• The Crossing

      Radford, Laura Anne (1995)
      The short stories in this collection focus on small but revealing moments in the lives of the various characters. The stories take place in a short period in which choices present themselves. Finding themselves paralyzed in their own inertia, the characters see the problems facing them yet choose the path of least resistance.<p> As implied by the title, The Crossing, many boundaries, ideas, and expectations are crossed over but not resolved. The characters come to greater understandings of themselves and their situations, but have yet to act on them.<p> In all but one story, the point of view is in third person, which narrows the focus and heightens the intensity of emotion. The action is quiet, often focusing on gestures rather than explosions. The characters and conflicts are not extraordinary, and it is in this that the stories gain their verisimilitude. <p>
    • Rivers From The Air

      Odden, Mary Elaine; Soos, Frank; Bartlett, D. A.; Morgan, John (1995)
      This is a collection of creative non-fiction essays. They are triggered by events and persons from my life's experiences, but I hope they shed light on experiences I share with others: coming of age, mothering, probing relationships with nature, understanding and misunderstanding strangers and friends. The Anglo-Saxons believed that to see something was to cast a shaping light upon it, rather than passively accepting what "is." I like that, and it follows, for me, that writing is an active kind of seeing that casts itself in stone here and there like children playing "statues." The whole thing is moving and changing, of course, and can't really be seen. But trying to see it is my idea of what we are here for. <p>
    • The Rampart, Manley Hot Springs, And Fort Gibbon Mining Districts Of Alaska.

      L'Ecuyer, Rosalie E.; Schuldiner, Michael (1995)
      This thesis on the Rampart, Manley Hot Springs, and Fort Gibbon mining districts of Alaska provides the first comprehensive public history of prospecting and mining activity in these three districts within the gold belt of Interior Alaska. Spanning almost one hundred years, the history begins in 1894 and extracts material from early recorders' books, old newspapers, correspondence of miners whose dreams drew them to the gold fields, and U.S. Geological Survey reports which analyzed Alaska's natural resources and mining economy. It surveys mining development from stampedes during the boom years of the turn-into-the-twentieth-century through periods of decline and on into the modern, mechanized, open-pit operations near the beginning of the twenty-first century. It concludes with an extensive annotated bibliography designed to assist other researchers in finding specialized, in-depth information about the three districts. <p>
    • Technological development and culture change on St. Lawrence Island: A functional typology of toggle harpoon heads

      Lewis, Michael A. (1995)
      Our understanding of the culture history of the Bering Strait region is based on the chronology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed by Henry Collins in 1937. Subsequent attempts to develop harpoon head typologies from other parts of the Bering Strait are built on Collins' stylistic classification, which does not account for the full range of variation in St. Lawrence Island harpoon heads. The resulting confusion of harpoon head categories has clouded the interpretation of patterns in the material remains and has perpetuated a unilineal theory of culture change in Bering Strait Eskimo groups. This dissertation critically examines previous investigations and interpretations of archeological sites on St. Lawrence Island and Punuk Island. A contextual analysis of radiocarbon dates from these sites serves to evaluate the currently accepted chronology of occupation. The typology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed is based on a structural analysis of the raw materials and a functional analysis of the components of the harpoon head. The concept of functional strategies explains variation in harpoon head styles and gives meaning to the statistical analysis of attribute associations. A series of dendrochronological dates from the Kukulik site is compared with radiocarbon dates from other sites and combined with the harpoon head typology to develop a chronology of St. Lawrence Island occupations. The harpoon head typology reveals the presence of two distinct culture groups co-resident on St. Lawrence Island and the Bering Strait region from approximately 1600 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P. The Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group, associated with a generalized Eskimo subsistence adaptation, was present from 1600 to 1300 cal C-14 B.P. The Okvik/Ipiutak group, focused on sea mammal and whale hunting, is undated on St. Lawrence Island. Based on comparison with date ranges in other Bering Strait sites, the Okvik/Ipiutak group is assumed to be roughly contemporaneous with the Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group. The interaction of these two groups on St. Lawrence Island, interpreted by Collins as the Punuk culture, was present from 1300 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P.
    • Reconstruction Of Neets'Aii Gwich'In Land Use: A Methodological Study.

      Peirce, John Carl, Jr. (1995)
      This thesis attempts to determine to what extent land use patterns for the Neets'aii Gwich'in of Alaska can be spatially reconstructed from existing sources. Written narratives are reviewed, such as those related by explorers, missionaries, traders and prospectors, for information on land use. Also reviewed are data that give a broad array of subsistence, demographic, geographical or other relevant information concerning land use, including biological and geological reports, economic studies, census reports, Neets'aii Gwich'in oral narratives, archaeological studies, ethnographic studies, place name studies and maps, and land use and occupancy studies. Methodological models for gathering land use data are reviewed to establish a foundation from which the land use data discussed in this thesis can be compared. Finally, an analysis of the extent to which Neets'aii Gwich'in land use can be reconstructed using historic sources is applied to various conceptual levels of understanding Northern hunter and gatherer land use. <p>
    • Masked rituals of the Kodiak Archipelago

      Desson, Dominique; Black, Lydia T.; Pierce, Richard A.; Schweitzer, Peter P.; Morrow, Phyllis; Leer, Jeff (1995)
      The traditional culture of the Alutiiq speakers of the Kodiak Archipelago is not well known, and information on their spiritual and ritual life has been lacking. In this thesis I use ethnographic, ethnohistoric, and iconographic materials to investigate the Koniag traditional world view and belief system and some aspects of the Koniag ritual system. Specifically, I analyze the individual, private masked rituals associated with whaling and the public masked rituals performed during the winter festivals. In the second part, I examine a large sample of surviving Alutiiq masks in order to determine aesthetic canons evident in the work of 19th and 20th century Koniag carvers. Visual preferences in mask making in terms of construction, volumes, shapes, colors, and designs are defined and differences in those preferences between the three Alutiiq speakers' groups of the Kodiak Archipelago, Prince William Sound, and the Alaska Peninsula are discussed.
    • The Last Great Indian War (Nulato 1851)

      Wright, Miranda Hildebrand; Black, Lydia T.; Schweitzer, Peter P.; Morrow, Phyllis (1995-04)
      In this study, I review the causes of an Athabaskan conflict in western Alaska which occurred in 1851. This hostility is known in published sources as the Nulato Massacre. In oral tradition the same incident is referred to either as the Last Great Indian War or simply "The Nulato War". Critical reading and analysis of primary and secondary historical source materials offer insight into external pressures on the indigenous population, the analysis of oral tradition the resulting internal pressures. The combination of historic documentation and oral tradition provide a basis for the analysis of the Nulato Massacre as an internecine conflict. The Koyukon point of view reveals this conflict to be the result of a shamanistic power contest. While it may be argued that the conflict was precipitated ultimately by economic and social post-contact dislocations, the Koyukon perceive it as a disturbance of their concept of universal psychic unity, an overarching conceptualization which encompasses all aspects of Koyukon worldview. It was imperative in their view to regain control of their lives. The role of the shaman in such restoration was paramount.
    • Culture And Empire: Rudyard Kipling's Indian Fiction

      Grekowicz, Eric John; Blalock, Susan (1996)
      A survey of Rudyard Kipling's Indian fiction indicates that his writings reflect a deeply-felt ambivalence toward the imperial projects of his contemporaries. Kipling condemns British characters who denigrate Indians or India, and in doing so, he subverts the Victorian notion of Britain's innate superiority. Kipling's early fiction reveals the author's respect for Eastern culture and religion. His India represents a utopic vision of cultural mixing. An anthropological perspective on these stories shows that the Indian fiction is designed to create cross-cultural communication. Kipling illustrates how failure to understand India ultimately destroys the British, and by attacking many of the injustices of imperialism, he fosters an atmosphere condusive to the synthesis of cultures. Kipling's ultimate enterprise is to promote tolerance of difference through understanding and respect of the other. <p>
    • The Role Of Women In The Founding And Development Of Fairbanks, Alaska, 1903-1923

      Movius, Phyllis Demuth; Mangusso, Mary (1996)
      Women of varying backgrounds participated in the founding and development of Fairbanks. This thesis will present portraits of four women who are representative of these variances, arrived in Fairbanks prior to the opening of the Alaska Railroad and the arrival of big mining, and who left written records of their lives.<p> Separated from her husband when she came to Alaska from Dawson, Ellen Gibson struggled to gain elusive financial security. Jessie Bloom immigrated from Ireland as a new bride intent on establishing a home based on European Jewish tradition. Margaret Keenan thrived in an environment that allowed professional advancement. Mary Lee Davis accompanied her husband to Fairbanks and enjoyed social advantage and a successful writing career.<p> Women's experiences in early Fairbanks parallel those of women on the American western frontier in the 1800s. However, river transportation into the Interior and technological advances nationwide gave the twentieth-century Alaska pioneers an advantage. <p>
    • Dynamics of the fur trade on the middle Yukon River, Alaska, 1839 to 1868

      Arndt, Katherine Louise; Black, Lydia T. (1996)
      This study examines the Russian-era fur trade of the middle course of the Yukon River, that section of the river which extends from Fort Yukon down to Nulato, Alaska. For a period of just over twenty years, 1847 to 1868, the Russian-American and Hudson's Bay companies maintained rival establishments at opposite ends of this stretch of river and vied for the trade of the Native populations living in the region between. After reviewing the events leading up to the establishment of the first European posts in the region, the study focuses on the dynamics of the competition between the rival posts and the changing nature of Native, Russian, and British participation in the middle Yukon trade. Most historical summaries of the early (pre-1867) fur trade of the Middle Yukon rely upon a small number of published sources, resulting in a truncated and rather inaccurate version of the region's fur trade history. This study seeks to overcome that problem through utilization of two major archival collections, the records of the Russian-American and Hudson's Bay companies. Together, these sources make possible an account that is more even in temporal coverage and more balanced in its treatment of Russian, British, and Native trade activities. One of the striking features of the early Yukon drainage fur trade is the pivotal role of the Native traders in determining its spatial patterning. Though regional patterns were characterized by a certain overall stability in the period 1830 through 1868, they also underwent marked change. This study examines those changes with regard to the middle Yukon drainage and discusses the influence of material and social factors upon them.
    • The History Of The Social And Economic Importance Of Second Avenue And The Core Area Of Fairbanks, Alaska

      Scholle, Marie M. (1996)
      The City of Fairbanks changed and evolved over the years. The fifty years of the core-area's roller coaster economy was a mirror reflection of the city, as a whole. The infamous Second Avenue, also known as "Two Street," held a key to social reform and economic growth. This thesis explored the issues surrounding the social infrastructure of the "core-area" and how that infrastructure affected the economy of downtown Fairbanks.<p> In addition to the social and cultural phenomena, the political influences and their effect on the core-area's economic and social development was discussed. The government played a pivotal role in the economic direction of the downtown business district.<p> The conclusion of this thesis showed that the core-area of Fairbanks no longer enjoyed the status of the economic mainstay of the Fairbanks economy. However, this area was held as a historical business district and social gathering place for many Fairbanks events. <p>
    • A statewide training model for supported employment using master trainers

      Wilcox, David Allen; Mohatt, Gerald; Risley, Todd R.; Dinges, Norman; Dowrick, Peter W.; Kleinke, Chris; Owens, Jesse; Ryan-Vincek, Susan; Ward, Karen M. (1996)
      Alaska's vast land mass and diversified urban, rural, and remote communities require innovative training curricula to meet training needs in supported employment. A competency-based training program using an independent learning format and master trainers was developed to meet these extreme needs. These training methods were evaluated with survey instruments at the time of training and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year follow up. The data demonstrate that the training materials as well as the independent study format and master trainer model were effective training methods. We conclude that the training methods developed are effective in meeting the diverse training needs of urban, rural, and remote sites.
    • Distant vistas: Bradford Washburn, expeditionary science and landscape, 1930-1960

      Sfraga, Michael P.; Pearson, Roger (1997)
      Bradford Washburn is primarily known for his Alaskan mountaineering accomplishments and mountain photography. Between 1930 and 1960, Washburn led 19 expeditions to Alaska and Canada's Yukon Territory on which he surveyed, photographed and mapped some of the last unexplored mountain regions in North America. This study, however, analyzes Washburn's lesser known role in directing interdisciplinary field research involving high altitude physics, glaciology, cartography and geology, which he accomplished by linking such disparate entities as the motion picture industry, geographic organizations, the U.S. military, and prominent U.S. scientists. Washburn's career can be viewed as an intersection of nineteenth and twentieth century geographic traditions. He combined emerging technologies with new and innovative vehicles of exploration to more accurately study geological, geographical and environmental phenomenon in mountainous regions. During the Second Great Age of Discovery, which began with the Renaissance, explorers ventured into the heart of the world's continents by utilizing various vehicles of exploration such as canoes and pack animals. This style continued into the middle of the twentieth century when the present day Third Great Age of Discovery, characterized by the use of remote sensing platforms and space age satellites, allows for a more accurate geographic study and inventory of our planet. Washburn's interdisciplinary field work reflects the fundamental goals and patterns of expeditionary science found in both ages of discovery. In this study three important themes are examined: Washburn's role as innovative field scientist; geography as a disciplinary bridge; and the work of the independent geographer. By analyzing Washburn's work in the pre World War Two and Cold War era, we gain an understanding of the ways in which expeditionary science was funded and carried out within two fundamentally different political and economic frameworks. Moreover, this study provides an important window into our understanding of interdisciplinary earth sciences in the mid twentieth century. It also explores the often unappreciated link between environmental science and geography in the American context.
    • The Social Construction Of Unique Caring Relationships: Metaphors And Descriptors Of Aids And Mutuality In Buddy Dyads

      Maday, Renee; McWherter, Pamela (1997)
      This study explores how acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is socially constructed in buddy dyads as revealed by the written metaphors and descriptors supplied by cultural members through a survey instrument. A buddy dyad consists of a volunteer caregiver and a person with AIDS (PWA). The metaphors and descriptors that the buddies recounted provide an understanding of these special relationships and the social construction of AIDS in this uniquely affected population.<p> Analysis revealed that AIDS is most often constructed as integral to community and activism in the AIDS Culture. The buddy relationship is most often constructed as a friendship rather than a caregiver/client relationship. The participants also revealed that buddy dyads are both life-affirming and significant relationships. The examination of buddies' metaphors and descriptors further suggests that their lived experience with AIDS is uniquely different than the construction of AIDS most often made by the media and the rest of U.S. culture. <p>
    • The universal duty to alleviate inflicted suffering: An ethical grounding for Siu's new discipline of Panetics

      Amerson, Russell Doyle; Krejci, Rudolf W. (1997)
      Dr. Ralph G. H. Siu has challenged the intellectual community with a call for a new academic discipline that he calls Panetics (from the Pali word paneti meaning 'to inflict'). Panetics is the study of humanly engendered suffering, its causes and methods of alleviation. Suffering is measured in units called dukkhas (from the Pali word dukkha meaning suffering), which are the product of the intensity of pain and the amount of time the pain is endured. The result will be in terms of units of suffering, i.e. the dukkha. Dr. Siu has argued that this new academic discipline is not a forum for the discussion of theoretical ethics nor is there any implied moral precept which prescribes moral action. It will be shown that not only are there prescriptions for moral action embedded in panetic talk but that the entire discipline rests on moral presuppositions. In addition, a normative ethic is implied in the purpose of the Panetic Calculus, and this will be clarified. It will be shown that Dr. Siu's approach to the "New Utilitarianism" constitutes a form of negative utilitarianism, which may provide an 'ethical ground' upon which to rest what will be called the Principle of Least Inflicted Suffering. It will be argued that this Principle can be universalized because the 'ethical ground' upon which it rests is composed of a human universal (viz, human suffering), a component of all human 'forms of life.'
    • United States Armed Forces' voluntary education program: The effect of enlisted service member retention

      Brauchle, Kenneth Charles; Smith, David M. (1997)
      The United States Armed Forces have sponsored off-duty voluntary higher education programs for fifty years. The investment in these programs by the Armed Services is substantial. In 1996, Department of Defense (DOD) expenditures for Tuition Assistance programs totaled $121 million. The longevity and scope of these military programs make them an ideal special case through which to study the outcomes of employer sponsored off-duty education. This study looked at the relationship between participation in military sponsored off-duty education programs and enlisted retention in the service. The data for the study was from a large (60,000 respondents) survey conducted by the DOD in 1992. Both univariate and multi-variate statistical analysis techniques were used. Additionally, over thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with service members. The quantitative analysis supports the conclusion that long-term participation in off-duty education is significantly and positively related to intention to reenlist in simple bi-variate models. However, when several other variables thought to be related to retention are controlled the overall education participation effect is very small, accounting for little of the variation in intention to reenlist. A comparison of the education participation pattern in this data with previous studies leads to the conclusion that there has been a fundamental change in the relationship between off-duty education and retention in the last ten to fifteen years. The qualitative data suggest that the military places a high value on educational participation exhibited in formal and informal policies, the organizational reward system, promotions and attitudes. The opportunity to participate varies by location, specific job and military specialty. Servicemembers' attitudes toward education appear to evolve. Early participation seems to be extrinsically motivated with an intrinsic motivation developing as the servicemember continues to participate. The quantitative and qualitative data support the conclusion that the military has changed in its view of educational participation. The data point to the conclusion that the military has adopted educational participation as an integral part of the military culture. This value is so embedded within the environment that the effect of educational participation may be masked by other variables such as satisfaction with the military way of life.
    • The effects of volitional laughter on positive and negative affect and depressive symptoms

      Krauss, Gregory W. (1997-05)
      The effects of volitional laughter on positive affect, negative affect, and day-to-day depressive symptoms among college students were investigated utilizing a non-equivalent control group design. The laughter group (n = 23) participated in daily volitional laughter treatments (three treatments of 30 seconds each) while the control group (n = 40) received no treatment. Both groups were pre- and post-tested using the PANAS (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule) and the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies -Depression Inventory). A significant difference was found for the laughter group in negative affect. An additional post-hoc analysis, after eliminating a group of subjects from the control group, indicated a significant difference for the volitional laughter treatment group in increasing positive affect. No significant difference in depressive symptoms was detected.
    • Federal policy and Alaska Native languages since 1867

      Alton, Thomas L.; Krauss, Michael (1998)
      Researchers and the general public have often contended that punishment of children for speaking their native languages in schools is the cause of the decline of those languages. But native language loss in Alaska is rooted also in the choices Natives made themselves to accept English for its social, economic, and political opportunities. Since the United States purchased Alaska in 1867, English has replaced native languages as the first language learned by children in nearly all homes. Although none of Alaska's twenty native languages is yet extinct, most are at a point of peril as English has replaced a pattern of linguistic diversity that existed from time immemorial. This study documents the history of language decline and the role of federal government policy in that process. Congress extended federal policies to Alaska in 1884 when it established civil government in the territory. In 1885 the Bureau of Education assumed responsibility for running rural schools. Federal policy during that era grew out of America's desire for uniformity of culture, religion, and language, and as a result schools often forcibly suppressed Native American languages and punished students for speaking them. Yet Alaska Natives have been active participants in change, not passive victims of an overwhelming bureaucracy. The switch to English occurred as Natives responded to the influx of American population with its systems of economy, society, politics, and justice. Natives abandoned their old languages when they became convinced through pressures from the outside world that English held more prestige and advantage than their native languages. Government policies defined the choices that were available, and Natives adopted English for the opportunities it afforded them in a modern system that was not of their own making. Once families began using English as the language of the home and thus interrupted the continuity of native language use from one generation to the next, the decline of native languages was assured. Punishment of school children for speaking their native languages, along with American social, economic, and political systems, created an environment in which Alaska Natives made the constrained choice to adopt English as the language of the home and community.
    • Historical archaeology of Alaskan placer gold mining settlements: Evaluating process-pattern relationships

      Mills, Robin Owen (1998)
      The objective of this research is to explicate appropriate methods for investigating relationships between past historical processes and variables, and resulting contemporary patterns in archaeological and historical data sets. Turn-of-the-twentieth century placer gold mining in interior Alaska is used as a case study to evaluate these relationships. By linking observable patterns in historical data sets with the variables and processes that in part create and shape them, a more-complete, context-specific explanation of past events and actions emerges when the data are evaluated in specific historical settings. The methodological approach used here is to just formulate explicit "expectations," and then to evaluate them against independent Alaskan historical and archaeological data sets. The expectations derive from independent comparative historical geographical, and archaeological research. One series of nine expectations evaluates attributes of artifacts relating to site and feature abandonment processes relating to curation and scavenging, including specific traits of artifacts in curated and scavenged deposits; the changing effects of continued curation and scavenging on an artifactual assemblage through time; and spatial characteristics of artifacts within curated and scavenged foundations. Four types of data are used evaluate the expectations, including the size of artifacts, whether they are still functional or usable, their spatial provenience within excavated structures, and a feature's data range. Seven of these expectations are corroborated, one is falsified, and one requires further data for a full evaluation. A second series of seven expectations examines aspects of placer gold mining settlement and transportation systems, including the core-peripheral relationship between Alaska and the United States; the nature of expansion of gold mining settlements into new areas; locational, demographic, and physical layout characteristics of settlement systems; the mining settlement hierarchy and its changing components through time; and characteristics of the supporting transportation supply system. These expectations, while also corroborated by the Alaskan data, lend themselves more to historical context-specific understanding and interpretation, as opposed to the strict corroboration-falsification dichotomy of the abandonment analyses.
    • Twentieth century Inupiaq Eskimo reindeer herding on northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Simon, James Johnson Koffroth; Schweitzer, Peter P. (1998)
      Domesticated reindeer were introduced to Alaska from the Russian Far East at the end of the nineteenth century as a project in social engineering designed to assist in the assimilation of Alaska Natives into Euroamerican society. Most previous discussions of Alaska Native reindeer herding have focused on reindeer introduction as an agent of culture change associated with culture contact and economic modernization. This diachronic study of more than a century of Bering Strait Inupiaq reindeer herding, however, demonstrates that reindeer herding was incorporated into traditional Inupiaq culture and society to the extent that it now helps to maintain and reproduce traditional Inupiaq values and social relations. Inupiaq reindeer herding emerged as a result of the previous experience the Bering Strait Inupiat had with the intercontinental trade of Chukchi reindeer herding products prior to reindeer introduction. Bering Strait Inupiat were already aware of the economic potential of reindeer herding, such that reindeer herding was incorporated into traditional Inupiaq conceptions of property, wealth, prestige, social organization, subsistence, and land use practices. This incorporation provided the opportunity for the Bering Strait Inupiat to improve standards of life during a period of rapid social change associated with increasing Euroamerican influences. Furthermore, it also provided a means to maintain Inupiaq cultural identity through the emergence of reindeer umialiks and through the importance of reindeer herding in maintaining traditional social relations. In effect, reindeer herding became part of Bering Strait Inupiaq traditional culture through its importance to Inupiaq cultural reproduction.