• S = k log W: and other stories

      Kostival, Benjamin C. (2001-05)
      The short stories in this collection explore how work and ideas affect human freedom. This exploration takes place in some context of collapse - economic, philosophical, and sociological. Conflict arises from the protagonists' struggles to extricate themselves from feelings of entrapment and powerlessness. The collection also claims science as legitimate literary subject matter. The text directly includes mathematics in an attempt to employ western literature's last unused language for its metaphorical import. Structurally, the two sections are composed of equal numbers of stories of virtually equal length, suggesting parity between the scientific stories of the first section and the more traditional stories of the second. Moreover, the order of the stories is determined by a 'mirrored resolution' aesthetic in that each story of the second section resolves its conflict similarly to its pair in the first.
    • S.O.S. Eisberg versus S.O.S. Iceberg - two nations' visualizations of arctic landscapes

      Aloia, Kerstin Anne; Schell, Jennifer; Stanley, Sarah; Carr, Rich (2018-12)
      This project is a comparison of the perspectives on Arctic nature that are featured in the 1933 films S.O.S. Eisberg and S.O.S. Iceberg. I am arguing that the director of each version was influenced by his cultural background in visualizing the relationship between Arctic nature and the white explorers that encounter it in their films. Both Arnold Fanck, who created S.O.S. Eisberg, and Tay Garnett, who created S.O.S. Iceberg, worked with the same documentary footage that was filmed at Greenland's Arctic shores, but turned it into two different films. S.O.S. Eisberg turns the Arctic into a space whose hostile forces have to be confronted with the iron will of a leader who demands utmost loyalty from his followers, thus anticipating the leadership cult of the Nazi era. S.O.S. Iceberg portrays the Arctic as an alternative Western frontier that humans have to encounter as a collective who collaborates and facilitates a sense of community, which perpetuates the American self-identification as a frontier nation of explorers. Being aware of the backgrounds of these culture-specific visualizations not only explains the differences between the two films, but, on a larger scale, will teach us to understand the extend of the influence that our cultural background has on our understanding of and interaction with nature.
    • Saami activism in the United Nations: an analysis of effectiveness internationally and at home

      Hicks, Christian Jakob Burmeister (2003-08)
      The Saami of Norway, Sweden, and Finland have been politically active internationally since the 1960s and 1970s. In the last fifteen years their presence has been a major force in indigenous politics and human rights. They have interacted with other indigenous groups, and in numerous national and international political arenas. The motivation for this study is based on the desire to understand the role of Nordic Saami actors in the rapidly changing world of international indigenous politics and how international indigenous politics influences national politics. This study is important to understanding not only Saami politics but also indigenous politics in the larger global perspective. The research shows that the Nordic Saami have been tremendously influential within the United Nations. In turn, Nordic Saami international influence has directly changed Nordic indigenous policy domestically. These international and in turn, national changes led to a significant and wide-reaching improvement in human rights conditions for the Scandinavian Saami people and ultimately for indigenous people world-wide. This thesis evaluates the influence of the Saami on the United Nations and in turn the United Nation's influence on Nordic indigenous policies.
    • Sacred trauma: Language, recovery, and the face of God in Ingmar Bergman's trilogy of faith

      Dyer, Daniel; Carr, Richard; Coffman, Chris; Ruppert, Jim (2014-12)
      This thesis examines the three films that constitute director Ingmar Bergman's first trilogy, Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Light, and The Silence. In the thesis I take a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing the films' treatments of language, trauma, and God. Drawing on the Old Testament and work of psychoanalysts dealing with trauma, I argue for the similarities and reciprocity between trauma and communion with God and the ways in which the three films illustrate these relationships. Each film functions on a reflexive level to criticize the tools of filmmaking--images, dialog, and narrative--and points to discordance between symbols and reality. Bringing in Jacques Lacan's model of the imaginary and symbolic orders, I analyze the treatment of language and trauma in the trilogy and the potential for recovery suggested by the end of each film. The thesis culminates by tracing the trilogy toward a new vision of God and his role in the human psyche.
    • Sad soul saloon

      Sigler, Douglas L. (2006-05)
      'Sad Soul Saloon' is a collection of stories about, Nick Muldoon, as he comes of age and seeks adventure during the early 1950s. Raised by his father and a group of social misfits at his father's saloon, Nick realizes in 'A Time to Fly' that the saloon is a refuge for people who seek respite from their difficult life journeys. Advised by the weary to embrace a life created for him by his father, Nick decides that he cannot appreciate a journey's end without having taken his own journey. Stepping from his nest in 'Ultimate Sacrifices, ' Nick's puts himself the middle of the Korean War. Fighting in the trenches of Pork Chop Hill, he experiences the honor and horror of war as he struggles to survive. Learning to transcend his fear, Nick embraces his duty and follows his orders at all cost. In 'A Search for Courage' Nick struggles with physical and emotional battle wounds as he journeys home. Severely burned and haunted by the images of war, he seeks the end of his journey, hoping that the people he loves most will recognize in him and embrace him. Sad Soul Saloon is Nick's cyclical trek away from an appreciation for his home, friends and family to a realization at his journey's end that there is only home, friends and family.
    • Sailing through a granite quarry: the Northwest Passage and the voyage of the SS Manhattan

      Coen, Ross Allen (2005-05)
      Upon the discovery of the Prudhoe Bay (Alaska) oil field in 1968, North America's largest crude oil reservoir at roughly twenty billion barrels, Humble Oil devised an all-marine transportation method for bringing the reserves to markets in the eastern U.S. The proposal called for a fleet of icebreaking tankers to haul crude directly from the Alaska North Slope to New York through the fabled Northwest Passage. In 1969, Humble chartered the SS Manhattan, the largest tanker in the American fleet, to complete an experimental voyage in order to test the logistic and economic feasibility of the ice-choked Arctic passage as a commercial trade route. After extensive renovations that strengthened her hull with additional layers of steel, the icebreaking Manhattan became the first commercial vessel in history to successfully transit the Northwest Passage, but the experiment established the impracticability of the method for shipping oil. The history of the Manhattan demonstrates how landscapes shape both our interactions with and attitudes toward the natural world. The approach to development taken by Humble, with its emphasis on science and economics, brings into focus a host of other social issues that inform the relative values of the Arctic environment.
    • Salmon, cosmology, and identity in Elim, Alaska

      Raymond-Yakoubian, Julie M.; Schweitzer, Peter; Koester, David; Plattet, Patrick; Carothers, Courtney; Lowe, Marie (2019-05)
      This dissertation is the result of sociocultural anthropological research in and about the community of Elim, Alaska. Elim is a small community of approximately 330 (primarily Inupiaq and Yup'ik Eskimo) people in Norton Sound. This research began with a focus on the topics of salmon and identity in the community. The focus on salmon was particularly important because the communities of this region have often traditionally been understood in the social sciences through the lens of relationships with marine mammals. The research involved participant observation in the community, a variety of forms of ethnographic interviewing (free listing, structured, and semi-structured interviews), focus groups, storytelling sessions, and archival research. Over 80 adults in the community participated in the project through interviews. I also completed extensive photo-documentation of the community and various aspects of peoples' relationships with subsistence activities. Much of this work began with inquiries about the importance of salmon to people in Elim, as well as an examination of other things which were important to Elim residents, and how people come to understand themselves. In this I also examined and learned about aspects of Elim residents' relationships with fish and other animals, with the environment, with the spiritual world, and with each other. This process led me to insights not just about identity in Elim - what matters, what is meaningful and valued, how people understand and define themselves and their community, and so on - but it also led to me an understanding of how Elim residents think about the nature of the world in general (i.e., cosmology). My main argument in this dissertation is that my research in and about Elim revealed that identity and cosmology are co-created - and it revealed how this is the case. I discovered that salmon are 'good to think with' in order to see that. This co-creation of identity and cosmology occurs within a particularly visible hybrid cosmological landscape of (primarily) 'traditionally Indigenous' and Christian ideologies. This landscape in lived culture and context is marked by a patterned heteroglossic 'condition' which includes a dominant (and indigenized) Christian discourse. This heteroglossia is constituted, represented, and evidenced by a (markedly) heterogeneous multiplicity of discourse, practice, and belief. This cosmological landscape and its heteroglossic condition are visible, and made, in various respects in co-implicated, co-indexical, interlocking instantiations of human-animal relationships, spirituality, systems of proper behavior, place attachments, and identity processes and formations.
    • Salt Lake speed seduction

      Ferguson, Dean A. (2000-08)
      This satirical novel is written in first person and alternates between two story lines: a present tense story and a past tense one. It follows characters who are living the Gen X. life: low paying jobs, lots of drugs, lots of sex, and an unearned sense of superiority. Their search for direction and meaning in a society that is increasingly voyeuristic and paranoid illustrates the futility of such a journey in late 20th century America. The main character's placement as the accidental leader of a cult makes him the target of governmental aggression. The opposition of religious institutions, local and state governments, and the media forces these characters to reject mainstream attitudes and assumptions.
    • Sand dune field paleoenvironment, paleoecology, and human environmental interaction in the middle Tanana River Valley near the Gerstle River, subarctic Alaska: the late glacial to the middle Holocene

      Bowman, Robert C.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Potter, Ben A.; Clark, Jamie L. (2017-08)
      This study was conducted to explore paleoenvironmental change within the Gerstle-Sawmill Dune Field (GSDF), located just west of the Gerstle River in the middle Tanana River valley, Interior Alaska from the late Glacial to the middle Holocene. Specifically, this study was undertaken to document human-environment interaction on the landscape. Geoarchaeological methods were used in order to determine the history of sand dune development across the area, how the local ecological systems changed through time, and determine prehistoric human use of environment and response to environmental and ecological change. The data collected from these locations was used to create a model for sand dunes and human land use regarding local ecological stability and dynamic sand dune deposition. Patterns of human land use within the GSDF were then compared with data collected from sites in proximity to the GSDF to determine how this portion of the environment operated within the larger geographic area. This geoarchaeological research aids in understanding ecological patterning within terrestrial lowland systems from the Late Glacial to the Middle Holocene, with regard to human land use dynamics within a changing geomorphological system.
    • Science Education In Rural America: Adaptations For The Ivory Tower

      Van Doren, Gregory S.; Duffy, Lawrence K. (2010)
      This thesis illustrated what can happen when academic culture disconnects from the cultures surrounding it. It showed that formal school environments are not always the best places to learn. A discussion of the debate between coherence and fragmentation learning theories illustrated academic chasms and a mindset that science education must originate from within ivory towers to be valued. Rationales for place-based science education were developed. Two National Science Foundation initiatives were compared and contrasted for relevance to Native Science education (a) Informal Science Education and (b) Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibilities. A National Science Foundation instrument, known as the Self-Assessment of Learning Gains, was selected to field-test measures of learning science outside of university science courses. Principles of chemistry were taught in community workshops, and those participant self-assessments were compared to self-assessments of students in introductory chemistry courses at two universities. University students consistently claimed the greatest learning gains, in the post-course survey, for the same areas that they claimed to have the greatest understanding, in the pre-course survey. The workshop participant responses differed, depending upon location of the learning environment. When held in a university laboratory, ideas were not related to other cultures, even when a Native Elder was present to describe those relationships. When held in a cultural center, those relationships were among the highest learning gains claimed. One of the instrument's greatest assets was the ability to measure reactions, level 4 of Bennett's (1976) hierarchy of evidence for program evaluation. A long-term commitment to informal science education (not short-term exhibits or programs), combined with negotiated place-based education was recommended as a crucially needed initiative, if relationships between universities and Native American communities are to improve. Some chasms created within ivory towers may never be bridged. Yet, those ideological chasms do not have to exist everywhere. The realities of working in the natural world and the practice of addressing multitudes of community challenges can alter perspectives, when horizons change from the edge of one's desk to those that meet the sea or sky.
    • Science education in rural America: adaptations for the Ivory Tower

      Van Doren, Gregory S. (2010-08)
      This thesis illustrated what can happen when academic culture disconnects from the cultures surrounding it. It showed that formal school environments are not always the best places to learn. A discussion of the debate between coherence and fragmentation learning theories illustrated academic chasms and a mindset that science education must originate from within ivory towers to be valued. Rationales for place-based science education were developed. Two National Science Foundation initiatives were compared and contrasted for relevance to Native Science education (a) Informal Science Education and (b) Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibilities. A National Science Foundation instrument, known as the Self-Assessment of Learning Gains, was selected to field-test measures of learning science outside of university science courses. Principles of chemistry were taught in community workshops, and those participant self-assessments were compared to self-assessments of students in introductory chemistry courses at two universities. University students consistently claimed the greatest learning gains, in the post-course survey, for the same areas that they claimed to have the greatest understanding, in the pre-course survey. The workshop participant responses differed, depending upon location of the learning environment. When held in a university laboratory, ideas were not related to other cultures, even when a Native Elder was present to describe those relationships. When held in a cultural center, those relationships were among the highest learning gains claimed. One of the instrument's greatest assets was the ability to measure reactions, level 4 of Bennett's (1976) hierarchy of evidence for program evaluation. A long-term commitment to informal science education (not short-term exhibits or programs), combined with negotiated place-based education was recommended as a crucially needed initiative, if relationships between universities and Native American communities are to improve. Some chasms created within ivory towers may never be bridged. Yet, those ideological chasms do not have to exist everywhere. The realities of working in the natural world and the practice of addressing multitudes of community challenges can alter perspectives, when horizons change from the edge of one's desk to those that meet the sea or sky.
    • Sea change, know fish: catching the tales of fish and men in Cordova, Alaska

      Springer, Emilie S.; Schneider, William; Criddle, Keith; Farmer, Daryl; Plattet, Patrick; Shoaps, Robin (2019-08)
      Cordova, Alaska is a coastal community in Southcentral Alaska with an intricate history in commercial fishing, primarily for the Copper River sockeye salmon industry, which extends historically to pre-statehood. This dissertation collects personal narratives as a method to express cultural features of community identity and the role salmon has played in shaping identity, livelihood, and lifestyle in Cordova, Alaska. Research material is based on oral history interviews from which I construct written character portraits to depict aspects of resident life in this fishing community and from others who use the community to access summer salmon resources of the Copper River. Portraits were performed and presented in public venues to obtain casual feedback from and review by community members from Cordova and other participants in the Prince William Sound drift fishery. The portraits and public commentary post-performance or from community readers serve as one basis for analysis and lead to my conclusions about life in this community and, on a larger scale, cultural dimensions common within other communities (either geographic or occupational). Public performances offer a communication tool that provides a method to share differences within the industry without encountering explicit controversy over challenging industry transitions. Although the tool of storytelling does not typically receive significant media or policy attention, I find it very effective in understanding and mediating conflict across different groups of people, especially when the main theme of conflict, sustainability and access to the fishery resource, is a mutual cultural feature of interest to diverse participant groups. Additionally, public creative performances offer a venue of communication primarily designed for entertainment and as a result, the audience interaction with storytellers occurs more casually and perhaps more genuinely than it does in academic conferences or policy meeting venues. Personal stories related to the iconic feature of salmon with mutual significance in state and federal fisheries of the North Pacific are a valuable, intimate source of local and traditional knowledge. The opportunity to put meaningful and commonly shared emphasis on the fish as an economic and cultural resource and not on a particular stakeholder group may help lead to improved communications in a field that tends to illicit conflict in consideration of access to harvest rights.
    • A search for identity in the narrative maelstrom: a psychoanalytic approach to Ishmael in Moby-Dick

      Williamson, Kim Christopher (2002-12)
      'Call me Ishmael.' This opening line has confronted many a wary student first opening Moby-Dick. This thesis also confronts this line, by way of the enigma that is the narrator of the novel. Critics have long noted the fragmented nature of Moby-Dick, especially its oddly varying points of view. The book opens with a homodiegetic narrator telling a sea adventure tale, but by the end is dominated by a heterodiegetic narrator telling the story of Ahab's tragedy. Using classic Freudian psychology and some Lacanian theory, this thesis makes a case for the complexity and importance of Ishmael in the structure and theme of the novel. Dividing the book into separate narratives representing Ishmael's ego, super-ego, and id, this thesis argues that Ishmael develops from a naive, green sailor into an experienced whaleman with a healthier coherent personality. It is in the telling of the story that he is finally able to manifest this healthier personality.
    • Seasons Out Of Balance: Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, And Sustainable Adaptation In Interior Alaska

      Mcneeley, Shannon Michele (2009)
      Koyukon Elders of Alaska's Interior observe that "cold weather is growing old" and recent warming is contributing to a world out of balance. Alaska is among the most rapidly warming places globally, with the Interior experiencing the most pronounced warming statewide, and with significant regional-scale ecosystem services disruptions affecting subsistence hunting and harvest success. Vulnerability of individuals, households, and communities to climate change is exacerbated by rising energy costs and a regulatory system that constrains the adaptive flexibility needed to cope with impacts on livelihoods. Socioeconomic and cultural change notwithstanding, the well-being of rural native communities is still dependant on access and ability to harvest wild foods, with moose the example explored in this study. Over the last decade communities in the Koyukuk-Middle Yukon (KMY) region report an inability to satisfy their needs for harvesting moose before the hunting season closes, citing warmer falls, changing water levels, and the regulatory framework as primary causes. A combination of factors, including the complicated dual state/federal management system for wildlife and subsistence, creates uncertainties about the sustainability of moose populations and subsistence livelihoods in the region. By combining indigenous observations and understanding of climate and western social-natural sciences, this study examines the complex, multi-scaled interaction of climate change and subsistence livelihoods, with the goal of understanding vulnerability and adaptive capacity in the KMY region. This research demonstrates that a recent trend during early fall results in seasonality shifts, where September is getting warmer and wetter and, most recently, temperatures during 2005-2007 were outside the normal, expected range of variability. The regulatory system lacks the flexibility needed to provide local hunters with sufficient opportunity to harvest moose. This complex interplay of climate, agency intervention, and rural community needs, increases vulnerability because of a "closing window" during the critical fall harvest. Sustainable adaptation requires collective, strategic action such as "in-season" management. It is argued that this approach will more effectively respond to climate variability, and provide the necessary venue wherein wildlife management includes climate science with the human dimensions of subsistence. It is further argued that new research initiatives will build social and institutional capital between the local hunters and agency managers.
    • Selections from "The new color"

      Allen, Micah Q.; Brightwell, Gerri; Farmer, Daryl; Reilly, Terry; Sikes, Derek (2017-05)
      At this point in human history, those with the power to make decisions that effect the planetary climate often seem to be acting against the long-term survival of most humans. Given that globalized capitalism is more or less the law of the land, a situation wherein drinkable water and breathable air are acquired solely through transactional means is no longer inconceivable. At the same time, the promotion of technology as a distraction — either from humanity's imminent demise, or from the opportunism of those who would stop at nothing to retain power — becomes more and more pervasive. This thesis is roughly one-half of a pre-apocalyptic novel-in-progress entitled The New Color, which attempts to imagine a world in which the above scenario has already come to pass, and explores the effects that such a world might have on the individuals living in it. The plot can be most succinctly described as a simple love story that orients around the discovery of a new color. Three characters share the narrative point of view; these characters' individual arcs intersect within the larger narrative in ways both tangential and direct. I have done my best to balance the genre influences of speculative and/or dystopian fiction by creating and writing characters whose behavior and points of view are as psychologically realistic as those found in so-called "literary fiction," even if the situations and settings in which they find themselves have been exaggerated for rhetorical effect.
    • Selections from Nature's womb & perhaps her grave

      Frentzko, Brianna Nicole; Brightwell, Geraldine; Harney, Eileen; Carr, Rich; Johnson, Sara Eliza (2019-05)
      Traversing a wintry landscape filled with desperate scavengers who cannot die, a witch awaits a prophecy to lead her people to the light. Meanwhile, in London, the addictive virtual reality of the Undercity tears a family apart. And, on a distant island long ago, a young girl befriends an enigmatic sailor who emerges from under the sea on top a tattered black ship. These three worlds and the women within them are connected by a single choice made long ago that ripples through time and pushes them towards their own evolving destinies. This thesis comprises the first two of five sections ("books") in a novel entitled Nature's Womb & Perhaps Her Grave. Book I, "In Chains of Darkness," follows Witch-Woman, a crone living in a world of night and snow. When she adopts the mysterious Twice-Born-Child, Witch- Woman must navigate raising her defiant daughter as well as protecting Village by River from the threat of starvation or invading wild-ones. Book II, "The City of Ghosts," depicts the struggles of five women in a dysfunctional family. Elena tries to retrieve her daughter from the Undercity, Orpah awaits her opportunity to plug in to virtual reality, Ruth attempts to prevent the maidservant from bearing her son-in-law's baby, Deborah works to save her sister from damnation, and Beatrice must decide what to do with the illegitimate child she carries in her womb. All the while, London ticks closer and closer to the day when the real world will give way to the virtual dreams of the Undercity. Playing with Judea-Christian mythos and science fiction themes, Nature's Womb & Perhaps Her Grave is, at its heart, a story about mothers and daughters confronting the dangerous power, tremendous responsibility, and unforeseen consequences of rebellion.
    • Self Silencing in Children and Adolescents

      Walz, Gena L. (1998-05)
      Self silencing is the theorized tendency to abnormally suppress expression of one’s own needs for the sake of a significant relationship Thought to be a predominately female behavior, self silencing has mainly been empirically studied in adults and has been associated with depression in women. To determine the extent, the approximate age of onset and the gender distribution of self silencing behavior in boys and girls, the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS) (Jack & Dill, 1992) was administered to twelfth grade students, and a modified version of this scale for children (STSS-C) was developed, tested and administered to fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade students. No significant differences in self silencing were observed between genders at any grade level. However significant age related differences in self silencing behavior were demonstrated in both boys and girls. In addition, these age related patterns differed significantly between boys and girls.
    • Self-determination, sustainability, and wellbeing in the Alaska Native community of Ninilchik

      Gordon, Heather Sauyaq Jean; Koskey, Michael; Topkok, Sean Asiqłuq; Hirshberg, Diane; Sekaquaptewa, Patricia (2019-05)
      Alaska Natives are a diverse group of people with different language groups and over 200 tribes. We have a history of colonization and are still a colonized people, but through all this, we strive for wellness for our people. This paper begins with an explanation of historical trauma, development, and the lack of fate control Alaska Native people experience. The literature review explains how colonization can negatively impact the colonized and details international, federal, and Alaska state law and court cases having to do with Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination. In this project the researcher works with the Ninilchik Village Tribe of Ninilchik, Alaska, to explore how community members utilize self-determination, either individually and/or as a group, to achieve individual, community, and tribal sustainability and wellbeing. This project uses the method of ethnographic futures research to conduct scenarios about the future. The researcher conducted 30 interviews about three possible futures: the optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely, and followed the interviews with four focus groups to discuss the interview results. The results were coded through grounded theory in NVivo analysis software and compared with: (a) the Capabilities Approach, (b) Self-Determination Theory, (c) social science development theories of Dependency and World Systems, and (d) the Elements of Development Model. The Capabilities Approach and Self-Development Theory explain the links between self-determination and wellbeing. Dependency and World Systems Theories explain the importance of local self-determination for development. Finally, the Elements of Development Model provides an outline for different types of self-determining actions. The project analyzes Arctic wellbeing indicators and developed indicators of sustainability and wellbeing. The project results demonstrate what community members think that individuals, the community, and the tribe can do to improve sustainability and wellbeing in Ninilchik, and how to achieve those goals through self-determining actions. The dissemination document serves as the start to a 20-year strategic plan. This type of research demonstrates how tribes can address the results of historical trauma and take control of their fate through self-determination. The next steps in research would be asset mapping and capacity-building projects to work with the data and benefit the community.
    • Selling the Alaska Highway: tourism and landscape

      Pitkanen, Laura Lynne (2002-05)
      Tourism is the fastest growing industry in the North. As a dynamic industry, tourism may exert powerful, often unforeseen pressures on the cultures, economies, resources, and landscapes of host communities. As a popular tourist corridor in the North, the Alaska Highway is enshrouded in a mythology based on frontier, hardship, and wilderness images. However, an examination of the Alaska Highway reveals that the tourism landscape contradicts this mythology. Indeed the tourism landscape is in the process of becoming commercial and homogenous in nature. While distinction in landscape is noted as a primary motivation for Alaska Highway travellers, more importantly, distinction is identified as a vital component of community and regional identity. In order for tourism to be a positive industry, it seems pertinent that Alaska Highway communities assess the long-term implications of mass tourism in this region and undertake appropriate, long-term planning initiatives based on community goals.
    • Sense versus sentiment: emergent persuasive strategies of non-profit organizations in dichotomous economic climates

      Miller, Alexis S. (2011-05)
      This study seeks to explore the rhetoric employed by the United Way in contrasting economic contexts. With a theoretical framework of Aristotle's Theory of Rhetoric, this study employs rhetorical criticism. Interpretation of results suggests that pathos is most prevalent in crisis conditions, such as a recession, whereas logos is most prevalent under stable economic circumstances. Initial conclusions drawn from the study highlight the importance of community supportiveness appeals in crisis conditions.