• Alaska sourdough: bread, beards and yeast

      Dowds, Susannah T.; Cole, Terrence; Ehrlander, Mary; Lee, Molly (2017-08)
      Sourdough is a fermented mixture of flour and water used around the world to leaven dough. In this doughy world wide web of sourdough, one thread leads to Alaska and the Yukon Territory. Commonly associated with the gold rush era, sourdough is known both as a pioneer food and as a title for a long-time resident. Less well known is the live culture of microbes, yeasts and bacteria that were responsible for creating the ferment for nutritious bread, pancakes, and biscuits on the trail. Through the lens of sourdough, this study investigates the intersection of microbes and human culture: how microbes contribute taste and texture to baked goods; why sourdough, made from imported ingredients, became a traditional food in the North; and how "Sourdough" grew to signify an experienced northerner. A review of research about sourdough microflora, coupled with excerpts from archival sources, illuminates how human and microbial cultures intertwined to make sourdough an everyday food in isolated communities and mining camps. Mastery of sourdough starter in primitive kitchens with fluctuating temperatures became a mark of accomplishment. Meanwhile, as transient fortune seekers ushered in the gold rush era, experienced Sourdoughs continued to take pride in a common identity based on shared experiences unique to northern living.
    • Alaska's First Wolf Controversy: Predator And Prey In Mount McKinley National Park, 1930-1953.

      Rawson, Timothy Mark; Cole, Terrence; Read, Colin; Erickson, Karen (1994)
      The decision in the 1930s by the National Park Service to quit eliminating predatory animals in parks arose from evolving attitudes among scientists toward predation, but had little public support. Of the various parks, only Mount McKinley National Park still held wolves, and the National Park Service received considerable opposition to wolf protection from the eastern Camp Fire Club of America and from Alaskans. The former desired permanent protection from wolves for the park's Dall sheep, while the latter could not understand protecting wolves when, throughout Alaska, efforts were made to minimize wolves. Using material from the National Archives and Alaskan sources, this historical study examines the role of public opinion as the Park Service attempted to respond to its critics and still adhere to its protective faunal management philosophy, in what was the nation's first argument over offering sanctuary to our most charismatic predator. <p>
    • Alcohol-affected offenders: Alaska's crime conundrum

      Harwood, Maureen Frances (2002-05)
      Offenders with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) are being inadequately identified and addressed in Alaska's criminal justice system. Without recognition of the problems associated with FAS (e.g., slow cognitive pacing, language impairments, impaired ability to deal with abstract concepts such as time) the alcohol-affected individual's ability to understand and effectively participate in the criminal justice process is compromised. This thesis examines the challenges that people with FAS and other prenatal alcohol exposure conditions present for Alaska's criminal justice system. Ways of protecting people prenatally exposed to alcohol against poor life outcomes, like trouble with the law are explained. Additionally, I present effective steps that criminal justice system entities utilize to assist people with disabilities who commit crimes and discuss their adaptation to the problems of people with FAS.
    • Alessandro Malaspina and the voyage of disenchantment

      Letzring, Michael James (2012-05)
      Between 1775 and 1792 the shores of what is now Alaska and British Columbia were opened to European reconnaissance by a series of mostly Spanish expeditions. The most ambitious and prestigious of the Spanish expeditions was also one of the last; the Spanish hydrographic expedition of 1789-1794 --the Viaje Politico-Cientifico Alrededor del Mundo, created and commanded by Alessandro Malaspina. The Malaspina expedition was a technical tour-de-force that was meant both materially and symbolically to assert Spain's program of reform and modernization under the Bourbon monarchs, but Malaspina's liberal Enlightenment philosophy would in the end isolate him from the absolutist monarchy he served, dooming the results of the expedition to more than a century of obscurity and Malaspina to imprisonment and banishment. This thesis examines how European state cartography contributed to a competition for imperial space on the Northwest Coast and particularly how that space was shaped through the efforts of the Malaspina Expedition. A close examination of the Malaspina expedition and Malaspina's personal narrative opens a window on the distinctive Spanish imperialism of the late 18th century, and how the cartography of the region contributed to the territorial delineation of modern Alaska and British Columbia.
    • Aleut Settlement Patterns In The Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

      Corbett, Debra Garland (1991)
      This thesis presents a settlement pattern analysis of prehistoric midden sites in the Near Islands, Alaska. It represents the only such study to date, which focuses on an entire island group inhabited by a distinct social/political entity. This is also one of the few settlement pattern studies to address maritime hunting-fishing people. Aerial photography was an important part of the analysis. Coupled with other site inventories, photographs were used to "survey" the Near Islands. A total of 106 sites, including 91 middens were located, with the middens forming the basis of the analysis. Site sizes and locations were correlated with a range of environmental and social factors, and functions and seasons of use proposed for about half the sites analyzed. Further elaboration of resource distributions could extend these predictions to more sites. <p>
    • Alutiiq ethnicity

      Partnow, Patricia Hartley; Black, Lydia T.; Dauenhauer, Richard; Morrow, Phyllis; Schneider, William S.; Ellanna, Linda J.; Leer, Jeff; Stolzberg, Richard J. (1993)
      In this project I consider how Alaska Peninsula Alutiiqs (Pacific Eskimos) maintain and express a sense of continuity with their past and how in today's world they use their understanding of the past to renegotiate and reenact their ethnic identity. I do so through an ethnohistorical reconstruction of Alutiiq ethnic identity from precontact days to the present and through a consideration of the role oral tradition and community ritual play in the constant reformulation of Alutiiq identity. I discuss the symbols considered most diagnostically Alutiiq (i.e., those which make up the Alutiiq identity configuration) and explore their meanings as Alutiiqs utilize and manipulate them in a variety of settings. Originally based on a common language, the Alutiiq identity developed into a full-blown ethnicity over a period of 200 years of contact with non-indigenous peoples, first the Russians and then the Americans. As Alutiiq identity became more uniform and pervasive throughout the Alaska Peninsula, its uniformity was balanced by a cultural tendency toward emphasis on local society. Today's Alutiiq identity configuration is characterized by ties to the land, a belief in a shared history with other Alutiiqs, acknowledgement of Alutiiq as the ancestral language, adherence to some level of subsistence lifestyle, and a kinship link to Alutiiqs of the past. For this study I undertook both archival research and fieldwork, the latter focusing on folklore transmission and performance (particularly ethnohistorical narratives and ritual performances). I discuss how verbal and dramatic folklore performances, considered in historic, social, and cultural context, serve as a vehicle for defining, reconceptualizing, and reinforcing ethnicity. I employ a situational (in contrast to a group-with-boundaries) model of ethnicity in conjunction with ethnohistoric and folklore analysis to illuminate the processes which have led to today's Alutiiq identity configuration. I further consider the ramifications the Alutiiq case has for general ethnicity theory.
    • An ethnographic study of conflict in an Alaskan early college charter school

      Chittick, Jeffrey Thomas; DeCaro, Peter A.; Sager, Kevin L.; Jarrett, Brian N. (2014-05)
      This study is an analytic ethnography investigating the culture of conflict in an Alaskan early college charter school. Interviews conducted with 12 staff members allow for discovery of the conflict and the culture surrounding it within the Effie Kokrine Early College Carter School. Results include a determination that the school sequesters conflict, instead of addressing the underlying problems which create it. The underlying problems creating conflict at the school are: employee lack of general knowledge about the student population, subpar communication skills in students, a lack of female role models for female students, lack of conflict role models for all students, and a lack of training in adult-to-student conflict. This study provides the first comprehensive look at conflict in an Alaskan early college charter school and provides the underpinnings of a future conflict resolution system.
    • An analysis of participatory communication for development: insights from feminism and social construction

      Dare, Alexa MacKellar; Arundale, R.; Caulfield, R.; McWherter, P. (2001-05)
      This study examines participatory communication for development from a communication perspective. The purpose of this study is to elaborate on communication's central position in creating, maintaining and enacting participation. I use both a social construction perspective and a feminist perspective to analyze and elaborate on participatory communication for development. Implications for both the practice and the theory of participatory communication emerged from the analysis. Implications include the theoretical elaboration of dialogue, process, trust, and knowledge as informed by communication theory as well as practical suggestions for facilitation and responses to common critiques of participatory approaches to development. The feminist analysis highligths the need for further development of issues of gender in participation.
    • An analysis of radiocarbon assays produced by three laboratories: a case study on the Croxton site, locality J, northern Alaska

      Reuther, Joshua D. (2003-05)
      Radiocarbon assays produced by three different laboratories are compared to examine potential discrepancies among them: Dicarb Radioisotope Co., Geochron Laboratories, and Beta Analytic, Inc. A semi-formal assumption that radiometric assays produced by Dicarb are "too young" when compared to those produced by other laboratories is statistically tested. Radiometric assays and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates produced from materials excavated at the Croxton site, Locality J, Tukuto Lake, Northern Alaska, will be used as the primary data set within this research. Statistical analyses demonstrate that radiocarbon assays produced by Dicarb tend to be "younger" when compared to those produced by other laboratories on crosscheck samples. In addition, an unsystematic pattern is exhibited among the discrepancies between Dicarb and crosscheck assays. Radiocarbon assays are calibrated using the CALIB rev4.3 program in order to assess statistical overlap among the dates (Stuiver and Reimer 1993b; Stuiver et al. 1998a, 1998b). Radiocarbon assays produced by Beta Analytic and Geochron on materials recovered from the Croxton site, Locality J, support both "traditional" and "alternative" cultural-historical frameworks constructed for North Alaskan prehistory (Anderson 1978, 1984; Dumond 1980, 1984; Gerlach and Hall 1988; Gerlach 1989; Gerlach and Mason 1992; Mason and Gerlach 1995).
    • Ancient Celts: myth, invention or reality? Dental affinities among continental and non- continental Celtic groups

      Anctil, Mallory J.; Hemphill, Brian; Irish, Joel D.; Clark, Jamie L.; Potter, Ben (2016-08)
      Dental anthropological study of the proto-Celts, and continental and non-continental Celtic tribes during the Iron Age, particularly its applicability in estimating biological affinities of these tribes, has been generally overlooked. The present study helps fill the gap in the current understanding of these groups in several ways. First, 36 morphological traits in 125 dentitions from four regional samples, representing the proto-Celts, the continental and non-continental Celts, along with a comparative European Iron Age sample, were recorded and analyzed. Frequencies of occurrence for each dental and osseous nonmetric trait were recorded for each sample. Second, the suite of traits was then compared among samples using principal components analysis, (PCA), and the Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) distance statistic. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis were subsequently employed on the triangular pairwise MMD distance matrix to graphically illustrate the relationships between samples. These biological distance estimates suggest the following: 1) dental phenetic heterogeneity is evident across samples, 2) the proto-Celtic sample does not show any evidence of population continuity with the continental Celtic sample, 3) there is a significant difference between continental and non-continental Celtic samples, and 4) there is a comparably significant difference among the Celtic, proto-Celtic and comparative samples. Simply put, the comparative results suggest that these groups represent biologically distinct populations. These findings were compared with published cultural, linguistic, genetic and bioarchaeological information to test for concordance between dental analysis and other lines of evidence. Several previous studies defined the Celts linguistically, using languages to link all the populations. The present study does not support these findings, and suggests there is more genetic diversity than previously assumed under this linguistic hypothesis. Thus, it appears that the transition from proto-Celtic to Celtic culture in these regions, and the subsequent spread of Celtic culture to Britain during the La Tène period, may have been primarily a cultural transition. The present study comprises the most comprehensive dental morphological analysis of the Celts to date, contributes to an improved understanding of Celtic tribal relationships and microevolution, and provides an initial impression of Celtic relationships to other European populations during the Iron Age.
    • And other myths

      Kim, Edward (2011-05)
      I do not consider it my job to create meaning; that responsibility lies with the reader. I seek to point in a general direction and allow the reader to bring his/her own experiences to the poem and complete the dialogue between writer and reader. I employ this idea in And Other Myths by use of juxtaposition, by using leaps within a poem to create seams in which a reader may impart or implicate a sense of him/herself. A poem may appear simple but open itself up to complexity with further readings, this is what the poems in And Other Myths strive to do. The poems use myth and subtext/ambiguity to go outside the self and home as a way of looking back and exploring the experience of American culture, of identity. This experience is frequently explored through the scope of my family and Korean heritage, also by creating a myth of the mundane. The mythic form helps to impart a strong sense of legacy and ancestry, but through the lens of a Korean/American upbringing. The sense of the "other" in relation to identity strongly influences my work, not just in a cultural sense, but also in a human sense.
    • Animal companionship and identity construction in the middle English "Ywain and Gawain"

      Byers, Robert E. (2011-12)
      As a relatively recent field within literary cultural studies, "animal studies" has the potential to ask sophisticated new questions about the central and privileged place of the humanist "cogito." Through an examination of the human-animal companionship found in the Middle English romance "Ywain and Gawain", this thesis aims to contribute to the project of animal studies by tracing how questions about humanity and animality both construct and deconstruct a subject's identity. In the poem, Ywain, a knight in Arthur's court, is exiled from society and befriends a lion, who travels and fights alongside him. The dynamics of their bond highlight a posthumanist identity which begins to articulate itself within Ywain. The fluid nature of the category "man" is further examined throughan analysis of Ywain's sojourn in the woods as a wild man, and the "what is a man" encounter which occurs at the beginning of the poem. Though normative society is reinstated at the end of the text, the study concludes that the added presence of the lion in court undermines humanism's inherently speciesist imagination and serves as a microcosm of one possible vision of a posthumanist society.
    • #Apologize

      Newman Sadiik, Kendell; Brightwell, Geraldine; Hill, Sean; Stanley, Sarah (2015-12)
      Mass shootings in the United States have become common, as has the media response to them. This novel investigates the fictional story of one such shooting and the life of its perpetrator, Gray Jenkins, in the weeks leading up to the attack. Using alternating points of view, it begins with Gray's life in New York with flashbacks to his Virginia childhood and abusive relationship with older brother, James. The narrative moves to Gray's childhood home and investigates the perspectives of his family as they encounter him for the first time in three years. In the final section of the novel, a curated collection of news media and journal entries from Gray's mother, Carolyn, tells the post-attack story. This novel explores themes of blame, guilt, and regret as it grapples with the contemporary problem of mass tragedy in the United States.
    • Archaeology at Teklanika West (HEA-001): an upland archaeological site, central Alaska

      Coffman, Samuel C. (2011-12)
      This thesis research involved a reinvestigation of the Teklanika West (HEA-001) archaeological site, central Alaska. It focused on understanding and expanding upon the site formation processes, dating, and characterizing cultural components at the site. Analyses were designed to address the preceding research purposes, while inter-relating research objectives. Twelve and a quarter square meters were excavated within five blocks located across the site. These excavation blocks yielded dateable materials in clear association with chipped-stone technology. Both environmental and cultural data obtained at the site have produced a more complex understanding of the site and surrounding landscape. Multiple components ranging in age from the late Pleistocene through late Holocene are represented at the site. Lithic analyses indicate a wide variety of lithic reduction occurring within components; ranging from biface production to late-stage weapons maintenance. Faunal remains from the oldest components consisted of bison, while the mid-late Holocene components consisted of caribou and sheep, respectively. All these data indicate that the upper Teklanika River valley was deglaciated by the late Pleistocene, allowing humans access to animals, new travel routes, and raw material resources.
    • Arctic paradox: polar bears, climate change and American environmentalism

      Loeffler, Carolyn Kozak; Ehrlander, Mary; Cole, Terrence; Boylan, Brandon; Woodward, Kesler; Hirsch, Alexander (2018-08)
      By virtually any standard of measurement, the Arctic is hotter than ever before, physically, politically and emotionally. Rising ocean temperatures, opening sea lanes, disappearing pack ice and global fear of environmental devastation have combined to make the Arctic Ocean the great question mark about the future of the human species with ursus maritimus, the "sea bear," standing as perhaps the most evocative symbol of our global responsibility and fate. In human eyes the polar bear has long been a paradoxical creature, mirroring a dilemma at the center of America's relationship to the Arctic today. The region's stretches of uninterrupted ecosystems and wilderness areas inspire strikingly disparate visions: a resource warehouse to some, and a sacred environmental preserve to others, pitting historical frontier identities against moral obligations to future generations. These conflicting visions of the Arctic ice pack and the bears who live there also symbolize the tension between the realities of consumerism and the ideals of global citizenship. In the last 150 years, our understanding of the polar bear has transitioned from ferocious to vulnerable, from a symbol of cold to a symbol of melt. An analysis of this change illuminates shifting historical perspectives and the roots of this ideological divide. This thesis demonstrates how polar bears first entered the American public consciousness as ferocious and sublime Arctic predators, before being commercialized, commodified, and eventually codified into the symbols they are today. Applied discourse analysis deconstructs how industrialization mediated the cultural shift of the polar bear from feared predator to vulnerable and politically contentious climate victim. Images and image analysis support the historical narrative, and act as entry points to our historic and contemporary understandings of American environmentalism.
    • Arctic passages: maternal transport, Iñupiat mothers and Northwest Alaska communities in transition

      Schwarzburg, Lisa Llewellyn; Duffy, Lawrence; Loring, Philip; Fast, Phyllis; Saylor, Brian (2013-12)
      While the primary goal of the northwest Alaska Native village maternal transport program is safe deliveries for mothers from remote villages, little has been done to examine the impact of transport on the mothers and communities involved. I explore how present values (Western and Iñupiat cultural values) can influence the desire of indigenous women of differing eras and Northwest Alaska villages to participate in biomedical birth practices, largely as made available by a tribal health-sponsored patient transport system. The work that follows portrays the varying influences on these women and their communities as they determine the level of importance for mothers to get to the hospital to deliver. I have enlisted viewpoints of Alaska Native families and women of different generations from various lñupiat villages to help paint a picture of the situation. With this research, I ask, how do generations of mothers, transport situations, and villages compare in terms of experiences during the processes of these Iñupiat women becoming mothers? What gender, ethnicity, and power interplays exist in this dynamic helix of social and political elements (embodiment) during their periods of liminality? What are influences (biomedical and community) that contribute to a woman's transition to motherhood in this community? Moreover, how do women, families, and community members perceive the maternal transport policy today? I examine how the transport policy figures into stages of liminality, as these mothers and communities produce future generations. With theoretical frameworks provided by medical anthropology and maternal identity work, I track the differences concerning the maternal transport operation for lñupiat mothers of the area. I compare the influences of cultural value systems present in each of the communities by birth era and location. Using content analysis to determine common themes, I found connections among presence of Iñupiat values, community acceptance of maternal transport, and expressed desire for community autonomy in maternal health care.
    • As far as the light will carry

      Ragan, Ryan (2012-05)
      The following poems are an exploration of memory and the limitations of distance and as it relates to the illumination of internal and external spaces. The metaphor of light is a repeated trope employed lyrically here to both root the content of the collection as a whole in the idea of "bringing things into the light," and the trope is also used to notion toward the spiritual aspects of light as it relates to Scriptural ideologies. While each poem is written to stand alone within its own context, the loose narrative of the collection as a whole is intended to allow the reader to connect one poem to another through repeated images, similar revelations, emotions, form and content. At its core, this collection borders on the surrealistic, yet juxtaposes imaginative situations with real-life experiences or personas to compliment difficult or seemingly out-of-place imagery or circumstances.
    • Ataam Taikina: traditional knowledge and conservation ethics in the Yukon River Delta, Alaska

      Cook, Chad M.; Plattet, Patrick; Charles, Walkie; Koskey, Michael; Schneider, William (2013-12)
      This research was conducted in collaboration with rural Yup'ik residents of the Yukon River delta region of Alaska. The thesis explores traditional knowledge and conservation ethics among rural Yup'ik residents who continue to maintain active subsistence lifestyles. From the end of July through August of 2012, ethnographic field research was conducted primarily through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, documenting Yup'ik subsistence hunting and fishing practices. Research participants invited me beluga whale hunting, seal hunting, moose hunting, commercial and subsistence fishing, gathering berries, and a variety of other activities that highlights local Yup'ik environmental knowledge, practices, and ethics. Through firsthand examples of these experiences, this thesis attempts to explore what conservation means through a Yup'ik cultural lens. Documenting Yup'ik traditional knowledge offers an opportunity to shine a light on the stewardship of local people's relationship with their traditional lands. The importance of maintaining direct relationships with the natural world, eating Native foods, and passing on hunting and gathering skills to future generations help develop the narrative of my analysis. In many ways, the cultural heritage of the Yup'ik people are embodied in such practices, providing a direct link between nature and culture.
    • Attributions of blame and social reactions to scenarios of sexual assault of adult women

      Skanis, Marie L.; Lopez, Ellen; Rivkin, Inna; Gifford, Valerie; Worrall, John (2019-08)
      Alaska consistently has the highest rate of sexual assault in the nation, yet research within the state has focused on stranger rape or assaults which were reported to medical or law enforcement professionals. National research suggests these characteristics are not representative of most victims. The current study fills a gap in research by examining the attitudes and reactions towards victims of stranger and acquaintance rape who have disclosed their assault to friends rather than authorities. Attribution theory was hypothesized to underlie relationships between attributions, emotional reactions, and social behaviors that victims encounter. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to read either a scenario of realistic acquaintance (common) or stereotypical (rare) stranger rape. The stereotypical assault scenario depicted a victim who was attacked outdoors by a stranger in a physically violent manner. The acquaintance rape scenario, in which a woman experiences assault inside her home by a known acquaintance who uses coercive verbal tactics, reflects characteristics of sexual assault that are experienced by most victims. The influences of type of rape, modern sexism, rape myth acceptance, expected peer rape myth acceptance, gender, training, or experience responding to disclosures of sexual assault on participant reactions were explored. It was hypothesized that participants reading the acquaintance rape scenario, participants with higher acceptance of negative attitudes (rape myths and modern sexism) and expectations that peers accept high levels of rape myths, male participants, and those who lack training or experience responding to disclosures would report more negative attributions (high fault and blame), emotional reactions (low empathy and high anger), and social reactions to the victim and positive reactions towards the perpetrator (low attributions of fault and blame, high empathy and low anger). Results revealed that acceptance of modern sexism, rape myths, and expecting that friends accept rape myths were associated with higher attributions of fault and blame to the victim, more anger towards the victim, more empathy felt for the perpetrator, and increased likelihood of offering the victim negative social responses. When asked what would improve response to sexual assault at UAF, participants indicated that changes in training, the UAF community, Title IX processes, awareness, resources, and demonstrating trustworthiness are important. Given these results, recommendations for stakeholders include communicating that most students do not accept modern sexism or rape myths to combat pluralistic ignorance and targeting the most prevalent rape myths in training. Changes to education and awareness efforts are recommended, including conducting sessions in-person, over several sessions, within single-gender groups, and utilization of pre- and post-training outcomes assessments to measure a variety of biases (such as rape myths). Stakeholders are encouraged to use existing research as a framework for teaching students about different types of reactions to disclosures of sexual assault, emphasizing which reactions victims experience as helpful and hurtful. Limitations and strengths of the study are also discussed.
    • Authentic Assessment For Yuuyaraq Middle School Students Based On The Yuuyaraq Curriculum

      Nicholai, Rachel Cikigaq; Cole-Ritchie, Marilee (2010)
      This study examines how the Yuuyaraq curriculum is being applied in the context of a middle school classroom in a small Yup'ik village in Alaska, specifically focusing on how to better assess the outcomes of the curriculum. In the early 1980s, the Yuuyaraq curriculum (YC) was revised to include the seasonal activities of the region, but lacked alignment with the assessments. By using the Participatory Action Research methodology, the researcher identified a problem, observed the situation, analyzed and interpreted the data, and developed an action plan. Data revealed that authentic assessments used in the Yuuyaraq curriculum can be assess Indigenous knowledge, how teachers' indigenous knowledge contributed to a classroom, and how rubrics are in need in a classroom to monitor student progress. The conclusions include various forms of authentic assessments used in the YC, how teacher's knowledge and practice contributed to a classroom that focused on her students' culture and identity and engaged them in a culturally relevant curriculum through the frameworks of sociocultural theory and Indigenous knowledge systems.