Counceller, April Gale Laktonen; Marlowe, Patrick (2010)
      The Alutiiq language on Kodiak Island (Alaska) is severely threatened, with only 37 resident speakers. The Alutiiq communities of Kodiak are engaged in a multifaceted heritage revitalization movement, which includes cultural education, revitalization of arts, and language revitalization. The language revitalization effort includes education, materials development, documentation, and terminology development (creation of new words) as a means of making the language more viable. The Kodiak Alutiiq New Words Council began in the fall of 2007. This language revitalization strategy is new to the Alutiiq community, and little research has been done on Alaska Native or Indigenous terminology development as a form of heritage revitalization. There is a need to understand the New Words Council in terms of its role in the wider language and heritage revitalization efforts, as well as understanding the value of the council to its members. The Kodiak New Words Council is a contemporary heritage revitalization effort that entails development of new Alutiiq terms, and is part of a broader social movement to revitalize Alutiiq language and culture. Some past research on cultural heritage revitalization movements in Indigenous communities have focused on historical inaccuracies and 'inventedness' of new cultural forms, rather than the value and meaning of these efforts to their participants. Critiques of 'invention' scholarship counter that it denies Indigenous communities' agency and authority over their own cultural forms, and overlooks ongoing efforts for justice, sovereignty and healing. This study focuses attention on the social and historical context of heritage revitalization and its meaning to participants. Benefits of the council go beyond the formal goal of developing new words to modernize the language. Participants put great value on social benefits of the New Words Council, such as empowerment, connection to culture and identity, and healing. They further measure the success of the New Words Council in terms of participation, commitment, and continuity. Ultimately, this language revitalization effort is part of a broader effort of self-determination and community survival.
    • Not just small potatoes: a comparison of four agricultural education models in alaska

      Silverman, Annie; Taylor, Karen; Richey, Jean; Herron, Johanna (2016-08)
      Agricultural education is a means of increasing food security, increasing willingness to try new fruits and vegetables, improving test scores, and increasing community resiliency. School gardens, which are one form of agricultural education, are the primary focus of this thesis. In order to identify barriers to maintaining school garden programs, semi-structured interviews were conducted at four school sites in the Fairbanks area. In order to compare emerging themes from the interview data in the Fairbanks area to school sites throughout the state, a survey was also administered through Survey Monkey to schools that received the Alaska state Farm to School grant between the years 2011-2014. Using Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a theoretical lens to perform qualitative data analyses, several emerging themes are highlighted including: An increase in student’s nutritional awareness, children’s love of dirt, participant empowerment, the need for more time, a decrease in productivity where uncertainty is present, and the need to further develop communication channels between agricultural education practitioners. Recommendations are made based upon findings to further support the creation and maintenance of agricultural education projects throughout the state.
    • Nuniwarmiut Land Use, Settlement History And Socio-Territorial Organization, 1880--1960

      Pratt, Kenneth L. (2009)
      Prior efforts to identify traditional socio-territorial groups among the Central Yup'ik Eskimos of southwestern Alaska have been primarily theoretical in nature, examined the subject from very restricted temporal perspectives, and were heavily reliant on a small body of written historical accounts---none of which were informed by contacts with indigenous populations across the entire region. The collective results are inconsistent and largely unverifiable; hence many basic details about Yup'ik socio-territorial organization remain obscure. This study deviates from its predecessors in geographical focus, temporal scope and methodology. The geographical focus is on the Nuniwarmiut (or Nunivak Eskimos), both the most isolated and best documented of all Central Yup'ik populations. Its temporal scope covers a period of 80 years, the earliest point of which marks the practical limits of reliability of the available ethnographic data. Finally, the study's methodology is ethnohistorical; it employs a rich array of complementary historical, ethnographic and archeological data to produce a far more detailed account of socio-territorial organization than has been compiled for any other population in the region. The findings indicate socio-territorial organization among the Nuniwarmiut took the form of local groups organized around winter villages. The functional stability of each group was susceptible to various natural and cultural factors; in fact, such groups ranged in number from as many as 30 to as few as 7 over the course of the study period. The Nuniwarmiut society was a level of identity above the local group; it was comprised of the totality of local groups that existed at any point in time, but was not itself a socio-territorial unit. Overall, the study demonstrates that socio-territorial organization among the Nuniwarmiut was substantially more complex and dynamic than previously recognized.
    • Once upon a time: an anthropological exploration of Gwich'in stories (Man in the moon; The old woman and the brushman)

      Frey, Monika; Tuttle, Siri; Plattet, Patrick; Koskey, Michael (2015-08)
      This MA thesis research focuses on Gwich'in stories. It seeks to better understand how similar the versions of two stories are when each is parsed into units representing themes within the stories. Drawing in part on Lévi-Strauss's structural study of myth and applying aspects of it to the Gwich'in stories discussed in this research, I will demonstrate that several versions of a story contain identical themes, though levels of detail vary. This occurs when (1) a story is told by the same storyteller at different times, and (2) when a story is told by two or more storytellers. While each version of a particular story may differ in the amount of detail, resulting in shorter and longer versions, my research shows that the main themes of a story are identical even when several storytellers narrate the same story or when the same storyteller tells a story more than once, but several years apart. There is a gap in the academic literature pertaining to Gwich'in stories. Recent projects have been conducted including Gwich'in stories focused on documenting narratives, but no one has investigated whether the content of those tales is actually identical. My research complements these projects by shedding light on a less studied aspect of Gwich'in storytelling.
    • One large steppe for Russian authorship: Gogol's troika of settings

      Fleharty, Ryan; Carr, Richard; Burleson, Derick; Mamoon, Trina (2011-08)
      This exploration of Gogol's works focuses on the three major setting-related phases of his writing career: the Ukrainian beginnings, his Petersburg tales, and the provincial Russian towns that populated his final works. His choice and execution of settings is correlated to the development of a sophisticated Russian readership clamoring for a national literature, and in attempting to generate one through his works, Gogol joins the other canonical Russian authors by tackling the central problem of 19th century Russian literature: the identity and future of the Russian nation.
    • Organizational communication and culture in female predominated workplaces

      Comstock, Sarah Rush (2000-05)
      While equality of the sexes has still not been achieved, the ongoing struggle for parity has paved the way for an influx of females into workplaces. In many organizations this increase has resulted in a higher ratio of females to males. Offices that are predominated by on sex or the other create communication problems, attitudes, and ways of dealing with co-workers on an interpersonal level that organizations with a balance between males and females do not face. This study will explore the perspective of females working in gender predominant organizations, and also observations on organizational culture; intra-organizational communication; communicated support among organizational members; and the overall uniqueness of the organization.
    • Organizational culture and meanings in tension: an analysis of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

      Worley, Shelly Lisa (2000-05)
      The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) is an organization that is responsible for observing volcanic activity in Alaska and surrounding regions. This organization has a great impact on the public and agencies in Alaska because it is responsible for ensuring the safety of many Alaskans, and to many people who live in neighboring regions. AVO is not only responsible for saving lives, but also responsible for notifying agencies that depend on this organization for volcanic crisis notification. This study is an ethnography of the Alaska Volcano Observatory and through interpretation of my data as research too, I provide a sense of place for this organization. Detailed journals of my experience as a member of this organization have been analyzed to understand the culture of the place.
    • Osteological stress markers and habitual behaviors: analyzing the connection at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

      Denton, Nora Lee Cross (2005-05)
      The current project identifies skeletal patterns that indicate habitual behavior using muscle attachment sites, osteoarthritic changes and long-bone robusticity. Using a sample from HK43, a cemetery used by the Naqada II A-C working class (circa 3,800-3,400 B.C.), patterns were determined with respect to sex, and by age group. Those patterns were then compared to hypothesized models of skeletal markers predicted to occur with habitual use of an Egyptian hoe, an ox-drawn ard-style plow, a shaduf (a simple machine used in irrigation), and grinding grain using a saddle quern and grinding stone. The patterns displayed in the sample population correspond to predicted patterns created by habitual activity. Results were determined twice; first by sex, then by age. Females and males were grouped regardless of age, and vice versa. If divided by both, the resulting groups were too small to be compared. Females demonstrated a pattern that was most consistent with grinding grain. Males were determined to have a pattern most consistent with hoeing and using a shaduf The middle adult age group, composed of both males and females, showed a range of skeletal markers that is most consistent with that predicted for plowing. Not all patterns were easily explained, however. The young adult, or 17-24 year old age group displayed a pattern of muscle attachment very similar to the old adult group,>45 years of age. The source of that apparent similarity will have to be addressed by further research at Hierakonpolis, Egypt.
    • Paleoethnobotany in Interior Alaska

      Holloway, Caitlin R.; Potter, Ben A.; Bigelow, Nancy H.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Clark, Jamie L. (2016-05)
      Vegetation and plant resources can impact forager mobility and subsistence strategies. However, misconceptions about the preservation of organics in subarctic archaeological contexts and underestimations of the importance of plant resources to foraging societies limit paleoethnobotanical research in high-latitude environments. This research draws upon concepts from human behavioral ecology to address questions relating to site seasonality, plant resource use, land use, and deposition and taphonomy. The model developed in this thesis outlines expectations of seasonal archaeobotanical assemblages for Late Pleistocene and Holocene sites in interior Alaska. I consider these expectations in light of plant macroremains found in anthropogenic features from Components 1 and 3 (approximately 13,300 and 11,500 cal yr BP, respectively) at the Upward Sun River site, located in central Alaska. Site-specific methods include bulk sampling of feature matrix in the field and wet-sieving matrix in the laboratory to collect organic remains. Analytical measures of density, diversity, and ubiquity tie together the model expectations and the results from Upward Sun River. The dominance of common bearberry in the Component 1 archaeobotanical assemblage meets the expectations of a late summer or fall occupation. This suggests that site occupants may have focused on mitigating the risk of starvation in winter months by foraging for seasonally predictable and storable resources. The variability in results from the Component 3 features could relate to longer-term occupations that extended from mid-summer to early fall, in which site occupants foraged for locally available and predictable plant resources such as blueberry or low-bush cranberry species. In this thesis, I argue that large mammal resources were a key component in Late Pleistocene and Holocene subsistence strategies. However, foragers were flexible in their behavior and also targeted small mammals, fish, waterfowl, and plant resources in response to environmental conditions and cultural preferences. The results illustrate the long-standing use of culturally and economically important plant resources in interior Alaska and draw attention to aspects of human behavior that are under-conceptualized in northern archaeology, such as the gender division of labor, domestic behavior, and potential impacts of plant resource exploitation on mobility and land use.
    • Pandering to glory: Sheldon Jackson's path to Alaska

      Craddick, Jordan Lee; Heaton, John; James, Elizabeth; Mangusso, Mary (2013-08)
      Presbyterian missionary Sheldon Jackson is a celebrated figure in Alaska history. He is known predominantly for his efforts facilitating the establishment of public schools for Alaska Native people during the late nineteenth century. Jackson's methods have been historically overlooked as being reform-minded initiatives characteristic of Indian assimilation. As a result, historians have concluded that Jackson was a humanitarian with benevolent intentions. Unfortunately, such assessments ignore Jackson's educational platform, which was built upon fictitious slander against indigenous people and the manipulation of Christian women. In addition to speaking tours, Jackson published many editorials, articles, and books alleging that Alaska Native people were barbarous monsters. The propaganda Jackson employed in Alaska was no different from the propaganda he used against Mormons and Native Americans. However, Jackson was maligned for his strategy in the continental United States, whereas in Alaska he was celebrated as a reformer and an authority figure due to ignorance about the northern territory. Alaska captured the public imagination, and Jackson lied about Alaska Native culture for the remainder of his career in order to maintain his Christian enterprise.
    • Parasites and skeletal indicators of anemia in the eastern United States

      Dinneen, Erin; Clark, Jamie; Hemphill, Brian; Halffman, Carrin (2014-12)
      The goal of this research is to examine the influence of parasitic infection and diet in the etiology of anemia in prehistoric human populations of the eastern United States. Prehistorically, anemia is often attributed to a nutrient-deficient diet, while parasite infection is discussed as a secondary cause if at all. However, parasite infection is a leading cause of anemia in the developing world today. Modern epidemiological studies have demonstrated that parasites thrive or perish under particular environmental conditions, and risk for parasite infection can be predicted based on environment using GIS. Here I apply this method to see whether environmental conditions, acting as a proxy for parasite infection risk, can predict prehistoric skeletal lesion rates for porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia, lesions thought to reflect acquired anemia. Rates of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in the skeletal remains of children and adults were collected from published data for 22 sites in the eastern United States. GIS was used to gather comparable environmental data. Soil drainage, elevation, precipitation, temperature and the surface area of bodies of water were recorded within a 15 km radius of each site. Carbon isotope data deriving from bone collagen and historic hookworm infection rates were also collected when available. Multiple linear regression was used to test how well environmental variables could predict lesion rates. Statistically significant correlations were found for both adults and children, but the strength and direction of relationships with environmental variables were inconsistent. It is possible that the correlations were related to parasite infection, but it is also possible that the skeletal 'lesions' may result from post-mortem bone degeneration rather than anemia. The correlations for porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia were stronger when examined separately than when examined together, suggesting that the two conditions may have separate etiologies; however, the sample sizes were too small to provide the statistical power required for drawing strong conclusions. Comparison of children and adults showed stronger correlation for children, though when observing the lesions separately this pattern was not consistent. Collagen carbon values and historic hookworm infection rates correlated with lesion rates in children but not adults, perhaps because of differential healing in adults. These results demonstrate that environmental conditions and skeletal lesions are correlated, but the underlying mechanism for this remains unclear. Larger sample sizes would allow for more robust statistical analyses of the trends observed here. Nevertheless, these results do confirm that porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia cannot be assumed to be the result of nutrient-deficient diets. Interpretation of skeletal data for assessing health in the past must also consider the natural and social context in which individuals lived.
    • Parental perceptions of play: the influences of parent gender, gender role attitudes, and parenting styles on parent attitudes toward child play

      Horwath-Oliver, Courtney; Campbell, Kendra; Rivkin, Inna; Webster, David; McGee, Jocelyn (2015-08)
      The literature overwhelmingly demonstrates that play supports healthy social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development. Efforts to understand parents' support of child play seek to identify parent attitudes toward play, ways in which parents facilitate play for their children, and how they participate in play. Previous findings indicate parent valuation of play is an important factor for childhood play time and finds differences between mothers and fathers in parent-child play. While much research has been done to understand how mothers and fathers play with their sons and daughters, few studies have investigated what factors influence parent valuation of play or facilitate certain types of play. This study used a moderated mediation model to explore how parental attitudes about gender roles influence perceptions of play through parenting style and how this effect may be different for fathers and mothers. Analyses were also performed to understand the relationships between parent attitudes and parent play behaviors. The findings suggested egalitarian gender role attitudes predicted a higher valuation of play and more permissive mindsets toward cross-gender play for both mothers and fathers. Conversely, traditional gender role attitudes were predictive of less permissive mindsets toward cross-gender play for both mothers and fathers. A moderated mediation was found for fathers with traditional gender role attitudes and a permissive or authoritarian parenting style. Fathers with traditional gender role attitudes and a permissive parenting style were less likely to value play for child development. Fathers with traditional attitudes and an authoritarian parenting style had less permissive mindsets toward cross-gender play. Additionally for both mothers and fathers, authoritative parenting was correlated with increased parent play behaviors, while authoritarian parenting was correlated with decreased parent play behaviors. These findings support previous literature in that parent gender and gender role attitudes do appear to influence parent attitudes toward play. They also contribute to our understanding of parent gender differences and the way that parenting style influence this relationship. In addition, parenting style was found to be a facilitator of parent-child play. These findings contribute to an understanding of what kind of parents value play and can be used to inform family psychotherapy and parent education about play.
    • Pathway to Alaskan statehood: the historical narratives of Jack Coghill, Vic Fischer, Katie Hurley, and D.A. Bartlett, and their presence at the Alaska Constitutional Convention

      Drumhiller, Leslie; Barnhardt, Ray; Parson, Sean; Hardy, Cindy (2016-05)
      The aim of this thesis is to compare the commonalities and differences in the oral narratives of four participants of the Alaska Constitutional Convention, John B. “Jack” Coghill, Victor “Vic” Fischer, Katherine “Katie” Hurley, and Doris Ann “D.A.” Bartlett. Applying thematic analysis to the interviews, themes, or codes were extracted from the interviews and unified into code families: “family,” “work,” “Alaska Constitutional Convention,” and “Alaska Constitution,” with other code families supporting these four. The “Alaska Constitutional Convention” becomes the super code, or main theme of this thesis. The research explores three themes: non-partisan politics at the Alaska Constitutional Convention, the camaraderie among the delegates and staff at the Alaska Constitutional Convention, and gender differences among Coghill, Fischer, Hurley, and Bartlett.
    • Pedagogy for reading in rural Alaska: the effect of culturally relevant reading materials on student reading achievement in Chevak, Alaska

      Geiges, Beth J.; Leonard, Beth; Topkok, Sean; John, Theresa; Adams, Barbara (2017-12)
      This study used Culturally Relevant Reading materials (CRRM) with a proprietary, culturally relevant pedagogy for Reading. It was focused on results in Reading Achievement, both reading fluency and comprehension, involving 7th and 8th grade students in a twelve (12)-week program of Reading Language Arts. It was an exploratory sequential mixed methods study using a quasi-experimental design, with two student groups, A and B, experimental and control respectively. The results are situated within cultural expert views of Native perspectives on reading from the community as well as student surveys on motivation. Results from the study indicate that student achievement in Reading using the CRRM program, as measured by standardized tests, namely Edformation's AIMSweb® (2002) tests of both R-CBM and MAZE, met with similar results in student Reading achievement using a Western curricular program. Both control and experimental groups in the quasi-experimental, exploratory sequential mixed methods study showed significant growth in Reading achievement in both fluency and comprehension, on standardized tests over a 12-week interval. Results from the study showed students in the CRRM program showed no significantly greater growth in reading comprehension or fluency during the study, as measured by AIMSweb® tests of MAZE and R-CBM. Student survey results showed increases in student motivation to read, enjoyment of reading class, and desire to read CRRM. Written questionnaires from community members outlined criteria for student success in reading. The results indicate that Alaska Native culturally relevant materials and teaching techniques can be used interchangeably with Western curricular materials in Alaska Native village schools with expectation of similar success in student Reading achievement. Students are eager to have CRRM in Language Arts classes, and the community is encouraged by the promising results.
    • People in Alaska's sex trade: their lived experiences and policy recommendations

      Burns, Tara; DeCaro, Peter; Richey, Jean; Sunwood, Kayt; Jarrett, Brian (2015-05)
      Much policy has been created in the last several years regarding people in Alaska's sex trade. Although researchers and government agencies have called attention to the need for evidence based policy about prostitution and sex trafficking, there had been no research about the characteristics of people in Alaska's sex trade or the effects of policy on those people. This research filled that hole. As action research, this study provided a means for the voices of a hidden, criminalized population to reach policy-makers. This research was grounded in a participatory worldview and triangulated data from surveys, interviews, and public records. Emergent themes and participant recommendations were organized to inform public policy.