• The taming of the stew: humans, reindeer, caribou and food systems on the southwestern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Miller, Odin Tarka Wolf; Plattet, Patrick; Finstad, Greg; Simon, James; Yamin-Pasternak, Sveta (2019-08)
      This thesis addresses the question, what is the role of reindeer within communities of Alaska's southwestern Seward Peninsula, particularly as a food source? Employing a mixed-method approach, I conducted several months' fieldwork in the Seward Peninsula communities of Nome and Teller between 2016 and 2018, using methods that included participant observation, ethnographic interviews and a household survey designed to describe and quantify use of reindeer as food. As two varieties of the same species, Rangifer tarandus, reindeer and caribou are very similar in appearance. When caribou herds migrate nearby, reindeer tend to join them and become feral. Given the important role caribou played in Bering Straits Iñupiaq culture before their disappearance and the subsequent introduction of reindeer during the late 1800s, I contextualize the history of reindeer herding as part of a broader pattern of human-Rangifer relationships. During the past 30 years, reindeer herding has been disrupted by the return of migrating caribou to the region. Results from my fieldwork suggest that herding involves not only keeping reindeer separate from caribou, but also achieving community-level recognition of reindeer herds as domestic, privately owned and non-caribou. This is reflected in reindeer's role as a food source. Among Seward Peninsula Iñupiat, reindeer's gastronomic role is similar to that of caribou and other land mammals. Yet reindeer products can be monetarily exchanged in ways that caribou and other wild foods cannot. A further distinguishing feature of reindeer, as a domestic animal, is that it can be controlled and commodified while alive. As rural Alaskans seek to adapt their food systems to rapid social-ecological change, some have expressed renewed interest in reindeer herding. I conclude that herders must actively negotiate between views of reindeer herding as monetary and marketable, on the one hand, and as a food that embodies Iñupiaq values of generosity and (nonmonetary) sharing, on the other.
    • Tangerqengiaraucaraq (being present)

      John-Shields, Agatha; Siekmann, Sabine; Parker-Webster, Joan; Barnhardt, Raymond; Vinlove, Amy (2018-08)
      This qualitative, participatory action research was conducted to investigate the following research questions: What are the attitudes of the teachers in ESDY 630: Language, Culture and Teaching in Secondary Schools class toward culturally responsive teaching and learning? How does participating in ESDY 630: Language, Culture and Teaching in Secondary Schools class affect attitudes of the educators? How do educators co-construct the relationship between standards and culturally responsive teaching and learning? Data were gathered from five pre-service teachers in the University of Alaska Anchorage Master of Arts in Teaching program in a 2-credit Language, Culture, and Teaching in Secondary Schools class. Data consisted of class recordings, student artifacts, teacher researcher journal and informal interviews. The data were analyzed using Constructive Grounded Theory framework. Tangerqengiaraucaraq (Being Present) emerged as a key concept based on the themes identified in the data: Becoming Aware, Adapting, Knowing Self and Others, and Building Relationship. The qasgiq (Indigenous community center) is proposed as a model to support ways to become a culturally responsive teacher.
    • Taphonomic Analysis Of Fish Remains From The Mink Island Site (Xmk-030): Implications For Zooarchaeological And Stable Isotopic Research

      Mckinney, Holly J.; Potter, Ben; Hanson, Diane; Hoover, Kara; Irish, Joel; Kruse, Gordon (2013)
      This dissertation is focused on shedding the taphonomic overprint at the Mink Island site (XMK-030) to assess temporal variability of the fish bone assemblage and to establish sample selection criteria for stable isotope (delta15N, delta13C) analysis. These retrospective data may be used to identify the causes and consequences of long-term variability in local fish assemblages when combined with modern fisheries and paleo-oceanographic data. To use these data, it is essential to account for the effects of biostratinomic and diagenic agents. Intertaxa and inter-elemental differences in bone density, shape, size, protein, and lipid content result in differing preservation and contamination potential. Without mitigating for the effects of these biostratinomic and diagenic agents, temporal changes in abundance may be skewed in favor of skeletal elements that best survive destruction. Moreover, stable isotope values may reflect differences in preservation and contamination rather than variability in ecosystem structure and function. The results of several experiments conducted to assess preservation and contamination levels of Mink Island fish bones revealed that: 1) Preservation and contamination potential are linked with completeness percentages and burial duration, but not with bone volume density; 2) Pacific cod dentaries that are intact, unburned, and free of visible contaminants are best suited for stable isotope analysis; 3) The modified Bell pretreatment method is validated for archaeological fish bones; and 4) Because color-affecting contaminants cannot be removed without heat, color-based methods are unsuitable for assessing the cooking/burning stage of archaeological fish bones. Interactions among humans and fishes at Mink Island were assessed using a four-stage resource depression and intensification model. The Mink Island occupants shifted their focus from small flatfishes during Stage I (7500-4500 cal. BP), to Pacific cod and sculpins during Stages II (4500-2800 cal. BP) and III (2800-900 cal. BP), to a mixture of taxa (sculpins, cods, herring, and salmon) during Stage IV (900-400 cal. BP). A decrease in Pacific cod fork lengths indicates that resource depression occurred during Stage II. Taxonomic proportion, evenness, salmon index, and skeletal element representation data demonstrate that salmon intensification did not occur during any stage at Mink Island.
    • Teaching adolescents conflict management skills

      DeLong, Debra M. (2011-05)
      In response to a parents request a workshop to teach a conflict management workshop to high school students was created. A pre-post test design to assess the effectiveness of the workshop was used, with the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument as the measurement. Responses were available for 76 students who were evenly divided between females and males. Overall preferences for using conflict styles did not show a statistically significant change; however, preferences for individual styles did change, with competition showing a statistically significant difference.
    • Teaching conflict management: active and traditional learning approaches in a group communication course

      Welborn, Rhonda D. (2007-05)
      The vital role of effective groups within modern organizations requires attention to the dynamics of group communication, specifically conflict management. The first context in which most individuals learn group communication skills is in the university classroom. Sims (2006) asserts that the established literature examining approaches to teaching has convinced most scholars that the student's classroom experience must advance beyond the traditional lecture format, to more interactive student involvement. This study investigated the hypothesis that active learning would result in higher perceptions of self-efficacy in students' group conflict management than would traditional lecture instruction. This study also explores issues associated with differences in instructional methods, as well as change in self-efficacy across time periods. University students in a group communication course who received either active learning or lecture based instruction in group conflict management voluntarily completed a conflict communication self-efficacy measure, and two conflict management measures. The analyses indicated that self-efficacy did increase significantly across time periods, however, no evidence was found of a difference between instructional methods. Measurement issues, the importance of a manipulation check, implications of the findings, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    • Teaching English language learners in Alaska: a study of translanguaging choices

      Crace-Murray, Jacquelyn A.; Siekmann, Sabine; Parker-Webster, Joan; Marlow, Patrick; John, Theresa (2018-08)
      The number of English Language Learners continues to rise in U.S. schools. However, general classroom teachers are not equipped with English language acquisition methodologies and strategies to teach their increasingly diverse student populations. Because of the deficit views regarding bilingual students, and the monolingual ideologies present in today's public school system, these attitudes and perspectives impact teacher practices in the classroom. They negatively affect student language learning by neglecting to utilize the vast linguistic repertoires bilinguals bring with them to the classroom as resources. They also lead to the over-referral of English language learners for special education services and to teacher burn-out. Being drawn to the concept and utility of translanguaging, I conducted research on my own teaching practices as an English Language Learner Specialist in Alaska. From an autoethnographic stance, I focused on how I encouraged or discouraged translanguaging, what factors impacted my own attitudes and expectations towards translanguaging, and how those attitudes and expectations changed over the course of the action research. This occurred within the context of language moments and critical incidents with my students where I collected field notes, audio files, and reflexive journaling as data instruments. Using constructivist grounded theory for the analytic framework, I developed an informed awareness of my teaching, and how I can utilize translanguaging in the classroom to create meaning, invoke learning, and maximize communication. I found that I encouraged translanguaging with my students for 14 reasons/purposes. I categorized these reasons/purposes into three action-based categories: 1) Demonstrating Unity, 2) Working in Multiple Languages, and 3) Using Good Teaching Practices. The factors that impacted these practices included academic material and time constraint management, teacher/student language proficiencies, student dynamics, and school/classroom climate. Over the course of the study, my own attitudes and expectations towards translanguaging changed from an umbrella term for linguistic practices such as code-switching, code-mixing, and codemeshing to a strategic, purposeful, and intentional process along the language acquisition continuum. This change impacted how I use my languages in the classroom, and how I teach.
    • Teaching through culture in the K-12 classroom

      Littlebear, Janice DeVore; John, Theresa; Adams, Barbara; Barnhardt, Ray; Webster, Joan Parker (2018-05)
      This study explores how quality experienced teachers use culture to successfully deliver K-12 classroom instruction. Additionally, it develops and tests the effectiveness of a resource designed to instruct early career teachers on the use of culture to deliver classroom instruction. Research was conducted in two phases over a four-year time frame (2014-2017). The study followed a mixed methods exploratory sequential design, using a participatory action research approach. Phase 1 gathered qualitative data from 20 experienced teachers located in two states, which were analyzed using constructed grounded theory. The results of this analysis, accompanied by a literature review, resulted in the development of a Chapter about Culture (CAC), an instructional resource on teaching through culture for early career teachers. Phase 2 gathered quantitative data using a Checklist of Classroom Inventory (CCI) from eight Alaska early career teachers and one Montana experienced teacher, and were analyzed by averaging the pre/post CAC scores and comparing the differences. In addition, one open-ended question after use of CAC provided additional qualitative data about the resourcefulness of CAC, as well as the process for implementing the lessons. Phase 1 results revealed five common themes when teaching through culture: Relationships, Communication, Connections, Respect, and Multicultural Resources. These themes contributed to the construction of a value-added theory of practice for teaching through culture, and served as the basis of the CAC. Phase 2 results demonstrated growth by early career teachers after using the newly created CAC in all five themes of teaching through culture.
    • Technological development and culture change on St. Lawrence Island: A functional typology of toggle harpoon heads

      Lewis, Michael A. (1995)
      Our understanding of the culture history of the Bering Strait region is based on the chronology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed by Henry Collins in 1937. Subsequent attempts to develop harpoon head typologies from other parts of the Bering Strait are built on Collins' stylistic classification, which does not account for the full range of variation in St. Lawrence Island harpoon heads. The resulting confusion of harpoon head categories has clouded the interpretation of patterns in the material remains and has perpetuated a unilineal theory of culture change in Bering Strait Eskimo groups. This dissertation critically examines previous investigations and interpretations of archeological sites on St. Lawrence Island and Punuk Island. A contextual analysis of radiocarbon dates from these sites serves to evaluate the currently accepted chronology of occupation. The typology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed is based on a structural analysis of the raw materials and a functional analysis of the components of the harpoon head. The concept of functional strategies explains variation in harpoon head styles and gives meaning to the statistical analysis of attribute associations. A series of dendrochronological dates from the Kukulik site is compared with radiocarbon dates from other sites and combined with the harpoon head typology to develop a chronology of St. Lawrence Island occupations. The harpoon head typology reveals the presence of two distinct culture groups co-resident on St. Lawrence Island and the Bering Strait region from approximately 1600 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P. The Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group, associated with a generalized Eskimo subsistence adaptation, was present from 1600 to 1300 cal C-14 B.P. The Okvik/Ipiutak group, focused on sea mammal and whale hunting, is undated on St. Lawrence Island. Based on comparison with date ranges in other Bering Strait sites, the Okvik/Ipiutak group is assumed to be roughly contemporaneous with the Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group. The interaction of these two groups on St. Lawrence Island, interpreted by Collins as the Punuk culture, was present from 1300 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P.
    • TEST College of Liberal Arts 9/25/17

      CHISUM (2017-09)
      TEST College of Liberal Arts 9/25/17
    • The Akulmiut: Territorial dimensions of a Yup'ik Eskimo society

      Andrews, Elizabeth Frances; Ellanna, Linda J. (1989)
      This monograph is an ethnohistoric and ethnographic study of 19th and 20th century land and resource use of the Akulmiut, a Yup'ik-speaking Eskimo society that occupied the inland tundra region between the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers of western Alaska. The study examines the relationship between the patterns of spatial organization and wild resource utilization and resource distribution. Ethnographic studies have shown there is considerable variability in socioterritorial organization, which according to one recent theory, applied to this study, can be accounted for by examining the distribution of critical food resources in terms of density and predictability. The Akulmiut were selected for this study because of their unique situation among Alaskan Eskimos in terms of their subsistence economy and geographic location. With an economy based on fishing, utilizing non-salmon species of the low, marshy moist and wet tundra ecosystems, the adaptation of the Akulmiut is distinct among Alaskan Eskimos. Using data for the Akulmiut, this study tests the hypothesis that a territorial system occurs under conditions of high density and predictability (in time and space) of critical resources. Between groups or societies, the Akulmiut exhibited a territorial system of land use and occupancy as predicted when critical resources are dense and predictable. The study found that the key resource species of whitefish (Coregonus sp.) and northern pike (Esox lucius) exhibited resource distribution parameters characterized as predictable in time and location and were abundant or dense. Spatial organization showed that all primary villages and storage and processing facilities were situated where pike and whitefish could be readily intercepted during their annual migrations. The Akulmiut maintained exclusive use through overt defense, but also by means of cultural principles of land and resource use, ceremonial activities, and naming conventions. Dispersion of the population at other times ensured maintenance of a broader area for use in harvesting another key resource, blackfish (Dallia pectoralis). Dispersion was an efficient means of signaling areas used by the group, but also served to monitor incursions throughout the territory. This type of analysis was found to hold promise for explaining the diversity of socioterritorial organization among Alaskan Eskimos.
    • The Campaign To Establish A Last Great Wilderness: The Arctic National Wildlife Range

      Kaye, Roger W.; Gladden, James (2005)
      In 1960, after nearly a decade of controversy and failed legislative attempts, the Arctic National Wildlife Range was established by an executive order "for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness, and recreational values." This is the story of the transformation of this little-known expanse of mountains, forest, and tundra into a place internationally recognized as one of the finest examples of wilderness. This dissertation is a political history of the conflict, examining the roles of key proponents and opponents and the sequence of actions that finally brought the Secretary of Interior to issue the order. More important, it is an exploration of the historic, cultural, philosophical, and scientific underpinnings of the campaign. It focuses upon the beliefs and values, the ideas and idealism, and the hopes and concerns for the future that inspired leaders of the effort, captured the public imagination, and galvanized the political support necessary to overcome powerful opposition. The immediate context of the campaign was the post-World War II transformation of American society. More than in any previous period, postwar America was receptive to the idea of setting an area aside for a unique combination of tangible and intangible values---cultural, symbolic, and spiritual values as well as wildlife, ecological, and recreational values. The controversy reflected growing concerns about the era's unprecedented rate of population growth; economic, industrial, and technological expansion; and consequent environmental alteration. For proponents, it came to symbolize the conflict between seemingly unbridled progress and the need to more carefully consider the environmental consequences of these trends. For opponents, the nine-million acre reservation represented a threat to the new state's economic prosperity, resented federal control of natural resources, and a restriction of the opportunity and freedom they came to Alaska seeking. Rooted in the progressive era split between utilitarian conservation and nature preservation, the campaign was, to a large degree, a contest between competing views of the appropriate relationship between postwar American society and its changing landscape. The view that prevailed reflects the successful integration of the emerging ecologically-based "environmental" perspective into the wilderness movement.
    • The Crossing

      Radford, Laura Anne (1995)
      The short stories in this collection focus on small but revealing moments in the lives of the various characters. The stories take place in a short period in which choices present themselves. Finding themselves paralyzed in their own inertia, the characters see the problems facing them yet choose the path of least resistance.<p> As implied by the title, The Crossing, many boundaries, ideas, and expectations are crossed over but not resolved. The characters come to greater understandings of themselves and their situations, but have yet to act on them.<p> In all but one story, the point of view is in third person, which narrows the focus and heightens the intensity of emotion. The action is quiet, often focusing on gestures rather than explosions. The characters and conflicts are not extraordinary, and it is in this that the stories gain their verisimilitude. <p>
    • The evolution of higher education in Zimbabwe

      Maunde, Raymund Zaranyika; Barnhardt, Ray (2000)
      This study examines the origins and development of higher education for the indigenous peoples in southern Africa as a whole, while focusing on the evolution of higher education in Zimbabwe in particular. The study examines the role that higher education plays in a developing social, economic and political context by reviewing the relevant literature on the history of higher education in southern Africa and conducting a survey of the current status of emerging higher education institutions in Zimbabwe. The government of Zimbabwe is pursuing multiple avenues of public-private co-operation in providing higher education in response to the growing demand from its citizens. The fieldwork included interviews with government officials and an extended visit to each of the four major new public and private universities in the country, during which focused interviews were conducted with university officials and relevant documents were obtained. The first generation of universities in Africa is being reassessed and new institutions are being created as a result of changes that have occurred in the world, in Africa and in the universities themselves. Internationally, the emergence of global markets has created a competitive world economic system characterized by rapid knowledge generation and technological innovation. Therefore the African universities are not evolving in isolation. They are becoming an integral part of the world university systems. This study documents the reciprocal relationship between the structure and function of educational institutions and the time and place in which they are situated. The current explosion of new higher education institutions across Zimbabwe is clearly a product of its historical and contemporary evolution as an independent country. At the same time, it is apparent that Zimbabwe's future as a player in the family of global nations is increasingly dependent on a strong and responsive system of higher education institutions focusing on the needs of the country and its citizens. Zimbabwe's future as a nation and the future of its higher education institutions are inextricably linked.
    • The History Of The Social And Economic Importance Of Second Avenue And The Core Area Of Fairbanks, Alaska

      Scholle, Marie M. (1996)
      The City of Fairbanks changed and evolved over the years. The fifty years of the core-area's roller coaster economy was a mirror reflection of the city, as a whole. The infamous Second Avenue, also known as "Two Street," held a key to social reform and economic growth. This thesis explored the issues surrounding the social infrastructure of the "core-area" and how that infrastructure affected the economy of downtown Fairbanks.<p> In addition to the social and cultural phenomena, the political influences and their effect on the core-area's economic and social development was discussed. The government played a pivotal role in the economic direction of the downtown business district.<p> The conclusion of this thesis showed that the core-area of Fairbanks no longer enjoyed the status of the economic mainstay of the Fairbanks economy. However, this area was held as a historical business district and social gathering place for many Fairbanks events. <p>
    • The impact of the use of active imagery on labor and delivery

      Ward, Penelope H.; Geist, Charles (1995)
      This clinical investigation assessed the impact of the use of active imagery during labor and delivery to: assist in pain control, facilitate the physiological processes of labor, reduce anxiety, and improve feelings of control and self worth in the parents. Multiple designs including descriptive, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and ANOVA using the General Linear Model were employed. After approval by monitoring authorities and informed consent, multipara couples responded to the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pregnancy Attitude Index or Levenson's Locus of Control Scales, and the Adjective Checklist. Gender differences in the late third trimester were assessed. Experimental group couples were taught active imagery, given an audiotape for daily practice, and used imagery in labor and delivery. After delivery, tests were readministered, subjective comments recorded, and vividness of imagery assessed in the imagery group mothers. In the 15 couples studied, all were Internally controlled. Men felt more Internally controlled, women more manipulation by Powerful Others. There were no differences on the STAI or ACL. After delivery, no change was found on the STAI, or in Internal control. The eight couples in the Control group and women had greater control by Powerful Others. Control by Chance increased in the Control group, particularly the women. On the ACL, the Experimental group had significant change in Favorable scores with more feelings of internal control, confidence and less need for support and sympathy compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference in time in labor from 7-10 cm. However, Experimental group mothers had shorter labor periods in the hospital. They required less medication, and their babies had higher one minute Apgar scores and significantly higher arterial oxygen concentration in umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Subjectively, mothers voiced greater feelings of control after using imagery, adopting the procedure and generalizing it to other life situations. This study provided an initial look at men's feelings during their wives' pregnancies. The use of active imagery resulted in greater feelings of control and self worth, shorter total labor periods and improved neonatal outcome in this group. Imagery offers a potential for improvement in the birth process which merits further study.
    • The Last Settlers

      Brice, Jennifer Page (1995)
      The American frontier closed in 1986 without fanfare. Earlier in that decade, the federal government offered up the last 40,000 acres for settlement in two parcels. The first was near Lake Minchumina, in the geographic center of Alaska, and the second was at Slana, near Alaska's eastern border with Canada. The following essays chronicle the daily doings of two communities and, in particular, two families: the Hannans of Deadfish Lake and the Craigs of South Slana. A work of literary journalism, The Last Settlers draws on interviews, historical documents and reminiscences to explore the changing meanings, on the cusp of the twenty-first century, of wilderness and civilization, stewardship and community. <p>
    • The linear algebra of interpolation with finite applications giving computational methods for multivariate polynomials

      Olmsted, Coert D.; Gislason, Gary A.; Lambert, J. P.; Lando, C. A.; Olson, J. V.; Piacenca, R. J. (1988)
      Linear representation and the duality of the biorthonormality relationship express the linear algebra of interpolation by way of the evaluation mapping. In the finite case the standard bases relate the maps to Gramian matrices. Five equivalent conditions on these objects are found which characterize the solution of the interpolation problem. This algebra succinctly describes the solution space of ordinary linear initial value problems. Multivariate polynomial spaces and multidimensional node sets are described by multi-index sets. Geometric considerations of normalization and dimensionality lead to cardinal bases for Lagrange interpolation on regular node sets. More general Hermite functional sets can also be solved by generalized Newton methods using geometry and multi-indices. Extended to countably infinite spaces, the method calls upon theorems of modern analysis.
    • The lost boys of the Shirley Marie

      Popa, Jennifer L.; Farmer, Daryl; Schell, Jennifer; Mellen, Kyle (2014-05)
      The Lost Boys of the Shirley Marie is a collection of fictional stories that veer toward the strange and inexplicable. These stories are often magical: boys on a ship stripped of their identities until enticing siren-like voices free them, a bleeding bush hides an age old secret, a waitress gives birth to a seal. There is, also, water in these stories -- ocean water, bath water, rain water. Even in the less magical pieces, there is a haunting strangeness: a woman jumps to her death, a beached whale rots at the edge of a town, a girl at fat camp befriends a boy who reveals to her his collection of taxidermy animals, dressed up as humans, including a troupe of banjo playing squirrels. Ultimately, these strange stories are thread together by marginalized characters, and by moments of human connection across language, memory, culture and circumstance.
    • The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Siberia

      Goebel, Frank E. (Ted); Powers, W. Roger; Scott, G. Richard; Hopkins, David M.; Guthrie, R. Dale; Gerlach, S. Craig (1994)
      This dissertation presents results of recent research in Siberia directed at (1) developing an accurate archaeological chronology for the mid-Upper Pleistocene of Siberia (chiefly through accelerator radiocarbon methods), and (2) defining and characterizing the region's Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Eleven Middle Paleolithic sites are now known from southwest Siberia. Relative age estimates of these cultural occupations range from the Last Interglacial (oxygen-isotope substage 5e, 128,000-118,000 years ago) to the mid-Middle Pleniglacial (oxygen-isotope stage 3,50,000-40,000 years ago). Associated lithic industries are Levallois and Mousterian. Middle Paleolithic interassemblage lithic variability is hinged on the differential production of Levallois points and Levallois flakes, and the intensity of side scraper reduction. Hominid remains from two sites, Denisova Peshchera and Peshchera Okladnikov, appear pre-modern and exhibit affinities to Neanderthals from southwest Asia. At least 15 sites have been assigned to the Siberian early Upper Paleolithic. Radiocarbon dates range from 42,000 to 30,000 years ago. Occupations at Kara-Bom (component IIa), Makarovo-4, and Varvarina Gora predate the effective range of radiocarbon dating (40,000 years ago), and may be considerably older than radiocarbon dates suggest. Initial Upper Paleolithic industries are characterized by the detachment of blades from "flat-faced" parallel blade cores, the absence of Levallois techniques, the presence of bifacial and burin secondary reduction technologies, and tool kits with end scrapers, angle burins, wedges, gravers, bifacial knives, and slender retouched points on blades. Also occurring for the first time are worked bone, ivory, and antler points, awls, and needles, pendants and other items of personal adornment, and rare examples of mobiliary art. Diagnostic hominid fossils are absent. The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition involved dramatic and multi-faceted changes in tool technologies and tool forms. Patterns of change are discrete rather than discontinuous; no transitional industries have been identified. Stratigraphic evidence indicates rapid succession from one technocomplex to the other. This evidence supports population replacement rather than continuity for the origins of the Siberian Upper Paleolithic. Whether this event also signals the appearance of modern humans in this and surrounding areas of inner Asia must await additional hominid fossil discoveries.
    • The Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale In Asian Indian International Exchange Students: A Qualitative Study Of Meanings Ascribed To Scale Items

      Lower, Timothy A.; Mohatt, Gerald (2008)
      In order to facilitate greater cultural competency, a study regarding the use of the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS) in a sample of Asian Indian exchange students was conducted. The specific research questions to be answered were: (a) what meanings would participants ascribe to key terms and phrases on the OCIS, (b) what meanings would participants apply to differences in categorical placement on the OCIS, and (c) what themes would the participants associate with cultural identification? To answer these questions, 47 participants completed the OCIS and a demographic questionnaire, while 8 of these participants also participated in a semi-structured individual interview and group feedback interview. A phenomenological method and participant feedback were used to analyze and summarize the data. Internal consistency of the OCIS subscales was good, while the White American or Anglo and the Asian Indian subscales correlated positively to a significant extent. The OCIS term, "traditions," was associated with festivals, family, puja, and special foods. The OCIS phrase, "way of life," connoted Hinduism, family-centered, day-to-day activities, gender differences, and intra-cultural variation. Finally, the term, "success," connoted karma, family life, education/knowledge, social life, and practical considerations. Because no previous study has investigated the meanings of key terms or phrases on the OCIS, this study adds to the literature by providing: (a) an initial indication of the meanings ascribed by Asian Indian exchange students to items on the OCIS, and (b) a model for similar investigations in other cultures.