• The geography of isolation: nineteenth century science, exploration and the conception of the Aleutian Islands

      Watson, Annette (2000-12)
      The purpose of this thesis is threefold: first, to follow the early history of Alaska from the point of view of the Aleutian Islands; second, to follow how the history of science intersects with this history. Third, to show how nineteenth century science and scientists conceived of the Aleutians, and how their conceptions translated to public perceptions of landscape. The Aleutian Islands went from being the center of the newly-purchased Alaska in 1867--to an isolated chain of islands stretching beyond the margins of the map. Tracing the progression of this isolation demonstrates how landscape--an amalgamation of physical experience and myth--is the product of one's identity.
    • Germany's interests in the Arctic, as exemplifeid by its Arctic Council engagement

      Schley, Kerstin A.; Ehrlander, Mary; Boylan, Brandon; Hirsch, Alexander (2019-05)
      This thesis is a qualitative research exercise, which tests the explanatory value of the international relations theory of neoliberal institutionalism in explaining Germany's engagement in the Arctic and in the Arctic Council. The research question further attempts to clarify Germany's economic and environmental interests pursued through its engagement with the AC. This thesis analyzes Germany's engagement in the Arctic from a historical point of view up to Germany's contemporary interests. Germany's first Arctic engagement started with the period of whaling, continued through the age of polar heroes, up to the weather war of World War II. After the two World Wars, Germany struggled to restart its Arctic engagement, but nowadays enjoys a high reputation as an Arctic player. This is due to the well-known German polar research institute, the Alfred Wegener Institut Helholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, but also due to Germany's engagement in the Arctic Council. As a result of Germany's long history of polar, especially Arctic endeavors, the country became an Observer in the Arctic Council at its founding. As global warming has caused significant melting in the Arctic, Germany's interest has shifted from environmental concerns in the region to a dual emphasis of protecting the environment while pursuing economic opportunities. Today Germany pursues several interests in the Arctic, including economic, political, and environmental interests. Neoliberal institutionalism argues that cooperation can emerge through mutual trust and the building of norms, regimes and institutions. Realism on the other hand emphasizes security competition among great powers within anarchy of the international system, with the main aim to survive. The results of the analysis suggest that the theory of neoliberal institutionalism has better explanatory power for interpreting Germany's motivations for engaging in the Arctic Council than the theory of realism.
    • A giant of its kind

      Hinrichs, Christie A.; Farmer, Daryl; Heyne, Eric; Brightwell, Gerri (2013-05)
    • Grandparents, great parents: negotiating the role transition to custodial grandparent

      Burnett, Leanne Alaine (2012-05)
      An ever increasing number of grandparents in the United States are taking on the responsibility for providing primary care for their grandchildren. Focus group interviews conducted in two urban communities in Alaska were the basis of this study examining how grandparents negotiate the role transition as they become custodial grandparents. Role theory was used to inform the analysis of the data. The two major themes which emerged suggested these transitions were effected by role conflict and role timing. The grandparents participating in the study indicated that involvement in peer support groups helped them to more successfully negotiate this difficult role transition.
    • A grounded theory analysis of conversations with eleven Alaska Native Vietnam veterans

      Beals, Paul Henderson; Mohatt, Gerald; Smith, David; Berman, Gerald (2000-05)
      This thesis studies Alaska Native Vietnam veterans using archival data and grounded theory methods of qualitative analysis. It discusses the impact of cultural and individual beliefs, expectations and experiences on Alaska Native veterans during and since the Vietnam War. Theories developed from and grounded in the narratives of the 11 participants posit that reconciliation with community is a critical factor in healing from the traumas of war.
    • Grownups: a novel

      Humphrey, Justus Rhodes (2007-12)
      This thesis is a novel. The story centers on three artistic best friends as they shift from carefree college students into stressed adults. Scott, a musician, is reluctantly groomed to take over his parents' business when they retire. Theo, a painter, plans to use his creativity as a graphic designer only to wind up filing paperwork. And Oscar, a writer, discovers that both graduate school and teaching fall short of his dreams. Living far from each other for the first time, they must face life's challenges-including marriage, heartbreak, and disappointment-without one another's support close at hand. Oscar turns these events into fiction and struggles with his emotional response to the process. But he keeps writing, wishing it could change past mistakes
    • Haa léelk'w hás ji.eetí, our grandparents' art: a study of master Tlingit artists, 1750-1989

      Jones, Zachary R.; Heaton, John; Jonaitis, Aldona; Schneider, William; Walz, Robin (2018-12)
      This dissertation examines the lives and creations of twenty-three master Tlingit artists that practiced in Southeast Alaska between 1750 and 1989. Biographical examination of master Tlingit artists showcases how artists created sacred art objects, known as at.óow, which play a central role in the social and spiritual life of the Tlingit people. Historic Tlingit artists came from the aanyádi, the aristocratic class, and were tasked with the responsibility of not only creating sacred art, but also serving as community leaders and exemplifying Tlingit values throughout their lives. The study of Tlingit artists and their creations also sheds light on objects omitted by previous scholars, highlights the overlooked work of female artists, and challenges outdated approaches to the study of Northwest Coast Indian art.
    • Healing from within: the wellness team concept

      Burnham, Violet (2006-08)
      This project was created to chronicle one community's effort to stem the tide of alcohol abuse and address issues of trauma that had plagued the community for many years despite services provided by the State. It is the story of a group of people who came together despite differences to form a team of service providers that would begin a journey of healing for themselves and the community. The results are coming slowly, but indicate less drinking, less tolerance for any form of abuse, and a healthier lifestyle. Although the journey has not ended, there are many more indicators showing that the community is taking responsibility for their problems. The team members as well choose a healthier lifestyle maintaining sobriety, eating healthier, and exercising regularly.
    • Health And Empires: Implications For Political Development On The Health Of The Inhabitants Of Great Moravia (9Th--10Th Centuries)

      Ellicott, Megan Michelle (2012)
      The early medieval period was a time of great change in Europe. Politically thee empires ruled Europe: Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. During this time early cities began to form in Europe, and new patterns of settlement developed. Great Moravia was a state level society in the southeastern region of the Czech Republic during the late 9th and early 10th centuries. This thesis explores the impact of urban development on the health of its inhabitants. In order to do this, rural (Josefov and Lahovice) and urban (Mikulcice-Kostelisko) skeletal populations were examined for cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH). Cribra orbitalia had a consistently low frequency in all populations. This suggests that anemia (often due to chronic parasitic infection and subsequent malnutrition) was present, but at a low level. LEH frequency was significantly higher, with more age of occurrence variation in the urban population. The results of this thesis suggest that despite the advantages of greater wealth and access to greater amount of food (and food varieties) urban populations were under more stress than rural populations. These results have implications about the impact of urban development and migration in modern developing nations.
    • Health in predynastic Egypt: using skeletal stress indicators to assess the overall health of a working class population in hierakonpolis

      Matovich, Jeanette; Irish, Joel D.; Odess, Daniel P.; Murray, Maribeth S.; Gerlach, S. Craig (2002-05)
      The present project attempts to assess the overall health of a Predynastic Egyptian working class population, based on skeletal stress indicators. This study contributes to a growing knowledge base regarding the biological anthropology of Predynastic Egyptians. Information generated from this research may help address larger questions, such as: how do Predynastic Egyptian mortality profiles compare with each other, and with other groups from around the world? Fifty-three skeletons were examined from Hierakonpolis' HK43 cemetery. Data were collected according to conventional osteological methods. Most skeletal stress indicators observed were mild. Evidence of degenerative disease in adults reflected lifetimes of hard, physical labor. The presence of dental caries, calculus deposits and hemopoietic lesions suggested a grain-dependant diet. Interestingly, the majority of these people appeared to be young or middle-aged adults in good health. Whatever caused their deaths is not immediately apparent from their skeletal remains.
    • Hearing colors

      Blackwood, Adrianne; Brightwell, Gerri; Farmer, Daryl; Reilly, Terry (2020-05)
      This thesis project is the first part of a historical fiction novel. It takes place in the Outer Banks of North Carolina in 1910 and imagines the perspective of a sound-color synesthete named Bert Beasley, who witnessed the Wright brothers complete the first engine-powered flight. Bert wants to leave his home to pursue aviation but is unable to do so because he is needed to help run his family's failing general store. When Elisabeth Lavoie, a French musician, moves to town and buys a dilapidated house, Bert believes he'll be able to solve his problems by earning extra money as her repairman. However, her voice is purple--the only color he's never heard before--and her music changes colors, which shouldn't be possible. As he grows closer to Elisabeth, Bert becomes less sure that he wants to leave, but his decision is complicated once more when he learns that the Wright brothers have opened a flying school. The novel switches between the third-person points of view of Bert and Elisabeth. The dual perspectives provide insight into their individual inner conflicts--Bert longs to leave a home he loves as Elisabeth struggles to find a home she has lost--and demonstrates how their respective relationships with sound have shaped them into two people who have the potential to be a home for each other. The descriptions of synesthesia in this project present a creative interpretation of how color-sound combinations manifest themselves in synesthetes, both visually/audibly and emotionally. I conducted research to accurately portray the visual/auditory experiences of synesthesia, but I also took some artistic license in that the story implies that Bert's emotions, or the emotions of the musician playing the music he hears, has an effect on the color of the sound. This is not based on the known science of synesthesia but allowed for a deeper exploration of the characters' relationship and the question of home.
    • Highland Hunters: Prehistoric Resource Use In The Yukon-Tanana Uplands

      Smith, Gerad M.; Potter, Ben (2012)
      The purpose of this study was to conduct a first approximation of explorations and excavations throughout the White Mountain and Steese Conservation areas during the summer field seasons of 2010 and 2011 in the Yukon Tanana Uplands. An analysis of the lithic artifacts from five site excavations (the Big Bend, Bachelor Creek, Bear Creek, US Creek and Cripple Creek) was then undertaken. These assemblages were then examined and modeled using risk-assessments, optimal resource use, and behavior processes in order to explore the interdependence of environment, ecology, and material culture that drove prehistoric subsistence cycles in this area. This archaeological research will supplement ethnographies to indicate patterns of change in landscape value, trade networks, and local economic strategies.
    • Historical archaeology of Alaskan placer gold mining settlements: Evaluating process-pattern relationships

      Mills, Robin Owen (1998)
      The objective of this research is to explicate appropriate methods for investigating relationships between past historical processes and variables, and resulting contemporary patterns in archaeological and historical data sets. Turn-of-the-twentieth century placer gold mining in interior Alaska is used as a case study to evaluate these relationships. By linking observable patterns in historical data sets with the variables and processes that in part create and shape them, a more-complete, context-specific explanation of past events and actions emerges when the data are evaluated in specific historical settings. The methodological approach used here is to just formulate explicit "expectations," and then to evaluate them against independent Alaskan historical and archaeological data sets. The expectations derive from independent comparative historical geographical, and archaeological research. One series of nine expectations evaluates attributes of artifacts relating to site and feature abandonment processes relating to curation and scavenging, including specific traits of artifacts in curated and scavenged deposits; the changing effects of continued curation and scavenging on an artifactual assemblage through time; and spatial characteristics of artifacts within curated and scavenged foundations. Four types of data are used evaluate the expectations, including the size of artifacts, whether they are still functional or usable, their spatial provenience within excavated structures, and a feature's data range. Seven of these expectations are corroborated, one is falsified, and one requires further data for a full evaluation. A second series of seven expectations examines aspects of placer gold mining settlement and transportation systems, including the core-peripheral relationship between Alaska and the United States; the nature of expansion of gold mining settlements into new areas; locational, demographic, and physical layout characteristics of settlement systems; the mining settlement hierarchy and its changing components through time; and characteristics of the supporting transportation supply system. These expectations, while also corroborated by the Alaskan data, lend themselves more to historical context-specific understanding and interpretation, as opposed to the strict corroboration-falsification dichotomy of the abandonment analyses.
    • Historical trauma and approaches to healing among Choctaw American Indians

      Woods, Ashley; Rivkin, Inna; Gifford, Valerie; Lardon, Ce'cile; David, E.J.R. (2018-08)
      Native Americans have experienced a number of historically traumatic events that are believed to contribute to the development of behavioral health symptoms that negatively affect Native American quality of life across generations. Despite the trajectory of trauma experienced in some Native American communities, Native Americans exhibit extraordinary resilience and cultural strengths. Stress and coping models have been developed to explain how historical trauma is related to current health disparities among Native Americans and how enculturation may serve as a buffer against the negative effects of historical trauma. However, these models apply meta-theories to understanding historical trauma rather than tribally specific conceptualizations of historical trauma and historical trauma responses. Therefore, it is important to understand tribally specific manifestations of historical trauma so that intervention and prevention efforts are culturally appropriate. Choctaws are one of the largest Native American groups in the United States. They have experienced a history of forced removal and relocation from traditional homelands, yet the Choctaw Nation itself exhibits continuous growth and success as a tribe. This study used a qualitative, phenomenological, and community based participatory research (CBPR) approach to explore how Oklahoma Choctaw American Indians experience historical trauma and define well-being and enculturation. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with Choctaw American Indians in three different age categories 18-29; 30-49; and 50 and over to examine generational differences in how concepts of historical trauma, enculturation, and well-being are conceptualized. The theoretical construct of historical trauma was informed by themes of assimilation and colonization; resurgence of the Choctaw identity; awareness of historical losses and affective responses; forms of coping; current barriers to accessing Choctaw Nation services; and varying degrees of cultural involvement among tribal members. The theoretical construct of well-being was described in terms of physical health, faith, family, and culture. The theoretical construct of enculturation included pride in heritage, having Choctaw blood, being involved, and social connectedness. Choctaw participants reported social problems related to substance abuse and a sense of diminishing social connectedness to other tribal members. Recommendations on how to upscale behavioral health treatment and strengthen community ties are described. Adapted measures of historical trauma and enculturation for use in future research endeavors with Oklahoma Choctaw American Indians are also provided.
    • History of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest

      Fukunaga, Tatsuya (2004-05)
      From the mid 1860s to the eve of World War II, Asian workers, predominantly Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, constituted a significant part of the labor force in the Pacific Northwest cannery industry. In contrast to the prevalent notion of Asian workers' exploitation, their struggles in the industry have long been marginalized. Asian workers endured cruel working conditions and attempted to find ways to achieve their individual ambitions. Despite the hardships they faced in the course of their participation in West Coast capitalism, the Asian workers in the Pacific Northwest began adapting to the new environment, and their social status grew at the same time. Development of the labor contract system and its conflict with unionization were Asian workers' ways to sustain their places in the labor market. Outside of the cannery industry, the demographical dynamism of Asian immigrants also complexly influenced those in the industry. As Asian immigrants developed their own communities, they significantly shaped their distinctive identities in the U.S. and created ethnic solidarity, which led to ethnic labor competition in the cannery industry. Hence, history of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest demonstrated ways of Asian workers' responses toward the demands of capitalism on the West Coast.
    • The history of this house

      Holzhauser, Christina L. (2007-05)
      'The History of this House' is a collection of personal essays focusing on one woman's attempt to explain her profound need to preserve and understand cultural and family history. The collection explores this theme as the narrator excavates a Native American burial mound and postulates that her chosen profession makes symbolic headstones in an endeavor to celebrate and immortalize the past. Her need to identify with the past is also apparent in other essays as she assists with an autopsy, investigates her sexuality through religion, searches for her biological mother, and comes to terms with her position as a female athlete in a family of male baseball players. She realizes at a family auction that though her family tries to keep the past alive by buying and selling tangible goods; she can never live in the past, but can only preserve and learn from it.
    • Hitchhiking up Mount McKinley

      Benowitz, Jeff Apple (2004-05)
    • Holding

      Devers, Marie (2004-05)
      'Holding' is the first-person account of a young woman coming to terms with her father's illness, her cousin's death, and her family's dysfunction. The novel explores the developing need of the narrator to understand a sexual relationship she shared with her cousin. At the beginning of the novel, the narrator romanticizes this relationship, but as she confronts layers of disillusionment-denial, self-destruction, codependence-her perception transforms into a more realistic view of the past. The narrator uses pop songs as a metaphor for her idealized definition of love. To her, love is an absolute, a perfect bond. Over the course of the novel, she comes to a more mature definition of love. In the end accepting and admitting that what she perceived as love was actually abuse doesn't erase her problems, but proves the first step in the process of recovery.
    • Holocene volcanism and human occupation in the middle Susitna River Valley, Alaska

      Mulliken, Katherine M.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Potter, Ben A.; Clark, Jamie L.; Wallace, Kristi L. (2016-05)
      Archaeological and stratigraphic evidence from the middle Susitna River Valley, Alaska, reveals a rich record of human occupation during the Holocene, punctuated by volcanic ash deposits locally referred to as the Devil, Watana, and Oshetna tephras. Deposition of tephra in the middle Susitna River Valley had the potential to affect subsistence resources and lifeways of prehistoric peoples; however, ambiguities remain in dating both tephra deposits and cultural occupations, and in characterization of the tephra deposits. In addition, there has been little formal consideration of how deposition of tephra may have affected prehistoric hunter-gatherers using the middle Susitna River Valley (mSRV) during the Holocene and this research seeks to fill that gap. Electron probe microanalysis is used to geochemically characterize the middle Susitna River Valley tephra, enabling correlation to reference tephra from Hayes Volcano and aiding in determining the number of volcanic events present in the stratigraphic record of the middle Susitna River Valley. Assimilation of existing radiocarbon dates from multiple sources with new AMS radiocarbon dates produced as part of this study allows for estimating the timing of tephra deposition and evaluating the timing of cultural occupation of the area with greater precision. Characteristics of archaeological assemblages bounded by tephra deposits are also evaluated relative to existing frameworks for understanding prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior in interior Alaska. Interpretation is aided by consideration of other tephra depositional events and their environmental and ecological effects. Results suggest that at least four tephra depositional events took place in the middle Susitna River Valley. The Devil tephra was deposited between 1625-1825 cal yr B.P. (calibrated years before present). The Watana tephras, which correlate to the Hayes Volcano tephra set H, were deposited between 3360-4400 cal yr B.P., with the upper and lower portions of this tephra deposited either in rapid succession or separated in time by only a few hundred years. The Oshetna tephra was deposited between 6570-7970 cal yr B.P. While the Devil, upper and lower Watana tephras represent discrete volcanic events, the Oshetna tephra has multiple glass compositions and therefore it is unclear whether this tephra represents an eruption with a heterogeneous composition or multiple discrete tephrafalls compounded in the mSRV. Potential hiatuses in cultural occupation of the mSRV occur following deposition of these tephras, but characteristics of archaeological assemblages in the mSRV are in accordance with general transitions in central interior Alaskan archaeology. Information from other volcanic events suggests that tephra deposition in the middle Susitna River Valley would have affected resource procurement in the area and therefore likely contributed to cultural hiatuses, especially following deposition of the Watana tephra. This project has clarified the Holocene stratigraphic sequence of the middle Susitna River valley, Alaska, and provided a more complete context for interpretation of the archaeological record.
    • Home Schooling In Alaska: Extreme Experiments In Home Education

      Hanson, Terje Ann (2000)
      This study explores the history of home schooling in Alaska. The 49<super> th</super> state offers an unusual degree of freedom from regulation that allows diverse and innovative experiments in home education to flourish. Currently, Alaskan home schoolers enjoy more freedom to practice their craft than in any other state of the United States. <p> Alaska has never had enough money to deliver quality education to its children. Trying to establish an education system, to serve a small population scattered over more than half-a-million square miles, required the development of innovative methods: one of these was home schooling. Home schooling provides a low cost answer to educate Alaska's children, and became an accepted institution in Alaskan education. Today home schooling continues to deliver lower cost education to both the remote and urban student, in the North, but also offers myriad options for parents who demand more and greater flexibility in educating their children. <p>