• Unangam Unikangis: Aleut stories of leadership and knowing

      Mack, Liza; Barnhardt, Ray; Carothers, Courtney; Chapin, F. Stuart III (2019-03)
      The central question of this dissertation is, "What do Aleut people know about the laws that directly affect their access to local resources?" The complex details of hunting and fishing regulations coupled with legislation that dictates access to natural resources will play a key role in Aleut leaders' ability to understand, disseminate, and protect these rights. Such policies include clauses that regulate who can and cannot participate based on blood quantum, which can be problematic for future generations of Aleut people as they marry and have children with people from outside the region. Further, with the abolishment of aboriginal title to lands and hunting and fishing rights in Alaska, understanding who owns the land and resources and how they are governed is imperative to Aleut people. This dissertation uses participant observation, critical case studies, key informant interviews, and a survey of Aleut leaders in the Eastern Aleutians to illustrate the ways in which Aleut people know and understand their environment and the ways they address natural resource management issues. It further demonstrates the way these issues are being addressed and learned about in two Eastern Aleutian communities. It also highlights the dynamic leadership of Aleut community members in the Eastern Aleutians. Some of the major findings include no reported change in subsistence use for respondents under the age of 50, a decline in the amount of subsistence used by older respondents, Aleut leaders spend years serving their communities in multiple capacities; and generally speaking, younger generations of public servants tend to become involved in community service as well.
    • Understanding institutional and social factors relating to the provisioning of water and sanitation services in rural Alaska: perspectives on community self-reliance from nine Native villages of Interior Alaska

      Ochante Cáceres, Mercedes Fátima (2013-05)
      The global community acknowledges the essential nature of potable water and proper sanitation to the realization of human rights. Since 1959 federal, state and tribal efforts have focused on the goal of equitably providing these services to Alaska Native villages. However, demographic and geographical realities along with limited resources pose formidable challenges to achieving this lofty goal. This thesis explores the challenges to providing safe drinking water in remote Interior Alaska villages and their impact on self-reliance from the perspectives of knowledgeable village residents. Findings from a grounded theory analysis reveal that despite competence and concerted efforts to meet community needs, social and institutional dimensions pose difficulties to sustainable water services. Such challenges include community perceptions about treated water, communication barriers, unharnessed local expertise and opportunities to develop local capacity, complicated needs assessment and resource acquisition processes, mismatched policies and technology vis-a-vis the realities of village living, and resident out migration.
    • Understanding Loglan.

      Rice, Stephen Leon (1994)
      Loglan is a language designed to help test Whorf's hypothesis that language shapes thought. Specifically, Loglan should encourage more creative and logical thought in its users. Such future users will need a readable textbook of the language; that is the purpose of the present work. <p>
    • Understanding the lived experience of racist hate speech on American university campuses

      Matusitz, Jonathan Andre (2001-12)
      This research employs narrative methodology in order to understand the lived experience of students who have experienced racist racist hate speech on American university campuses. Thematic analysis of in-depth, conversational interview capta (Kvale, 1996) was used to find commonalities in co-researchers' experiences. The literature review includes a contextual and historical section on racism, and a detailed, standard definition of racist hate speech. Emergent themes from these narrative interviews were found in regard to victims' experiences of racist hate speech on American university campuses. Those themes are discussed in the order of the co-researchers' experience: (1) indignation and anger, (2) stereotyping, (3) ethnic resentment, and (4) ethnic superiority. The co-researchers' experiences illustrate that racist hate speech is not only talk, but can be experienced through other communicative actions.
    • Uninhabited and free from work: an environmental and federal land-use policy history of Glacial Lake Atna wilderness, Alaska

      McLaughlin, Marley M.; Coen, Ross; Meek, Chanda; Ehrlander, Mary F. (2020-05)
      The Glacial Lake Atna area, a valley between the southern Alaska and Wrangell mountain ranges in Southcentral Alaska, despite its appearance today as remote, thickly forested, and seemingly "wild" in character, has a 10,000-year history of human habitation. The first peoples in Alaska made encampments and harvested subsistence resources on the shores of the glacial lake and its margins, while today residents and visitors to the region continue to inhabit, hunt, fish, gather berries, cut firewood, and generally subsist from the land in ways remarkably similar to their prehistoric forebears. Humans and nature have a long, shared history in the thirteen million-acre Glacial Lake Atna region, and yet, since the mid-1980s, amid the modern-day conservation movement to protect so-called wild places, the region has been bordered and patrolled in ways that separate humans from nature. Wilderness policies under the National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management suggest that wilderness areas are inherently pristine, devoid of human inhabitation, and without the imprint of human work. Alaska lands acts, most specifically the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980, while allowing for subsistence, did not adequately address work and inhabitation. This thesis questions such policies and, through archaeological, historical, and policy analyses of humans and nature in the region, argues wilderness has never been truly uninhabited and free from work. The idea of "wilderness" lacks introspection as these areas contain quite a lot of human history, and indeed wilderness is a construct of romanticism and post-frontier ideologies.
    • United States Armed Forces' voluntary education program: The effect of enlisted service member retention

      Brauchle, Kenneth Charles; Smith, David M. (1997)
      The United States Armed Forces have sponsored off-duty voluntary higher education programs for fifty years. The investment in these programs by the Armed Services is substantial. In 1996, Department of Defense (DOD) expenditures for Tuition Assistance programs totaled $121 million. The longevity and scope of these military programs make them an ideal special case through which to study the outcomes of employer sponsored off-duty education. This study looked at the relationship between participation in military sponsored off-duty education programs and enlisted retention in the service. The data for the study was from a large (60,000 respondents) survey conducted by the DOD in 1992. Both univariate and multi-variate statistical analysis techniques were used. Additionally, over thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with service members. The quantitative analysis supports the conclusion that long-term participation in off-duty education is significantly and positively related to intention to reenlist in simple bi-variate models. However, when several other variables thought to be related to retention are controlled the overall education participation effect is very small, accounting for little of the variation in intention to reenlist. A comparison of the education participation pattern in this data with previous studies leads to the conclusion that there has been a fundamental change in the relationship between off-duty education and retention in the last ten to fifteen years. The qualitative data suggest that the military places a high value on educational participation exhibited in formal and informal policies, the organizational reward system, promotions and attitudes. The opportunity to participate varies by location, specific job and military specialty. Servicemembers' attitudes toward education appear to evolve. Early participation seems to be extrinsically motivated with an intrinsic motivation developing as the servicemember continues to participate. The quantitative and qualitative data support the conclusion that the military has changed in its view of educational participation. The data point to the conclusion that the military has adopted educational participation as an integral part of the military culture. This value is so embedded within the environment that the effect of educational participation may be masked by other variables such as satisfaction with the military way of life.
    • Uqalugaatka

      Zibell, Chelsey; Burleson, Derick; Reilly, Terence; Ruppert, James; Hill, Sean (2016-05)
      When I began graduate school as an M.A. student, my first idea for a thesis was to prove that stories from the Iñupiaq oral tradition could be considered poetry. In my mind, that would bring these stories to a level I thought they deserved. In my ignorance, I thought that the tradition needed me to validate it. However, I came to the realization that my thoughts indicated a prejudice on my part: these stories didn’t need my validation. I needed to accept them as they are, and also to accept that I was an authoritative reader of these stories. Much of my poetry seeks to retell and interpret these traditional unipchaat. I address questions that have crossed my mind, and questions that I imagine would cross my readers’ minds. My questions arise from my own context as an Iñupiaq, as a Naluaġmiu, and as a Christian. Therefore, the unipchaat need quliaqtuat and uqaluktuat to lean on. But sometimes the condensed form of a poem is not enough context for a non-Iñupiaq reader, or even an Iñupiaq reader. Out of this came several essays for the poetry and the reader to lean on. The late Jimmie Killigivuk of Point Hope said this of traditional stories: “You must always tell two: stories lean against each other. Otherwise the first one is alone and will fall over.” So it is with creative writing. One text may very well be made to stand on its own, but it is never alone in context.
    • The use of aspect in a Gwich'in narrative

      Richards, Qwynten Daelgar (2004-05)
      This work is an investigation of the role of viewpoint aspect in highlighting and fore grounding information in discourse, and in structuring narrative discourse within a Gwich'in narrative. The purpose is to contribute to a clearer understanding of how aspect functions cross-linguistically. The focus of the analysis is on the perfective/imperfective contrast which involves speaker choice. The findings are that there is an interesting correlation between shift in narrative episode and shift in viewpoint aspect, and additionally, that the use of the perfective does highlight and mark significant information in the narrative. The study also examines the narrative in terms of proposed universals in narrative structure, as outlined by Labov, but does not find enough evidence to support his claims in Gwich'in.
    • Use of family history to improve colorectal cancer screening outreach among Alaska Native people

      Redwood, Diana; Lopez, Ellen; Johnson, Rhonda; Skewes, Monica; Garcia, Gabriel (2013-12)
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among Alaska Native people are the highest of any ethnic or racial group in the United States. First-degree relatives (FDRs), which include parents, siblings, and children of CRC patients, are at increased risk. There is a paucity of data on predictors of screening adherence among Alaska Native FDRs, and the extent to which screening outreach is occurring within the Alaska Tribal Health System (ATHS) for FDRs. There is also a lack of data available on barriers and facilitators to increasing screening outreach efforts in this population. This study assessed the prevalence of CRC screening outreach to FDRs at Alaska tribal health organizations (THOS), use of family history information, barriers to CRC screening, and potential tools to improve CRC screening throughout the Alaska Tribal Health System (ATHS). The study also included a process evaluation of the Alaska Native CRC Family Outreach Program (2000-2012) based in Anchorage, Alaska. The process evaluation investigated the program's formation, evolution, and successes and challenges through a series of key informant interviews with program stakeholders. Lastly, an outcome evaluation was conducted of the Alaska Native CRC Family Outreach Program to assess predictors of screening adherence and results of screening among Alaska Native FDR program participants. The study found that CRC screening outreach was common in the ATHS, but significant barriers still exist. These barriers were especially notable for outreach to FDRs, including a lack of dedicated staff and resources. Key results of the process evaluation of the Alaska Native CRC Family Outreach Program included an incremental approach that led to a unique outreach program and revealed the need for dedicated staff to provide culturally competent patient navigation. Challenges identified included differing FDR outreach responses, health system data access and coordination, and relying on unstable grant funding for program sustainability. The outcome evaluation of the Alaska Native CRC Family Outreach Program found despite increasing programmatic outreach and FDR screening rates, a large proportion of Alaska Native FDRs were still due for screening. This was especially true among rural-dwelling and older FDRs. This study found that overall, CRC screening and awareness are increasing among the Alaska Native population, including among FDRs. However, many Alaska Native FDRs remain unscreened. There is a critical need for more research into FDR barriers and facilitators to CRC screening, as well as how the ATHS can more systematically promote screening among this increased-risk population and reduce morbidity and mortality due to this preventable disease.
    • Use of Tlingit art and identity by non-Tlingit people in Sitka, Alaska

      Kreiss-Tomkins, David; Anahita, Sine; Leonard, Beth; Mehner, Da-ka-xeen (2014-05)
      Tlingit culture, as with many Indigenous cultures that exist under colonial rule, is often described as being in danger of disappearing. Despite this, the appropriation of and subsequent use of cultural practices by non-Tlingit people, and especially white people, is a continuation of the process of colonization when it is enacted in a manner that is not critical of current and historical racism, capitalist pressures and colonial violence. This project addresses the topic through recorded conversations with seven Tlingit women in Sitka, Alaska in an attempt to place Tlingit cultural production and use in the broader contexts of Indigenous cultural sovereignty and resistance to US imperial power. While various types and extremes of cultural appropriation are examined and compared to theory examining privilege and oppression, this project does not delineate general rules for appropriate and inappropriate use of culture.
    • Using histomorphometric traits of bone microarchitecture in the determination of biological affinity

      Goodman, E. Augustus (2002-08)
      This research began to establish alternate possible means for determining the biological affinity for fragmented skeletal remains between geographically disparate populations, specifically American-Caucasians and Southeast Asians. The goal is to determine the feasibility of developing a method that may be used in the field to differentiate the remains of U.S. servicemen from people of Southeast Asia. This technique is based upon differences in bone histomorphometric variables. The variables used in this research are the osteon area (On. Ar), Haversian canal area (H. Ar), and osteon population density (OPD). The conclusions reached in this research suggest that differences exist on the population level among these two populations. Histomorphometric differences exist on the population level among these two populations. Histomorphometric differences occur within mean Haversian canal area measurements and osteon population densities. However, it is not possible to discern which variables are principally accountable for the differences.
    • Using Multicultural Literature To Promote Cultural Awareness And Deepen Understanding Of Your Own: A Yup'ik Teacher-Researcher's Journey

      Sundown, Nuraraq Joanne T.; Parker-Webster, Joan; Siekmann, Sabine (2010)
      The purpose of this research is to see if using multicultural literature potentially enhances a student's own respect of his/her culture and language. Through the use of a multicultural thematic unit and multicultural literature, students potentially gain awareness and respect for diverse populations. This research hopes to see this diverse awareness and respect reflected on the students' own culture and language. The research conducted was a qualitative research using participants enrolled in the Scammon Bay School for the school year 2008-2009. The participants were nine second grade students. The research methods outlined several techniques such as interviews, observations, and student artifacts, namely the Make Connections Organizer. Data collection began December 2008 and ended May 2009. The goal is to find out how students responded and/or connected to the multicultural literature as it may relate to their own culture and language.
    • A validity study of the reasons for life scale with emerging adult college students

      Curns, Daniel B.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Swift, Joshua K.; Skewes, Monica C.; Ashdown, Brien K. (2014-12)
      This study examined the validity of the Reasons for Life Scale (RFLS) with emerging adult college students. The RFLS measures "reasons for life." It was developed for use with Alaska Native youth as a way to assess potential risk of suicide without directly questioning about suicidal ideation or history of suicide attempts. This study sought to adapt the RFLS for use with emerging adult (age 18-25) college students, and to examine its factor structure and convergent validity with this population. First, a focus group was conducted to assist in rewording two Alaska Native-specific items from the RFLS for non-Natives. Then, with the additional items from the focus group, the revised version of the RFLS (RFLS-R) and other suicide-related measures were administered to a sample of 116 emerging adult college students. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a unidimensional factor structure for the RFLS-R with this sample. The RFLS-R showed a significant and strong correlation with the Reasons for Living Inventory (RLI; r = .70), which, like the RFLS-R, measures reasons for living but makes direct reference to suicide. There also were significant moderate negative correlations with the Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire - Revised (SBQ-R; r = -.36) and the Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ; r = -.29). There was a significant moderate correlation between the RFLSR and a measure of socially desirable responding, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; r = .31), with similar correlations found between the BIDR and other suicide-related measures included in this study. The results suggest that socially desirable responding did not strongly affect participants' responding or explain the associations found among the measures. The high correlation with the RLI suggests that the RFLS-R measures a similar construct, providing evidence of convergent validity; however, the RLI was more highly correlated with measures of suicidality than the RFLS-R -- suggesting that while the RFLS was moderately associated with measures of suicidality, it is a weaker predictor of suicide risk than the RLI. Although the RFLS-R was not as highly correlated with measures of suicidality as the RLI, which directly mentions suicide, the RFLS-R is the only known suicide measure that completely avoids items and instructions that mention suicide, therefore it may be useful in contexts where directly discussing suicide is not acceptable or appropriate.
    • Variations on a theme: the Benjy section of 'The sound and the fury' in black and white, color and hypertext

      Porter, Thomas Albert (2000-05)
      The Benjy section of William Faulkner's 'The sound and the fury' presents reader's with a shattered chronology. Meaning, in the original, arises from the reader's internal creation of a linear chronology, the internal linking of discreet events into larger sequences of events. Applying color to the section along chronological lines allows for the reader to assemble a more coherent chronology of the section internally by allowing for more easily intuited links. Transforming the Benjy section into a hypertext incorporates the links between Events directly. These three variations, black and white print, color print, and hypertext all demonstrate and highlight different aspects of the section's inherent complications, as well as demonstrating that the original text's abandonment of traditional narrative time was a serious and direct challenge to the medium of print itself.
    • A vast tapestry of madness

      Burger, Hans (2011-05)
      "A Vast Tapestry of Madness" is a collection of fictional works exploring the unique conditions of life in Pacific Northwestern America of the early twenty-first century. In three stories and two novellas, it explores the consequences of economic and political upheavals, the cultural complexities of sexuality, and the filters which the media impose on thought and perception, through characters obsessed with the masks they present to the world, yet never quite able to maintain those fronts against the reader or themselves.
    • Vertebral Pathologies In Skeletons Of Alaskan Eskimos From Golovin Bay And Nunivak Island

      Legge, Scott Stephen; Irish, Joel D. (2002)
      The primary objectives of this dissertation are to analyze vertebral pathologies by comparing two Native Alaskan skeletal collections, and assessing these results in terms of the patterning of genetically controlled versus activity related lesions. Skeletal collections housed at the Smithsonian Institution were requested for repatriation by the residents of Golovin Bay and Nunivak Island in 1993 and 1994, respectively. Prior to reburial, the remains were analyzed utilizing the Smithsonian Protocol of Skeletal Analysis (Urcid and Byrd, 1995) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Vertebral anomalies and pathologies observed in this study include spondylolysis, spina bifida occulta, Schmorl's nodes, osteoarthritis, transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, vertebral fusion, and fractures. Activity related pathologies, such as Schmorl's nodes and osteoarthritis, are significantly different when the two samples are compared. No differences are observed for spina bifida occulta or transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, conditions with a genetic origin. Spondylolysis is believed to be a genetically transmitted trait (Fredrickson et al., 1984; Hensinger, 1989; Kettelkamp and Wright, 1971; Merbs, 1983; Ortner and Putschar, 1985; Stewart, 1956; Wiltse et al., 1975), but is not manifested without a triggering mechanism such as stress or fatigue. Frequencies of spondylolysis are found to be significantly higher among the individuals from Golovin Bay when compared globally to other samples, resembling frequencies observed by other researchers for skeletal collections from the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. Vertebral health among the Golovin Bay skeletal collection is characterized as poor. The high prevalence of spondylolysis, coupled with osteoarthritis and intervertebral disc herniations, speaks of clinically significant back problems in both males and females, although not necessarily from the same causes. Individuals from Nunivak Island show slightly better vertebral health than that of Golovin. They are characterized by nearly no spondylolysis and generally less osteoarthritis. Based upon these observations it would appear that the subsistence related activities of the people of Golovin Bay took a much greater toll on the back than did the activities of those living on Nunivak Island.
    • Vestige

      Fultz, Venus; Soos, Frank; Johnson, Sara; Coffman, Chris (2020-05)
      Vestige is a fantasy novel that follows Delphine Ventadour's struggle to return home. Delphine is rescued from execution by a Priest who is the lover/bodyguard of a Prince. Both men try to convince her to accept her fate to become High Priestess of an ancient religion and marry his daughter. A major theme of Vestige is truth, explored not only in Delphine's struggle to know which characters and version of events to trust, but also in the novel's text. Vestige moves between a third-person omniscient point of view (POV) and Delphine's first-person POV. The switch between POVs provides an indication of telepathy and encourages the reader to participate in exploring truth. Poems appear in the text as a form of world-building and to further the theme of truth through various translations and the rewriting of a culture's history. Two other major themes in the novel closely circling one another are home and loneliness. In Delphine's perspective, the descriptions of Aerasha uses diction such as "rotting" "cursed" alongside imagery of hostility through and I contrast this with the place Delphine considers home to explore home and loneliness. The lack of trust Delphine cements her loneliness even when she finds herself liking other characters. I also explore home not only through the contrast with Aerasha and where Delphine grew up, but also through the contrast of Delphine's found family (Jean, Kokumo, Thema) back where she was raised and her bloodline family in Aerasha.
    • A virtuous woman

      Stice, C. R. (2007-05)
      A Virtuous Woman is simultaneously the story of one woman and the story of all women. It is an attempt to discover the true nature of virtue, especially as it applies to women. The poems consider what it means to be good and what it means to be a woman, questions for which there are no clear answers. For that reason a variety of women appear in the collection, and they speak openly about a range subjects: violence, desire, anger, family history, grief, the functions and failings of their own bodies. The poems likewise employ a variety of forms. Some are short and tight, designed to surprise with their content and language. Others are long and expansive, and attempt to consider a single subject from multiple angles. Finally, there are those that lack defined form which are meant to emulate the workings of the human brain. The collection is organized into three unnamed parts that can be read as the story of one woman's journey of self discovery: a rash and tragic love affair, back story about the woman's family and childhood, and finally how she comes to terms with her body and her self.
    • Visual artists experiencing nature: examining human-environment relationships

      Wiita, Amy Lynn; Lee, Molly; Chapin, Terry; Jonaitis, Aldona; Schweitzer, Peter; McDonough, Maureen (2015-12)
      Anthropology has a long history collaborating with artists to understand their artwork. However, little research exists in the discipline that focuses on artists as a group, their creative process, and what may influence that process. In particular, how artists use nature and place has not been studied; instead, anthropology has generally considered nature and place as merely a backdrop for culture rather than for its impact on cultural expression. Identification of diverse aspects of the interdependence of ecological and social systems can inform our understanding of how people address issues of environmental concern. Managers, scientists, creative people, and others working at the nexus of disciplines, management needs, and ecological and social systems can facilitate this understanding through knowledge sharing. In my research I examined how two groups of visual artists process their interaction with the environment through what I term "experiencing with" nature and how this may influence them as artists. I employed phenomenological inquiry methods and interdisciplinary analysis to investigate the ways in which artists develop a sense of experiencing with nature and a sense of place. I developed an experiencing formula framework representing relationships between variables involved in the act of experiencing in order to analyze artists' narratives and actions as a way to examine their perceptions of their experiences with nature. The analysis made evident six primary categories of findings: artists' sense of experiencing with nature, their purpose of experiencing, their process of experiencing, their conceptual definitions of nature, their access to nature, and how they experienced nature through the artist residency programs. I propose the experiencing formula framework may be suitable for describing human environment relationships beyond the boundaries of artists and nature. The artists' experiences were individual and influenced them to varying degrees. They experienced nature with purpose and encountered both tension and inspiration while gathering resources for their work. They were not so concerned with defining nature as seeking to tell their story of place through their sense of experiencing to communicate their experiences with nature through their works. Experiencing with nature provided them with a language for expressing themselves. Nature was a place for journey and exploration for the artists.
    • Visualizing second language learning: a microgenetic case study using pantomime comics for adult ESL students

      Darrow, Daniel J. (2012-08)
      Comics are regularly used in language classrooms. Most language teachers and researchers in applied linguistics justify the use of comics through individual characteristics such as motivation, humor, and aiding comprehension. Some studies use comics in social settings, but do not consider the images as a significant factor in language development. This study investigates the effectiveness of instruction using pantomime comics on both language acquisition and language development for adult English as second language (ESL) students. A mixed methods approach is employed to investigate individual acquisition and language development during a collaborative task. Analyses of written tests, transcriptions, and audio/video data using analytical foci, deixis, and transcription conventions following conversation analysis ascertains how comic images affect individual learners and contribute to language development between learners. Results suggest that comics can benefit the language learner individually and act as a powerful, mediational tool for language development and co-construction of knowledge between peers.