• A validity study of the reasons for life scale with emerging adult college students

      Curns, Daniel B.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Swift, Joshua K.; Skewes, Monica C.; Ashdown, Brien K. (2014-12)
      This study examined the validity of the Reasons for Life Scale (RFLS) with emerging adult college students. The RFLS measures "reasons for life." It was developed for use with Alaska Native youth as a way to assess potential risk of suicide without directly questioning about suicidal ideation or history of suicide attempts. This study sought to adapt the RFLS for use with emerging adult (age 18-25) college students, and to examine its factor structure and convergent validity with this population. First, a focus group was conducted to assist in rewording two Alaska Native-specific items from the RFLS for non-Natives. Then, with the additional items from the focus group, the revised version of the RFLS (RFLS-R) and other suicide-related measures were administered to a sample of 116 emerging adult college students. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a unidimensional factor structure for the RFLS-R with this sample. The RFLS-R showed a significant and strong correlation with the Reasons for Living Inventory (RLI; r = .70), which, like the RFLS-R, measures reasons for living but makes direct reference to suicide. There also were significant moderate negative correlations with the Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire - Revised (SBQ-R; r = -.36) and the Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ; r = -.29). There was a significant moderate correlation between the RFLSR and a measure of socially desirable responding, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; r = .31), with similar correlations found between the BIDR and other suicide-related measures included in this study. The results suggest that socially desirable responding did not strongly affect participants' responding or explain the associations found among the measures. The high correlation with the RLI suggests that the RFLS-R measures a similar construct, providing evidence of convergent validity; however, the RLI was more highly correlated with measures of suicidality than the RFLS-R -- suggesting that while the RFLS was moderately associated with measures of suicidality, it is a weaker predictor of suicide risk than the RLI. Although the RFLS-R was not as highly correlated with measures of suicidality as the RLI, which directly mentions suicide, the RFLS-R is the only known suicide measure that completely avoids items and instructions that mention suicide, therefore it may be useful in contexts where directly discussing suicide is not acceptable or appropriate.
    • Variations on a theme: the Benjy section of 'The sound and the fury' in black and white, color and hypertext

      Porter, Thomas Albert (2000-05)
      The Benjy section of William Faulkner's 'The sound and the fury' presents reader's with a shattered chronology. Meaning, in the original, arises from the reader's internal creation of a linear chronology, the internal linking of discreet events into larger sequences of events. Applying color to the section along chronological lines allows for the reader to assemble a more coherent chronology of the section internally by allowing for more easily intuited links. Transforming the Benjy section into a hypertext incorporates the links between Events directly. These three variations, black and white print, color print, and hypertext all demonstrate and highlight different aspects of the section's inherent complications, as well as demonstrating that the original text's abandonment of traditional narrative time was a serious and direct challenge to the medium of print itself.
    • A vast tapestry of madness

      Burger, Hans (2011-05)
      "A Vast Tapestry of Madness" is a collection of fictional works exploring the unique conditions of life in Pacific Northwestern America of the early twenty-first century. In three stories and two novellas, it explores the consequences of economic and political upheavals, the cultural complexities of sexuality, and the filters which the media impose on thought and perception, through characters obsessed with the masks they present to the world, yet never quite able to maintain those fronts against the reader or themselves.
    • Vertebral Pathologies In Skeletons Of Alaskan Eskimos From Golovin Bay And Nunivak Island

      Legge, Scott Stephen; Irish, Joel D. (2002)
      The primary objectives of this dissertation are to analyze vertebral pathologies by comparing two Native Alaskan skeletal collections, and assessing these results in terms of the patterning of genetically controlled versus activity related lesions. Skeletal collections housed at the Smithsonian Institution were requested for repatriation by the residents of Golovin Bay and Nunivak Island in 1993 and 1994, respectively. Prior to reburial, the remains were analyzed utilizing the Smithsonian Protocol of Skeletal Analysis (Urcid and Byrd, 1995) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Vertebral anomalies and pathologies observed in this study include spondylolysis, spina bifida occulta, Schmorl's nodes, osteoarthritis, transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, vertebral fusion, and fractures. Activity related pathologies, such as Schmorl's nodes and osteoarthritis, are significantly different when the two samples are compared. No differences are observed for spina bifida occulta or transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, conditions with a genetic origin. Spondylolysis is believed to be a genetically transmitted trait (Fredrickson et al., 1984; Hensinger, 1989; Kettelkamp and Wright, 1971; Merbs, 1983; Ortner and Putschar, 1985; Stewart, 1956; Wiltse et al., 1975), but is not manifested without a triggering mechanism such as stress or fatigue. Frequencies of spondylolysis are found to be significantly higher among the individuals from Golovin Bay when compared globally to other samples, resembling frequencies observed by other researchers for skeletal collections from the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. Vertebral health among the Golovin Bay skeletal collection is characterized as poor. The high prevalence of spondylolysis, coupled with osteoarthritis and intervertebral disc herniations, speaks of clinically significant back problems in both males and females, although not necessarily from the same causes. Individuals from Nunivak Island show slightly better vertebral health than that of Golovin. They are characterized by nearly no spondylolysis and generally less osteoarthritis. Based upon these observations it would appear that the subsistence related activities of the people of Golovin Bay took a much greater toll on the back than did the activities of those living on Nunivak Island.
    • Vestige

      Fultz, Venus; Soos, Frank; Johnson, Sara; Coffman, Chris (2020-05)
      Vestige is a fantasy novel that follows Delphine Ventadour's struggle to return home. Delphine is rescued from execution by a Priest who is the lover/bodyguard of a Prince. Both men try to convince her to accept her fate to become High Priestess of an ancient religion and marry his daughter. A major theme of Vestige is truth, explored not only in Delphine's struggle to know which characters and version of events to trust, but also in the novel's text. Vestige moves between a third-person omniscient point of view (POV) and Delphine's first-person POV. The switch between POVs provides an indication of telepathy and encourages the reader to participate in exploring truth. Poems appear in the text as a form of world-building and to further the theme of truth through various translations and the rewriting of a culture's history. Two other major themes in the novel closely circling one another are home and loneliness. In Delphine's perspective, the descriptions of Aerasha uses diction such as "rotting" "cursed" alongside imagery of hostility through and I contrast this with the place Delphine considers home to explore home and loneliness. The lack of trust Delphine cements her loneliness even when she finds herself liking other characters. I also explore home not only through the contrast with Aerasha and where Delphine grew up, but also through the contrast of Delphine's found family (Jean, Kokumo, Thema) back where she was raised and her bloodline family in Aerasha.
    • A virtuous woman

      Stice, C. R. (2007-05)
      A Virtuous Woman is simultaneously the story of one woman and the story of all women. It is an attempt to discover the true nature of virtue, especially as it applies to women. The poems consider what it means to be good and what it means to be a woman, questions for which there are no clear answers. For that reason a variety of women appear in the collection, and they speak openly about a range subjects: violence, desire, anger, family history, grief, the functions and failings of their own bodies. The poems likewise employ a variety of forms. Some are short and tight, designed to surprise with their content and language. Others are long and expansive, and attempt to consider a single subject from multiple angles. Finally, there are those that lack defined form which are meant to emulate the workings of the human brain. The collection is organized into three unnamed parts that can be read as the story of one woman's journey of self discovery: a rash and tragic love affair, back story about the woman's family and childhood, and finally how she comes to terms with her body and her self.
    • Visual artists experiencing nature: examining human-environment relationships

      Wiita, Amy Lynn; Lee, Molly; Chapin, Terry; Jonaitis, Aldona; Schweitzer, Peter; McDonough, Maureen (2015-12)
      Anthropology has a long history collaborating with artists to understand their artwork. However, little research exists in the discipline that focuses on artists as a group, their creative process, and what may influence that process. In particular, how artists use nature and place has not been studied; instead, anthropology has generally considered nature and place as merely a backdrop for culture rather than for its impact on cultural expression. Identification of diverse aspects of the interdependence of ecological and social systems can inform our understanding of how people address issues of environmental concern. Managers, scientists, creative people, and others working at the nexus of disciplines, management needs, and ecological and social systems can facilitate this understanding through knowledge sharing. In my research I examined how two groups of visual artists process their interaction with the environment through what I term "experiencing with" nature and how this may influence them as artists. I employed phenomenological inquiry methods and interdisciplinary analysis to investigate the ways in which artists develop a sense of experiencing with nature and a sense of place. I developed an experiencing formula framework representing relationships between variables involved in the act of experiencing in order to analyze artists' narratives and actions as a way to examine their perceptions of their experiences with nature. The analysis made evident six primary categories of findings: artists' sense of experiencing with nature, their purpose of experiencing, their process of experiencing, their conceptual definitions of nature, their access to nature, and how they experienced nature through the artist residency programs. I propose the experiencing formula framework may be suitable for describing human environment relationships beyond the boundaries of artists and nature. The artists' experiences were individual and influenced them to varying degrees. They experienced nature with purpose and encountered both tension and inspiration while gathering resources for their work. They were not so concerned with defining nature as seeking to tell their story of place through their sense of experiencing to communicate their experiences with nature through their works. Experiencing with nature provided them with a language for expressing themselves. Nature was a place for journey and exploration for the artists.
    • Visualizing second language learning: a microgenetic case study using pantomime comics for adult ESL students

      Darrow, Daniel J. (2012-08)
      Comics are regularly used in language classrooms. Most language teachers and researchers in applied linguistics justify the use of comics through individual characteristics such as motivation, humor, and aiding comprehension. Some studies use comics in social settings, but do not consider the images as a significant factor in language development. This study investigates the effectiveness of instruction using pantomime comics on both language acquisition and language development for adult English as second language (ESL) students. A mixed methods approach is employed to investigate individual acquisition and language development during a collaborative task. Analyses of written tests, transcriptions, and audio/video data using analytical foci, deixis, and transcription conventions following conversation analysis ascertains how comic images affect individual learners and contribute to language development between learners. Results suggest that comics can benefit the language learner individually and act as a powerful, mediational tool for language development and co-construction of knowledge between peers.
    • Visualizing the present: current issues within contemporary visual Sami art - an analysis of Sami artists and their art in Oslo, Norway

      Horn-Hanssen, Birte Marie (2011-12)
      Until recently, contemporary visual Sami art has been little studied. However there is continuous activity within the Sami art world that is evident from the large amount of contemporary visual Sami art exhibits in northern Scandinavia. This paper provides an exploratory analysis of the current issues and artistic language contemporary visual Sami artists who live in Oslo, Norway are concerned with. Through contextualizing the artworks within a post-colonial framework highlighting the dominant Sami historical, political and societal narratives from the 1970s until now, and contrasting them with the official Norwegian image of Norway as a unified "oil and gas nation," a "human rights nation" or a "fishing nation" the artworks question dominant historical perspectives and become visual inquiries of the Sami's political and societal situation currently or in recent history in Norway. This study demonstrates that the current issues visualized among contemporary Sami artists in Oslo are humans' relationship to the natural environment; collective and personal identity; and political and cultural rights. The study shows that the artists use their Sami background as a specific context to visualize these generic issues. Finally, the analysis emphasizes that contemporary visual Sami artists have transcultural backgrounds and use transnational artistic language, themes, and expressions and therefore visualizes new and emerging fluid transnational Sami identities.
    • Voices from the margins: seriality and the introductory writing classroom

      Cameron, Casie E.; Stanley, Sarah; Carr, Rich; Harney, Eileen (2019-05)
      In an era of great political division and fear of the "other," how can introductory writing classes do a better job of foregrounding marginalized voices and building classroom communities that value many different life experiences over the one presented in dominant discourse? By employing select features of the serial form including: worldbuilding for community, use of devices of continuity to bridge part-whole segmentation, and cyclical communication and recursive writing practices, voices and stories from the margins can break into dominant discourse. This paper begins and ends with my own story as it is spun and woven through the chapters. Between interludes, I initiate a layered exploration defining the origins and scope of the serial form, establish terms and identify storytelling devices that serials rely on for long-term, overarching, and influential success. Turning then to iterations of the modern serial, I explore the continued development of devices of continuity (the cliffhanger and the recap), develop further ideas of cyclical communication, and clarify how the modern serial is tied firmly with capitalism. After an analysis of the evolution of the serial form and its constituent parts, I suggest ways of incorporating certain strategies and devices of the serial form into the introductory writing classroom in order to build community; establish a cyclical, serialized communication through writing and sharing our individual stories; and normalizing outside voices. The implications of this investigation are that pedagogical repurposing of select devices of the serial can support writing instructors' efforts to amplify voices and stories from the margins bringing them into dominant discourse.
    • Voices from the third shift: advocate/caregiver perceptions of effective communication in medical encounters

      Babers-M., Terri (2003-09)
      A review of related literature, together with experiential understandings of the author, indicates that interpersonal communication in medical encounters is often triadic rather than dyadic in nature. The central interest of this research is to understand what commonalities of lived experience exist for women who act as advocate/caregivers communicating in medical encounters. The distinction of this study is that the focus is on the socially constructed, lived-experiences of the advocate/caregiver and her understandings of communication effectiveness in interpersonal communication in the medical encounter, rather than on the needs, responsibilities, and competencies of either the provider or the patient. A qualitative research design was used for this study. It consisted of two concept-rich, self-contained focus group conversation/interviews with female caregivers who are employed full, time and who serve in medical encounters as advocates for the family members for whom they care in the home. From an interpretive perspective, this study investigates the socially constructed perceptions, revealed in narratives told in focus group conversations, of advocate/caregivers about their communication experiences as advocates for a patient in medical encounters and what co-constructions of communicative reality they understand to be essential to their perceptions that communication has been effective.
    • Walk Softly With Me: Adventures Of A Woman Big-Game Guide In Alaska

      Mcleod-Everette, Sharon Esther; Murray, John A. (1993)
      Walk Softly With Me: Adventures of a Woman Big-Game Guide in Alaska is a memoir blending adventure, description, dialogue, and humor. The animals and landscapes in Interior Alaska are revealed through the eyes of a woman tackling the male-dominated arena of big-game guiding. The thesis describes the author's evolution from hunting rabbits and tender moose for subsistence to leading clients in search of trophies. In an attempt to provide an objective view of the ethics of hunting and game management, the author explores the question of why we hunt and our relationship with the animals we pursue.<p> The thesis is written in informal first person point of view, beginning with early homesteading life and moving through scenes with hunters and other guides. The natural history of animals is woven into the narrative, as are the changes that the author experiences. The thesis culminates with the author's introspective look at why she guides and whether she will continue. <p>
    • Walks with her hands

      Johnston, Emily R. (2007-05)
      The poems in 'Walks with Her Hands' reflect a female persona tracing the origins of her sexuality, as one might trace her way along a dark corridor using her hands. The persona makes this journey through exploring a range of landscapes as well as relationships with both family and lovers. In Section I, the persona comes to terms with an absent father, a failed marriage, and her experience working with other abused women. In Section II, the persona steps back in time to consider how an emotionally distant mother has further estranged the persona from her sexuality. The persona begins to find herself in Section III through romantic relationships with women. The subject of this section, however, is a controlling lover who stilts the persona's coming out experience. By Section IV, the persona has come full circle, back to the abuse theme in Section I. She enters into an abusive relationship with a different woman, but through this experience, the persona overcomes past relationships and more fully understands herself. Throughout the emotional turbulence in each section, an underlying calm exists. A steady pace, like walking, allows the reader to self-reflect alongside the persona.
    • Ways To Help And Ways To Hinder: Climate, Health, And Food Security In Alaska

      Loring, Philip A.; Gerlach, Craig; Fazzino, David V. II; Murray, Maribeth S.; Chapin, F. Stuart III; Atkinson, David E. (2010)
      This dissertation explores various ecological, socioeconomic, sociopolitical, and biophysical dimensions food security in Alaska. The context for this work is dramatic climatic change and ongoing demographic, socioeconomic and cultural transitions in Alaska's rural and urban communities. The unifying focus of the papers included here are human health. I provide multiple perspectives on how human health relates to community and ecosystem health, and of the roles of managers, policy makers, and researchers can play in supporting positive health outcomes. Topics include methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of wild fish, the impacts of changes to Alaskan landscapes and seascapes on subsistence and commercial activities, and on ways to design sustainable natural resource policies and co-management regimes such that they mimic natural systems. The operating premise of this work is that sustainability is ostensibly a matter of human health; the finding is that human health can provide a powerful point of integration for social and ecological sustainability research.
    • We are almost talking

      Liebl, Jonnell; Burleson, Derick; Hill, Sean; Cooper, Burns (2015-05)
      These poems move as a conversation would: they circle, they get distracted, they get personal, they change the topic. They try to tell you something, like an accidental autobiography, or bits and pieces of distress, or the probing of emotions in a way that is more than just cathartic. There are various cycles of repetition (echoes) in these poems through obsessive content and images, repeated phrases and words, and on an individual scale in several poems. There are many references to reflections, and many poems which were built and written with reflective patterns in images or stanzaically. These poems are public on a surface level; the sonic, lyric, and imagistic qualities of the poems grab a reader's attention. The places where the poems are private lie in the metaphorical musings, where the surface of the poem is driven by language, usually in a rapid rhythm. The most honest and revealing sections come when memory collides with writing. The collection is a verbalization of traumatic experiences full of distractions, intentional changes of topic, and interruptions. In many ways, the collection drives toward the last line "I think I was supposed to tell you it's okay." The implications are several. Firstly, I really don't know what I'm supposed to be telling you. Secondly, it is not okay. Thirdly, if I should be saying it, is there a right way to say it? This collection is not committed to the idea of a right way to say a thing, and has never even heard the word resolution. Or, another way to look at it: Does a conversation ever come to a resolution? Or, what do we mean by good bye? Certainly not goodbye forever. Nor do we usually mean "See you later" to mean later that same day. In some cases, later spans years. Is a conversation ever truly "over" or are we constantly picking up the same one, reexamining, pushing it, repeating ourselves, asking the same set of questions to someone we've known for years and always getting variations of an answer which, as it turns out, has a theme. That theme is the person's life--their inner narrative, maybe the inner monologue, maybe the inner dramatic personae. This lifelong conversation is broken over days and locations, gets caught in themes, and is interrupted by other people; by your memories and thoughts and sudden connections; by the other person's memories and thoughts and sudden connections. Hence the 'almost' of We are Almost Talking. Or: "The purpose of poetry is to remind us how difficult it is to remain just one person for our house is open, there are no keys in the doors; and invisible guests come in and out at will." Czesław Miłosz's "Ars Poetica?" This manuscript resists closure but not disclosure. Or "I write for myself and strangers" as Gertrude Stein said.
    • We are the safety net: skills for suicide prevention evaluating a training to increase recognition and response to signs of suicide among at-risk peers

      Burket, Rebekah; Campbell, Kendra; Rivkin, Inna; Fitterling, James; Skewes, Monica (2017-05)
      This pilot study evaluated the effects of a brief suicide prevention training. The intervention was efficient and targeted peer intervention for those least likely to engage in proactive help seeking on their own behalf. The results were promising but mixed. The results showed that the intervention can increase suicide literacy and confidence about safety planning and help seeking on behalf of an at-risk peer. Significant differences were found in the small sample with variables most relevant to the ability to recognize peers at risk for suicide and act effectively on their behalf. Variables not directly emphasized in the training and those with high baseline scores did not show change. The brevity of the intervention lends itself to potential dissemination opportunities in educational and healthcare settings such as new student orientations, teacher in-service trainings, hospital staff training and community-based outreach.
    • "We dance because we are Iñupiaq", Iñupiaq dance in Barrow: performance and identity

      Ikuta, Hiroko (2004-05)
      Dance, like other forms of expressive culture, is an important vehicle for creating, maintaining, and expressing identity. Founded in the early 1950s, the Barrow Dancers, with a membership of more than sixty, perform on important occasions in Alaska and outside the state for Native and non-Native audiences. For the Barrow Dancers, song, gesture, and drumming are means of creating and maintaining continuity in a community undergoing rapid social change. Collectively, the troop appears to dance with greater freedom and innovation for local audiences whereas their commoditized performances for outsiders are more formal and repetitive. The Barrow Dancers also perform at Kivgiq (the Messenger Feast) which was revived in 1988 after a more than 70-year lapse. Unlike community, external, and tourist performances, Kivgiq is intended to provide the individual Iñupiat with a more solid collective identity and enhanced ethnic pride. I will argue that Iñupiaq dance, as represented by the Barrow Dancers, embodies Iñupiaq socio-economic empowerment and objectifies its relationship with large-scale American society.
    • "We did listen": Successful aging from the perspective of Alaska Native Elders in Northwest Alaska

      Boyd, Keri M.; Gifford, Valerie M.; Whipple, Jason; Lewis, Jordan; David, Eric John (EJ) (2018-05)
      Alaska's older adults are growing faster in proportion to the overall population creating concern regarding how adequate care will be provided in the coming years. Statewide, rural community members are looking for innovative, culturally appropriate ways to promote successful aging for their growing population of elders, allowing them to age in their home communities. This qualitative, phenomenological study sought to establish a deeper understanding of how Alaska Native Elders in Northwest Alaska understand and experience successful aging to inform program development and service delivery. The present project was embedded within a larger community-based participatory research study and conducted in collaboration with community members and an Alaska Native Elder Advisory Committee. The 14 community-nominated Elder participants universally identified engagement with family and community, self-awareness and care, and a sense of gratitude as essential elements of successful aging. Elders who age successfully listened to and learned from their Elders, enact their traditional values and practices, and pass their wisdom and knowledge to future generations. The results provide a culture and context specific understanding of successful aging that will help communities develop Elder-centered programs and service delivery and contributes to field of successful aging by presenting a perspective of successful aging that is not currently represented in the literature. Finally, by recording the Elders' knowledge and stories of successful aging this project also helped preserve some of the traditional cultural knowledge held by Elders in this region to be shared with generations to come.
    • "We drove the Alaska Highway": romanticizing the road north

      Larrabee, Susan K. (2006-08)
      The Alaska Highway is a road that still fascinates and draws people north more than sixty years after its initial construction. Beginning in 1942, literature concerning the road's hasty wartime construction and the men who worked on the highway led to the formation of Alaska Highway myths and legends and enticed Americans north after World War II. Many of these travelers wrote and published the accounts of their adventures, inspiring readers' to make an Alaska Highway journey as well. The objective of this work is to show how the Alaska Highway literature perpetuates the frontier romance of the northern road. This paper examines American frontierism and how the Alaska Highway was and is a perfect outlet for Americans to have a frontier experience. Also, the paper explores the various highway literature written since 1942, particularly the 'I drove the Alaska Highway' works that influenced many Americans to seek their own frontier adventures on the Alaska Highway.
    • We need to talk and the nation is watching: a textual analysis of drug interventions

      Denhalter, Bailey J.; Richey, Jean; Sager, Kevin; Taylor, Karen (2012-05)
      Addiction is something that millions of people struggle with. Many are unable to or do not realize that they have a problem. Previously kept as an embarrassing family secret, drug interventions have gone Hollywood. The entertainment industry began publicizing these once private affairs for the nation in the early 2000's; unfortunately, publicity does not ensure a problem will be addressed in the appropriate manner. Drug interventions are typically conducted in secret, away from the prying eyes of neighbors or community members. By a stroke of genius or insanity, the producers at A & E realized the American public's fascination with the dark underbelly of society and televised the taboo phenomenon of interventions. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify emergent themes through the comparison and textual analysis of multiple episodes of A & E Television Networks series Intervention, focusing on family participation in illicit drug interventions. These televised interventions offer a rare and unique glimpse into the processes and consequences for those involved. The viewer is given the opportunity to observe the effects an intervention may have on the family unit, as well as on individuals.