• Dynamic Assessment In A Yugtun Second Language Intermediate Adult Classroom

      Charles, Stephen Walkie; Siekmann, Sabine; Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Brayboy, Bryan; Allen, James (2011)
      Dynamic Assessment is a new theoretical framework for language assessment, and it is particularly relevant for underrepresented languages and learners. For this study the process is investigated in the context of Yugtun second language learners at a university level. This qualitative teacher action research was a study that involved seven students enrolled in an intermediate Yup'ik language course and that comprised three DA sessions over the course of one semester. The intention in using DA was not to help learners do better on the tests but to understand their development in the language. The hope was that DA interactions would provide me with additional insights into learner knowledge and abilities while also helping them move toward more independent control over relevant features of the language. Assessments were organized as a two-stage process involving non-dynamic administration of chapter tests (targeting learner independent performance) followed by dynamic sessions. The dynamic sessions were conducted as 15-minute one-on-one interactions between each learner and the instructor the week after the tests. In order to gauge the students' ability to self-identify and correct their mistakes, their original static test was returned to them at the outset of the meeting without any corrections or grade. Students then corrected items directly on their test and were free to interact with instructor, asking questions, requesting specific forms of help, discussing problems, and so forth. Following the tenets of interactionist DA, the mediator set out with more implicit feedback and becoming more explicit as needed. However, no specific protocol was established prior to the dynamic sessions, in order to let interactions follow whatever course was needed to meet learner needs. Unassisted performance during the non-dynamic administration therefore reveals the students' actual level of development, while the dynamic session provided more in-depth understanding into the problems behind their performance and how close they were to gaining full control of the grammatical features in question. In addition, the quality of the instructor's interactions with learners served as individualized tutoring to further support their abilities. An additional data source that further highlights the study is the dialogue journal that each participant maintained. Journal-writing was incorporated as part of the assignments in the Yugtun course. I read and responded to journal entries weekly. Students were encouraged to ask questions and share their perspective of their learning and assessment experiences and to express themselves in the language of their choice. I responded to direct and indirect questions, offered praise and support, and gave corrective language feedback only when explicitly requested to by the learners. As will be made clear, dialogue journals also helped me identify learner struggles while tracking progress over time.
    • Dynamics of the fur trade on the middle Yukon River, Alaska, 1839 to 1868

      Arndt, Katherine Louise; Black, Lydia T. (1996)
      This study examines the Russian-era fur trade of the middle course of the Yukon River, that section of the river which extends from Fort Yukon down to Nulato, Alaska. For a period of just over twenty years, 1847 to 1868, the Russian-American and Hudson's Bay companies maintained rival establishments at opposite ends of this stretch of river and vied for the trade of the Native populations living in the region between. After reviewing the events leading up to the establishment of the first European posts in the region, the study focuses on the dynamics of the competition between the rival posts and the changing nature of Native, Russian, and British participation in the middle Yukon trade. Most historical summaries of the early (pre-1867) fur trade of the Middle Yukon rely upon a small number of published sources, resulting in a truncated and rather inaccurate version of the region's fur trade history. This study seeks to overcome that problem through utilization of two major archival collections, the records of the Russian-American and Hudson's Bay companies. Together, these sources make possible an account that is more even in temporal coverage and more balanced in its treatment of Russian, British, and Native trade activities. One of the striking features of the early Yukon drainage fur trade is the pivotal role of the Native traders in determining its spatial patterning. Though regional patterns were characterized by a certain overall stability in the period 1830 through 1868, they also underwent marked change. This study examines those changes with regard to the middle Yukon drainage and discusses the influence of material and social factors upon them.
    • Eating disorder symptomatology among Alaska Native/American Indian and caucasian female university students in the extreme North

      Saunders, Miranda R. (2004-05)
      The purpose of this study was to explore differences in eating disorder symptomatology among a matched sample of 100 Alaska Native/American Indian and Caucasian female university students, using a demographic instrument and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Four (8.0%) Native participants and ten (20.0%) Caucasian participants met or exceeded the EAT-26 cutoff score indicative of clinically significant eating disorder symptomatology. There were no significant differences found among the Native and Caucasian participants with regard to eating disorder symptomatology. Rather, eating disorder symptomatology was present in both Native and Caucasian female college students at rates similar to that of previous studies.
    • The effects of volitional laughter on positive and negative affect and depressive symptoms

      Krauss, Gregory W. (1997-05)
      The effects of volitional laughter on positive affect, negative affect, and day-to-day depressive symptoms among college students were investigated utilizing a non-equivalent control group design. The laughter group (n = 23) participated in daily volitional laughter treatments (three treatments of 30 seconds each) while the control group (n = 40) received no treatment. Both groups were pre- and post-tested using the PANAS (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule) and the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies -Depression Inventory). A significant difference was found for the laughter group in negative affect. An additional post-hoc analysis, after eliminating a group of subjects from the control group, indicated a significant difference for the volitional laughter treatment group in increasing positive affect. No significant difference in depressive symptoms was detected.
    • #effyourbeautystandards: message construction in the body positivity movement on Instagram

      Bahr, Nike; May, Amy; DeCaro, Peter; Hum, Richard (2018-05)
      Beauty is a socially constructed concept that delineates specific characteristics of physical appearance which are to be perceived as aesthetically pleasing. In Western cultures, the ideal of this constructed beauty can be found to center on thinness. Reinforced through media images, the thin ideal can lead to internalization and increased body dissatisfaction in female viewers. To counteract body dissatisfaction resulting from internalization of these ideals, advocators on the social media platform Instagram can be seen to popularize the concept of body positivity. The resulting social movement aims at enabling individuals who do not fit the normed thin ideal to develop a benevolent approach to their physique. In the analysis of a sample of 280 Instagram posts concerned with the body positivity movement, a clear trend towards an adjusted construction of self-presentation was observed that clearly differs from socially enforced norms of beauty and ideal body size. When constructing posts that are concerned with body positivity, users of Instagram adjust the creation of their digital personality to fit the norms of imperfection and honesty inherent in the movement. Interviews conducted by the researcher further confirmed that the public recognizes that the messages communicated within this movement reveal personal stories and insecurities to both function as inspiration and motivation to the audience while also constituting a means of receiving validation.
    • Employee Performance Appraisal Systems: Effects On Communication Within Organizations

      Towne, Nicholas D.; Cooper, Christine (2006)
      In this study, 318 supervisors and staff members of a medium sized northwestern university responded to a questionnaire concerning their performance appraisal system and the effects it has on communication with their organization. Several key findings resulted. First, when staff members perceived their supervisors were providing valid, timely appraisals they felt there was more teamwork, information flow, and involvement in the organization than those employees that did not feel their appraisals were valid. Second, as supervisors believed performance appraisals were linked to important outcomes, staff members perceptions of appraisals rose. Finally, contrary to the literature, supervisors reported that when they conducted appraisals in a compliant manner performance appraisal discomfort decreased. This can be attributed to the lack of important outcomes being linked to the appraisals. In this university, 39% of the staff members reported they had not received their appraisals as required.
    • Empty hands

      Allsbrook-Javier, Wendy Lee (2000-05)
      At the center of 'Empty Hands' Ruth, abandoned mother of two, works through World War II as a spinner in an eastern North Carolina cloth mill. She struggles to raise two daughters, one six, and one seventeen, pregnant and unmarried. As a result of the town's ostracism, Ruth seeks new community with Sophie, another woman living outside of the town's boundaries and favor. The story emerges through multiple points of view including those of the four women and also those of Jinson Toole, a black tobacco farmer, and Harlin Lowe, a white citified outsider. Structurally, the novel is bracketed by fires that occur on the same night and serve to evoke the town's character and its relations with those on the outskirts of community. Themes are woven throughout that move each of the novel's primary characters: the absence of knowing, the presence of emptiness, the reality of empty hands.
    • Energy-efficient homes in Alaska: historical and contemporary perspectives on adaptation and innovation

      Hossain, Yasmeen; Loring, Philip; Marsik, Tom; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Gerlach, Craig (2017-08)
      Global climate change is largely caused by greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources. The building industry is responsible for over 40% of global carbon emissions. Almost half of the energy consumption in buildings is from space heating and cooling. The incorporation of energy efficiency in homes has a large potential to mitigate future climate change impacts while at the same time aiding household members to adapt to the effects of global change. This dissertation explores this potential in Alaska, where in addition to climate change impacts, residents are vulnerable to high oil prices affecting not only their energy security, but also their health, food security, and sense of place. This interdisciplinary dissertation explores the viability of Alaskan energy-efficient homes from social, economic, and environmental perspectives. In the following chapters, I first use a conceptual model of energy security that is adopted from the food security literature to determine that a significant segment of Alaska is in an energy-insecure state. This is predominantly due to expensive fuel, overreliance on fuel imports, inefficient uses of heating fuel, and a legacy of inefficient homes. Next, I provide a historical survey of Alaskan homes from pre-contact dwellings to modern era homes. Some of the pre-contact homes' energy efficiency features have been reintroduced in some modern homes, such as a small square-foot-to-occupant ratio, passive solar design, arctic entrance, round or octagonal building layout, using earth berming, sand dunes, and snow banks as natural insulation, permafrost lined cellars, subterranean building style, thermal mass, and shared stone walls between rooms. Third, I discuss interviews conducted with homeowners of highly energy-efficient homes and other stakeholders in the building-, real estate- and financing industry, which reveal several barriers to the adoption of this building style innovation. The predominant barriers are lack of information and education on this building style by homeowners, designers, and builders; economic disincentive due to a low appraisal value; and a psychological mindset resisting change. Finally, I use a case study of a highly energy-efficient home in Dillingham, Alaska to exemplify the carbon payback point. Using a life cycle assessment approach, I calculated that within 3.3 years the highly energy-efficient house has reached carbon parity when compared to a conventional counterpart house. Collectively, I build on these findings to recommend improvements in education about the benefits of energy efficiency, an overhaul of the appraisal system, and a careful consideration of the psychological aspects of embracing innovations in an effort to facilitate wider adoption of highly energy-efficient homes in Alaska.
    • The equation for love has not been written

      Bristow, Martha Eliassen (2003-05)
      In 'The Equation for Love Has Not Been Written', the speaker confronts the obvious but nonetheless startling truth of middle age: life is half over. Time to get a clipboard and go down the aisles making note of what you've got too much of, what's almost depleted, and what ran out a long time ago. Time to requisition supplies for the second half. The speaker seeks ways to assess the different types of love - and loss she has known. Because love is a force as inexplicable as poetry, a stable vantage point is difficult to find. The speaker's aesthetic distance shifts between first person and third person, and she borrows some new personas, too. Most of the speaker's explorations are expressed in free verse, but where appropriate, the poems are in form.
    • Equitable co-management on the Kuskokwim River

      McDevitt, Chris; Anahita, Sine; Ehrlander, Mary; Racina, Kris (2018-08)
      A legally empowered equitable co-management system of the Kuskokwim River salmon fishery between subsistence users and state and federal managers does not exist. Despite federal legislation Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) (Section 8) calling for a "meaningful role" for subsistence users in managing fish and game on federal lands, some rural subsistence users believe that they have yet to assume a "meaningful role" in the policy-making process. The absolute maximum capacity that subsistence users can fulfill in terms of participating in the management of the resources they depend on comes in the form of one of many advisory boards. Ultimately, management regimes and policymakers do not have to consider advisory council member recommendations, suggestions and/or group proposals. On the Kuskokwim River, the decline of king salmon, perceived mismanagement, general mistrust of management agencies, inter-river conflict, and lack of authority and accountability felt by local users, has prompted some subsistence salmon fishermen to press for a stronger role in salmon management. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Kuskokwim River Inter Tribal Fish Commission (KRITFC) have developed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) pertaining to the management of the fishery. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) has not entered into negotiations with the KRITFC and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) regarding management. This thesis explores the history of the Kuskokwim salmon fishery and options available to Alaska Native subsistence salmon users who seek an equitable role in managing the fishery.
    • Evaluating And Designing Urban Food Systems: The Role Of Local Initiatives

      Meadow, Alison Maria (2009)
      In the search for solutions to environmental and human health problems linked to the dominant global food system, too much attention has been given to the scale of food systems and too little attention given to the specific practices and outcomes of various food system components and initiatives. The community of Fairbanks, Alaska is used to examine whether local-food system initiatives can improve an urban food system's social equity and environmental sustainability. Three studies of the current food system and nascent local-food system were conducted. The first study examines community-wide physical and economic access to fresh foods in general and locally grown foods in particular using surveys of local stores and spatial analysis of food-outlet locations. The second study examines local-food production at an individual scale at a community garden. Gardeners' reasons for participation, practices used, and amount of food produced are examined. A regionally scaled study speculates about the region's ability to meet the community's food and nutritional needs using only local resources and develops a tool, the local-food system footprint, to conduct such an assessment. The studies found that locally grown foods purchased at local outlets are less physically and economically accessible than comparable imports. However, local foods tend to be grown using sustainable practices and travel shorter distances than imports. Gardeners tend to participate in the activity for personal enjoyment with food production as an added benefit. On average, gardeners in the study offset the costs of gardening with the value of food produced, if labor costs are not included. The Fairbanks region could grow enough food to feed the current population, but the diet might be limited. The local food system footprint method could be a valuable tool to help communities identify needs, resources, and food-production priorities. Vulnerabilities in the food systems of urban areas must be addressed to ensure long-term, positive environmental and human-health outcomes. If local-food system initiatives are to be used in this capacity, more rigorous evaluation of local-food system components and practices as well as tools and frameworks appropriate to the task are required.
    • EveryDay

      Carter, Jeanne Noelle; Soos, Frank; Reinhard, John; Carr, Richard (2004-05)
      Everyday is an experiment in emotional realism. Literal events are reinterpreted according to the emotions of the characters to focus on the internal state in a concrete manner. The story follows a single day of Nettie's life as she struggles to survive the challenges of being home alone with children while trying to balance the tension of her own needs as an individual. Because the emphasis is on the internal, events are small to allow for external manifestations of Nettie's creative view of herself and the world around her. A close third person narrator combines with a lyrically heavy tone to accentuate mood and tempo. Emphasis is placed on the texture of the language and the accumulation of understanding about characters and their relationships with each other. In each chapter, the narrative transitions into a first-person piece from Nettie's point of view that allows her rich internal life to be juxtaposed with the chaotic household around her.
    • The evolution of the patient woman: examining Patient Griselda as a source for William Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale

      McCarthy, Grace Annelyse; Reilly, Terry; Harney, Eileen; Carr, Rich (2015-05)
      English literary tradition contains a progression of the character Patient Griselda through narratives by Geoffrey Chaucer, John Phillips, and Thomas Dekker. Little critical attention has been paid to Patient Griselda stories, and much of the criticism contextualizes or dismisses Patient Griselda, rather than engaging in close reading of the character. Each successive storyteller produced and reproduced a slightly different Patient Griselda for their generation, however, and examining the evolution of Patient Griselda allows specific differences in the narratives to come to light. These key narrative differences suggest a strong argument for Thomas Dekker's The Pleasant Comedy of Patient Grissil as the most immediate Griselda source for Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. Scholars have largely ignored the Patient Griselda influences in The Winter's Tale. What little scholarship has been done on this topic attempts to connect Shakespeare's Griselda story elements to Chaucer. The similarities between Dekker's Griselda and Shakespeare's play, however, are too significant to ignore. Within The Winter's Tale are elements from Dekker's Griselda story which exist nowhere else in the English literary tradition of Patient Griselda. These elements include instances of the words "patient" and "patience," close parallels between characters, as well as similar narrative and plot structures
    • Exchange and interaction in western Aleutian prehistory: the efficacy of geochemical analysis of lithic raw material procurement on Amchitka Island

      Jew, Nicholas P.; Odess, Daniel; Gray, Patty; Severin, Kenneth (2007-05)
      There are two main objectives of this thesis; the first is to evaluate the efficacy of geochemical techniques for the identification of lithic raw materials used to make stone tools in the Aleutian Islands. The second objective is to use the data set acquired from the analytical methods to generate hypotheses pertaining to exchange and interaction on Amchitka Island. Looking at Amchitka's geology using x-ray fluorescence will provide the basis for examining the elemental characterization for identification of basalt materials. From this analysis, I compared the elemental concentration of basalt artifacts between six archaeological sites found on Amchitka. Through the use of principal components analysis, the basalt artifacts were chemically matched with those specimens containing similar elemental properties to determine if they derived from the same geologic sources on Amchitka. The generation of hypotheses was directed towards identifying potential basalt sources locations on Amchitka Island and archaeological sites which may be appropriate candidates for further investigations of exchange and interaction.
    • Explorations of intergenerational healing, resilience, and post-traumatic growth by helpers and healers on the Blackfeet Nation

      Hoyt, Tyler J.; Gifford, Valerie M.; Whipple, Jason; Topkok, Sean; David, Eric John (2019-12)
      This project explored intergenerational healing, resilience, and post-traumatic growth within the context of the Blackfeet Nation in Montana, the roles of helpers and healers in this setting, and community experiences of familial trauma and the idiosyncratic healing and resilience processes according to their worldview. The central goal of this study was to provide a contemporary public narrative surrounding healing and resilience as these topics related to historical and intergenerational trauma in this specific community. This exploratory study was composed of the narratives of 14 co-participants working as helpers and healers on the Blackfeet Nation. Indigenous narrative and a cosmic relationality were honored and a phenomenological method of Gadamerian hermeneutics was utilized. Seven central themes arose in the process of data analysis including Spirituality, Trauma, Healing, Resilience, Helping Role, Community, and Blackfeet Worldview. Co-participants explored contemporary experiences of collective intergenerational trauma of those they served as well as personal and familial processes of healing and resilience. The centrality of spirituality, cultural immersion and personal cultural identity were discussed as aspects of intergenerational healing and resilience. A holistic and culturally idiosyncratic understanding of personal and intergenerational healing was emphasized including spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical modes of healing. Patterns of healing experienced collectively and synergistically within family systems and between community members were also identified.
    • Exploring relationships between employees' locus of control, individualism and collectivism orientation, and upward dissent message strategies

      Ingwar, Nadia Ingerslew; Sager, Kevin L.; Richey, Jean A.; DeCaro, Peter A. (2014-05)
      This thesis investigated the relationships among individualism and collectivism, locus of control, and upward dissent. Students at a northwestern university were asked to complete a survey that measured the participants' levels of individualism and collectivism, locus of control orientation, and self-reported use of upward dissent message strategies. As predicted, internal locus of control and individualism were significant positive predictors of upward dissent. Unexpectedly, however, external locus of control and collectivism were also significant positive predictors of upward dissent. The research questions concerned the ability to predict the use of particular upward dissent message strategies. Use of each of the four strategies could be predicted from employees' locus of control and individualism and collectivism orientation.
    • Exploring The Challenges Of School Counseling: Voices From Rural Alaska

      Cook, Christine Rojas; Barnhardt, Raymond (2011)
      School counselors in rural locations deal with many of the same issues and concerns of those in most urban areas, but have several additional challenges due to the geographic and demographic characteristics of their populations. The research in this dissertation investigated the specific challenges experienced by school counselors in the state of Alaska. All school counselors working in a rural public school were surveyed to determine what challenges they experienced, what resources they utilize, what additional resources they would like, and to discuss any information they believed would be helpful for a counselor about to enter the rural school setting. From the original 93 survey responses, 24 counselors were interviewed to provide further depth to the investigation. Analysis revealed similar challenges as discussed previously in the literature regarding rural counselor practice, but highlighted crisis situations, isolation variables, limited community resources, multiple roles, rural culture issues, and cultural issues. Alaska school counselors currently utilize a variety of resources to help them address the concerns in their communities. They did not request anything different than the resources they currently access, but rather wanted more of those resources. Recommendations are made for school counselors, school districts, state organizations, and counselor education training institutes.
    • Exploring the impact of culture in strengthening the stewardship of compact funds in the Federated States of Micronesia: a convergent parallel mixed methods design

      Asuncion-Nace, Zenaida; Duke, Rob; Walter, Ansito; Skya, Walter; Ho, Kevin; Perez, Karri (2019-08)
      As the U.S. attempts to create conditions for a self-sufficient Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), significant uncertainty remains. Based on the agreement between the U.S. and the FSM under the Compact of Free Association Act (COFA) of 1985, Federal funds are transferred to FSM to sustain its economy in return for the free use of FSM's land, water and air for U.S. military purposes. As originally envisioned, this transfer would be complete by 2023, but with only a few years remaining, this goal seems unattainable. Neither the U.S. government nor the FSM seem willing to make concessions. With the U.S. demanding better oversight and accountable accounting practices, and the U.S. Financial Stability Board (FSB) asserting culturally informed management prerogative, both entities' interests are imperiled, especially as China seems to be waiting in anticipation to pick up the pieces should an impasse be reached. This mixed-methods research (surveys and interviews) was conducted utilizing the employees of two FSM national government departments: The National Department of Education and National Department of Public Health and Human Services. These two FSM departments receive the largest share of federal assistance. This research paper attempts to generate insights on the impact of culture in strengthening the accountability of Compact funds in the FSM. The study explores the social stratification and hierarchy in Micronesian societies in terms of stewardship competencies to fulfill the federal administrative requirements in the management of federal funds. What works for the mainland U.S. may not work worldwide. The effect and import of cultural influences cannot be understated, particularly in relationships amongst cultures that vary widely, as do those of the U.S. and FSM. It's important to understand the nuances of how the notion of stewardship is perceived and exercised in other countries, especially when the interests of two nations converge, while their cultures do not. This study represents the present environment in FSM governance. Understanding culture and its influences is an essential step in considering the real effect on a leadership style, transcending to ethics and stewardship. A leadership style can have a different effect or impact in other societies relative to the cultural environment in which it is adopted. This research finds support for the notion that leadership styles cannot be embraced and applied in similar manner throughout the various cultures or nations. There are a wide variety of different leadership styles across the globe; each individual region possesses its own cultural idiosyncrasies, and naturally these are reflected in the way in which people lead. This dissertation concludes with eight specific recommendations for implementing structural and policy reforms which will strengthen the relationship between the U.S. and FSM and better prepare FSM to be self-sufficient.
    • Exploring the relationship between diet and osteoporosis in medieval Portugal using stable isotope analysis

      Luxton, Sharla Ann; Clark, Jamie; Halffman, Carrin; Hemphill, Brian (2015-08)
      This project investigates the relationship between health and diet in medieval Portugal by combining data on the occurrence of osteoporosis with information on past diet derived from stable isotope ratios. The aim of this project is to identify whether different sources of protein influenced the prevalence of osteoporosis in three populations. Individuals from three different regions of Portugal were previously evaluated for bone mineral density at the University of Coimbra, Portugal, and bone samples from 91 of these individuals underwent stable isotope analysis at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Collagen suitable for isotopic analysis was extracted from all individuals and indicated a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and carbon and nitrogen isotope values for females at one site and a positive correlation for males at another site. These results, combined with the lack of a clear relationship between BMD and nitrogen isotope values for the other subgroups, suggest a complicated relationship between dietary protein source and the occurrence of osteoporosis. While sample sizes are small, the data indicate that future analysis is warranted, particularly considering the high incidence of osteoporosis and the economic and individual strain of the disease.
    • Extractive leviathan: the role of the government in the relationships between oil and gas industries and indigenous communities in the Arctic regions of Canada, United States and Russia

      Sidorova, Evgeniia; Сидорова, Евгения; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren; Meek, Chanda L.; Rosenberg, Jonathan (2015-08)
      This comparative research analyzes the extent to which the governments of Canada, the United States and Russia affect the relationships between the petroleum extractive industries and Indigenous peoples of the Arctic in order to protect Indigenous peoples from the negative impacts of oil and gas extraction. The hypothesis of this study is that the government can protect Indigenous communities only by providing for their participation in decision-making processes about oil and gas development. The comparative analysis showed that in comparison with Canada and the United States, Russia has the worst legal protection of Indigenous peoples in petroleum-extractive regions. The recognition of Aboriginal title by Canada and the U.S. allowed Indigenous communities the best opportunities to be involved in oil and gas development, whereas Russia failed to grant this recognition. Therefore, the recognition of land claims by the government is the best way to protect traditional lands and lifestyles of Indigenous peoples from the negative externalities of petroleum extraction.