• Imagining Ityoppia: Ethiopian diaspora and Rastafarianism

      Antohin, Esther Sellassie (2005-08)
      On a very general level, this thesis explores why Ethiopians and Rastafarians - who share Ityoppi, as a general point of reference - have historically been at odds. More specifically, however, I am interested in whether the rather recent emergence of Ethiopian communities in the United States - which share experiences of diaspora and processes of "imagining from afar" with Rastafarians - has resulted in a change of Ethiopian Americans' attitude toward adherents to Rastafarianism. The main aim of this study is to give an accurate account of the Ethiopian perspective of Rastafari, which has not been articulated till the present time. To this end I first give a broad description of their arrival in the United States, and their particular diasporic experiences, which encompasses only thirty years. Finally, I explore the prevailing attitudes and perceptions of Ethiopians in the United States with respect to the Rastafarian movement. This study utilizes primary source such as interviews and surveys conducted with first and second generation Ethiopians. It employs data collected via virtual communities along with other resources on the Internet and printed publications.
    • The impact of teacher achievement emotions on the co-production of education services

      Kelly, Kimberly A.; Lardon, Cécile; Arthur, Melanie; Porter, David; Burleson, Derick (2013-08)
      Educational policy in the United States has evolved into a more intense system of accountability, resulting in an intensification of achievement emotions experienced by teachers. Two theoretical paradigms were used to analyze whether such emotions impact teacher effectiveness in the classroom: the control-value theory of achievement emotions and the theory of co-production. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model of teacher effectiveness. Two of the four hypothesized factors contributing to teacher achievement emotions, perceived level of control over instruction and perceived levels of student achievement, were found to be significant. The remaining two variables, attribution of responsibility for student achievement and the correlation between teachers' values and educational reforms, were non-significant. The post-hoc model removed these two non-significant factors and added additional paths from the variable teachers' perceived control to teacher's coping response and teacher effectiveness. The post-hoc model fit the data well as demonstrated by significant path.and goodness of fit scores. The path model was transferable across the study's demographic subgroups with the exception of experience level. Modifications were made to the post-hoc model for this subgroup by addressing paths to the coping response variable, and such changes resulted in a significant fit to the data for this subgroup. The results of this study underscore the need for teachers to feel in control of their teaching in order to implement effective teaching strategies. Therefore, educational policies that diminish or remove such control may impact teacher effectiveness Under No Child Left Behind legislation, schools labeled as failing progressively remove more and more control from the teacher. The findings of this study indicate that such practices may be counterproductive and instead may be contributing to the problem of undesired student achievement levels. Enhancing teachers' feelings of self-efficacy in the classroom is recommended for enhancing student achievement, as is looking at the issue through the lens of co-production. Co-production of education services posits that education is co-produced by the teacher and the student. Effective reforms in education, therefore, must address both sides of the teacher-student nexus.
    • In memory of days and nights

      Barney, Patrick (2011-04)
      In Memory of Days and Nights is a collection of meditative and lyric essays that are interconnected by their attention to relationships of dominance and subordination mediated by economic systems and language, personal complicity in such relationships, possible forms of revolt, and attempts to make meaning within these systems. The essays in this collection deal with these issues in several forms. The shorter form essays, utilizing a lyric voice concerned with imagery and rhythm as opposed to narrative, range from half a page to five pages long. These either examine personal experience in an effort to reflect upon death and meaninglessness or depict myth and historical occurrence to meditate upon the human desire for order. The longer essays in this collection range from traditional narrative-driven pieces, to collage and mosaic pieces--unfolding in the accumulated depictions of instances of time--to universal meditations burgeoning from individual experience. These navigate the intersections between the microcosm of the author's life and the macrocosm of human life, often by applying the thought-systems of various philosophers and writers to personal experience.
    • In quest of authentic Yup'ik art: concepts of tradition

      Simon, Katrin A. (2007-08)
      My interest is in the various perceptions - including my own - that people have of the concepts 'traditional' and 'authentic' as it applies to contemporary Alaska Native art and artists. With my research, I aim to examine Yup'ik art from different perspectives and to investigate the different cultural standards and definitions that exist about what constitutes 'authentic' Yup'ik art and artists. Consumers, collectors, the government, and Yup'ik artists from diverse cultural backgrounds all have different concepts of what authentic, traditional Yup'ik art constitutes. I believe it is important to investigate Native art, as much as possible, without reservations and prejudgements as to their concepts of art and to listen closely to the artists' voice, especially when it contradicts our own perceptions.
    • In whatever wreckage remains

      Kirk, Maeve; Brightwell, Geraldine; Coffman, Christine; Farmer, Daryl (2016-05)
      In Whatever Wreckage Remains is a collection of realistically styled short stories that examines both the danger and potential of change. These pieces are driven by the psychology of the men and woman roaming these pages, seeking to provide insight into the unique weight of their personal wreckage. From a woman craving motherhood who combs through forests searching for the unclaimed body of a runaway to a spitfire retiree’s struggle to accept her husband’s failing health, the individuals in these narratives are all navigating transitional spaces in their lives, often unwillingly. Along the way, they must balance the pressures of familial roles, romantic relationships, and personal histories while attempting to reshape their understanding of self. These stories explore the shifting landscape of identity, belonging, and the sometimes conflicting responsibilities we hold to others and to ourselves.
    • Inconstant Endeavors: The Elusiveness Of The Anti-Heroine

      Williamson, Lianne; Bird, Roy K.; Burleson, Derick; Coffman, Christine; Weiss, David; Vettel-Becker, Patricia (2009)
      The anti-heroine is a difficult woman to define. The intent of this project was to find the markers and signifiers for the character of the anti-heroine. Only recently, with modernism and then post-modernism, has the equation of beauty = woman started to change. What has occurred is the opposite, the grotesque. How are female artists using the grotesque to open up the possibilities for how women are allowed to act? Although women are now being allowed, in film, to DO what men do, i.e. kill people, they are still coming across in stereotypically female ways. The women are still beautiful, they use violence, they have to be more manly than men. How has second and third wave feminist theory opened up the realm of writing about the bitch? In the past decade literally thousands of books have been written with "bitch" in the title. Is the "bitch" the same thing as the anti-heroine? In the creative part of the dissertation, I have attempted to write a multi-faceted anti-heroine who isn't necessarily a bitch, doesn't participate in violence, has a sense of humor, and is writing about both female and feminist subjects. The critical essay looks at literary influences on my writing and my own definition of the anti-heroine. My research has shown that the anti-heroine is an extremely elusive character and is quite different from the male anti-hero. What we can say is that she defies stereotyping, is a complex creation, may or may not be beautiful, and acts rather than reacts.
    • Indigenous archaeological approaches to artifact and household analysis at precolonial Yup'ik village Temyiq Tuyuryaq (Old Togiak)

      Skinner, Dougless I.; Potter, Ben; Yamin-Pasternak, Sveta; Reuther, Josh; Barnett, Kristen (2019-08)
      Upper Bristol Bay is home to a multitude of precolonial-and colonial-era villages dotting the coast, islands, and rivers. The bay's dynamic history remains relatively unexplored in archaeological literature. Current data situate people in the region for nearly 6000 years, living in complex, semi-permanent villages, subsisting on large land and sea mammals, fish and mollusks. One such village is Temyiq Tuyuryaq or Old Togiak (GDN-00203). The village is a mounded accumulation of household cycles, sand and organic materials atop an accreting sand spit in the Togiak Bay. Ancestral to Nutaraq Tuyuryaq [New Togiak], the village directly links precolonial and modern Yup'ik traditions in the Upper Bristol Bay. Yup'ik traditions are a combination of transformation, continuity and resilience. Yupiit worldview seeks balance and co-existence with many life forms including the spiritual, natural and human. The aim of this research is to intersect traditional Yup'ik values, knowledges and histories with archeological theory and methodology to explore the material culture and households of Temyiq Tuyuryaq. Research objectives include evaluating a sample of the culturally modified materials, assessing the built environment and exploring the Little Ice Age as causation for increasing village complexities. Research results indicate that there is a direct continuity of knowledge spanning at least 600 years in the bay. Artifact production and function remain primarily continuous with intensifications of some materials circa 500 cal BP. Household analysis reveals the importance of the ena [family house] for processing foods and cooking activities. Additionally, the research indicates that the Little Ice Age may not have had an extensive impact on tool and household function. Rather, the results suggest that the Yup'ik Bow-and-Arrow War had more extensive impacts on the villages about 600 cal BP. This thesis explores the complex relationship of Indigenous knowledge and archaeological data, as well as discussing the dynamic and continuous relationships that modern Yup'ik people of Bristol Bay have to their histories.
    • Indigenous Emotional Economies In Alaska: Surviving Youth In The Village

      Rasmus, Stacy Michelle; Morrow, Phyllis (2008)
      According to the Status of Alaska Natives Report 2004 produced by the Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, Native youth in rural Alaska experience significant mental health disparity. Suicide rates for Alaska Native youth are the highest in the nation, and substance abuse, social misconduct and teenage pregnancy rates are also much higher among the rural, indigenous population in Alaska. These disparate rates have caused many to ask; what is going on with the youth in the villages today? This dissertation reports on research conducted to help answer that question, and identify local intervention strategies for youth growing up today in the villages. The research for this dissertation was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (1R34MH073601-01), and supported by the University of Alaska Fairbanks at the Center for Alaska Native Health Research, Institute of Arctic Biology. The study used a community-based participatory research approach and ethnographic methods to explore the affective lives of youth in Athabascan villages in Alaska. This dissertation is a contemporary ethnography of life in "the vill" from a youth perspective. Findings from the research demonstrate a model of Athabascan mental health based on the concept of an indigenous emotional economy. Athabascan survival has always required both technical skills to provide for the material necessities of life and emotional skills to support social life. In that sense the economy has also always been an emotional economy. As the balance between the need for technical and emotional survival skills shifted, the lives of young people have become increasingly focused on their relationships in the village. The contemporary social problems that youth experience growing up in the village reflect the changed and changing nature of their emotional decision-making in the context of the relationships that contribute most directly to their social status and survival. In an emotional economy individuals must adapt strategies for surviving feelings. This study provides information that could be used to create or tailor intervention strategies in the rural villages to the local models of emotion, behavior and mental health.
    • An indigenous teacher preparation framework

      Tom, Lexie J.; John, Theresa; Barnhardt, Ray; Amarok, Barbara; Marker, Michael (2018-05)
      The result of this research is a framework to support Indigenous Teacher Preparation within the Native Studies department at Northwest Indian College (NWIC). I attempted to answer three main questions in the duration of this dissertation research. The first question is, how do we recreate an Indigenous method for teaching and learning in a modern educational institution? The second question is, what does a Native Studies faculty member need to be prepared to teach classes? The third question is, how do we measure learning? Participants for this research included elders from the Lummi community, Native Studies faculty members at NWIC, and administrators. As an Indigenous researcher, I have defined my own Indigenous epistemology and this guided my research. I have chosen a qualitative research design to assist me in answering these research questions. The data were analyzed and coded into main themes. This analysis produced teacher competencies and methods of measurement that will be used within the Indigenous teacher preparation framework. This framework is important to the future of the Native Studies Leadership program and NWIC.
    • Indigenous Television In The Canadian North: Evolution, Operation, And Impact On Cultural Preservation.

      Neuheimer, William Joel (1994)
      Indigenous television broadcasting in the Canadian North has evolved as a successful response to help mitigate the cultural domination imposed over the aboriginal people in the Canadian North via television which originates in the Canadian South and other dominant television producers such as the United States. I have concluded, based on my research and the results from a survey of indigenous people in the Canadian North, that the evolution of indigenous television in the Canadian North has enabled the indigenous people of the Canadian North to achieve greater cultural stability within the increased political empowerment and self-determination that their television programming has been able to afford them. A brief discussion of the evolution of indigenous television in Australia compares the evolution of a similar system in another context and emphasizes the success of the Canadian experience. <p>
    • Indigenous-crown relations in Canada and the Yukon: the Peel Watershed case, 2017

      Baranik, Lauren Alexandra; Ehrlander, Mary F.; McCartney, Leslie; Castillo, Victoria; Hirsch, Alexander (2019-08)
      The history of Indigenous-Crown relations in Canada has varied regionally and temporally. With the Constitution Act of 1982, however, Canada entered a new era. Section 35 of the Constitution recognized Indigenous treaty and land rights, and the Supreme Court of Canada has consistently interpreted this section liberally in favor of Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The Court has upheld the honour of the Crown in emphasizing the national and subnational governments' duty to consult diligently when engaging in development on the traditional territories of First Nations, Metis, and Inuit. The "citizens-plus" model of asserting and protecting Indigenous rights, first coined in the Hawthorn Report of 1966, has proved effective in these court cases, most recently in the Yukon's Peel Watershed case from 2014 to 2017. Yet, engaging with the state to pursue and to invoke treaty rights has forced socioeconomic and political changes among Yukon First Nations that some scholars have argued are harmful to the spiritual and physical wellbeing of Indigenous communities, mainly through alienation from their homelands. The Peel Watershed case demonstrates the unique historical development of Yukon First Nations rights and the costs and benefits of treaty negotiations and asserting Indigenous rights.
    • Inland Tlingit of Teslin, Yukon: G̲aanax̲.Ádi and Kook̲hittaan clan origin stories for the immediate and clan family of Emma Joanne Shorty (nee Sidney)

      Shorty, Norma; Barnhardt, Ray; Taff, Alice; Leonard, Beth; Kaplan, Lawrence (2015-08)
      The purpose of my research is to learn the story of Mother's clan, and to document the processes of gathering knowledge about the clan connections between the G̲aanax̲.ádi and Kook̲hittaan from Teslin, Yukon, Canada. The objective of this thesis is to document the stories and the story-gathering processes of published and private holdings on my Mother's clan stories. The study includes published literature from indigenous and non-indigenous historians and oral history reviews, especially on those who have knowledge about the Kook̲hittaan and G̲aanax̲.ádi clans and have connections to the Inland Tlingit from Teslin, Yukon. This indigenous-led research focuses on my mother and her clan stories. I am an insider and an outsider to my culture. From an insider perspective I am privileged to hear, to learn, and to retell Mother's maternal clan stories. As a result of this research, Tlingit ways of documenting history are discovered and Tlingit research (literacy) frameworks are revealed. I learned that the Kook̲hittaan and G̲aanax̲.ádi clans are one. Our oral history is validated by face paint designs, petroglyphs and clan shirt designs. In their published work some non-indigenous ethnographers made changes to words and designs which distorted the indigenous record. This dissertation compares all possible information sources showing the heavier weight of evidence is provided by available indigenous sources. Colonization has greatly impacted the perpetuation of indigenous knowledge systems by referring to indigenous knowledge as "traditional" because the term tradition conjures up images of living in the past.
    • Integrating climate change with human land use patterns: archaeology of Butte Lake Northeast

      Wendt, Michael L.; Potter, Ben; Plattet, Patrick; Irish, Joel (2013-08)
      This research explores the effects of climate change throughout the Holocene by investigating a multi-component site at Butte Lake, Alaska. This research combines expectations generated from ethnographic models to evaluate site use conditioned by environmental constraints within the theoretical framework of human behavioral ecology. Analysis of lithic materials, faunal remains, and site structure are evaluated to determine site type by occupational component. The results of this research show that a period of low effective moisture during the early Holocene (9000 to 5000 cal BP), as well as a period of both low temperature and increased effective moisture associated with the Neoglacial (3500 to 1500 cal BP) had considerable impacts on the habitability of the site. This research also shows that a period of relatively abundant productivity associated with the Medieval Optimum (1500 to 750 cal BP) may have resulted in extensive trade with, and/or local occupation by Eskimo (Ipiutak/Norton) inhabitants. Most importantly, analysis has shown a sharp distinction between site use associated with the early and middle Holocene occupations, and the specialized and discrete activity loci associated with caribou processing during the late Holocene occupations, likely affected by both climate and water levels at Butte Lake during these respective periods.
    • Intercultural mentoring: how international students identify and foster key socialization relationships

      Rossi, Elizabeth A.; Taylor, Karen M.; Richey, Jean A.; DeCaro, Peter A. (2014-05)
      Mentoring is a widely studied relationship because of the critical job it serves for socialization and integration into the university system. Mentoring relationships can serve as sources of academic, social, and emotional support. Support while adapting to a new environment can heighten overall satisfaction an individual feels as well as increase the individual's overall success. Mentoring for domestic students entering the university is clearly valuable, but becomes more complex for international students. Intercultural communication is an interaction that takes place between individuals or groups who are from different cultural backgrounds. Understanding how diverse our world is can bring better awareness to all who come to the university for learning and teaching. Also, understanding how exchange students from dissimilar countries maneuver throughout the socialization process and how mentors helped can allow organizations to encourage mentoring of international students. This understanding can help faculty and administrators formulate a process where exchange students can rapidly move through the socialization process and become integrated members of the organization. Although extant research has investigated the ways mentorship can be a helpful resource for newcomers in expediting the socialization process, this particular study looks at how those key relationships were identified and transformed over time. The scope of this research offers the University of Alaska a better understanding of different types of mentors and how they help international students. It also shows how mentorship bonds are formed and maintained over time between individuals who are from different cultural backgrounds.
    • International and domestic drivers of military shifts in Alaska

      Burkhart, Peter K.; Boylan, Brandon M.; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Speight, Jeremy S. (2018-05)
      Since WWII, Alaska has witnessed dramatic influxes and reductions in military personnel and funding. This thesis explores the drivers of these events. It applies two theories to analyze the trends: realist theory from international relations and the advocacy coalition framework from public policy. The thesis uses a case study framework and process-tracing to analyze three different time periods in Alaska's history: 1) World War II (1940-1945), 2) the early Cold War era (1950-1958), and 3) the immediate post-Cold War era (1993-1999). This thesis argues that the level of international threat accounts for the United States' decisions to increase or decrease its military forces, while the strength of advocacy coalitions comprised of a diverse array of actors determines the amount of military personnel and funding transferred to Alaska.
    • Interpreters perspective on intercultural communication

      Seyidova, Gulchin F. (2007-05)
      Although Translation/Interpreting Studies and Intercultural Communication Studies appear to be closely related fields of studies, both seem to have ignored their potential connectedness. In Interpreting Studies, scholars and practitioners have begun to recognize that interpreters have intercultural communication functions and do not simply automatically convey messages across parties. In Intercultural Communication Studies, scholars have neglected examining intercultural communication in the interpreting context. This study explores professional Azerbaijani interpreters' lived experiences of intercultural challenges they face in the interpreting setting to help better understand both the communication processes involved in interpreting, and interpreting as a scene for intercultural communication. Conversational interviews were employed to access lived human experiences of the researcher and the co-researchers, and thematic analysis of the capta revealed four broad themes regarding intercultural challenges encountered by interpreters during interpreting: 'the interpreter is not a robot, ' 'the interpreter has her/his sex, religion, and culture, ' 'the interpreter is between two cultures, ' and 'it depends.' These themes are intertwined and point to the conclusion that cultural difference should not be ignored in the interpreting setting.
    • Investigating A Yup'Ik Immersion Program: What Determines Success?

      Green, Jean Renee; Coles-Ritchie, Marilee (2010)
      This research stems from my connectedness to a particular village, which will be referred to as Naparyaraq1. Unlike the majority of research on Alaska Native language issues, which primarily are from the point of view from an outsider, this research is unique in that my role as a community member has allows me an insider perspective of our Yup'ik Immersion Program. When dealing with Indigenous language issues, it is important that the impetus for change and improvements come from the local people. The primary goal of the Naparyaraq Immersion Program resulted from the communities desire to create change Community members wanted to keep the Yup'ik language alive. Growing up in Naparyaraq and my familiarity with the language issues has also driven me to be a personal participant in this change. Using focus groups, interviews, classroom observations, and field notes, the main goal of this Master's thesis is to inform the teachers and school community of the Naparyaraq Yup'ik Immersion Program in order to continue to help make improvements. Some of the issues which are addressed in this research include information related to: language use, success, training, language use at home, support, success, quality staff, assessment, need for teacher collaboration, and curriculum. 1Naparyaraq is a pseudonym. All names and places in the thesis are pseudonyms.
    • Investigations in the funhouse

      Overton, Quentin T.; Hill, Sean; Harney, Eileen; Stanley, Sarah; Hirsch, Alexander (2017-05)
      The poems of Investigations in the Funhouse represent a kind of movement through outrage. The poems sit at the convergence of the personal and the national interest story, at the rise of anti-intellectual fervor and ultra-conservative populism. They move between ravings and reverie through which we come to know the various politics of our speaker. The resulting structure is designed to create the sense of a descent into madness. Counterpoised against the irreverent, if callous, lyrics of the rest of the book, the "investigation with letter x" and "the funhouse" are a kind of sterile, formulaic act. They are positioned throughout the collection in order to engage with the themes of the surrounding lyrics in their own way. They are not designed to be directly conversant with the content of these lyrics, but instead function as a renegotiation of their themes. There is a latent sense of confusion in the investigations' hyper-focus on meaning. Though meaning-making is the premise, the resulting effect is miscommunication or unmeaning. Think of this in terms of cryptography and each investigation functions as a kind of cypher, a node that analyzes, and in some ways corrupts, the meaning of its attached lyrics. This lends a tangible interiority and complexity to the speaker of the poems: the disparity between the investigations and the lyrics is not a fracturing of the continuity of the speaker's thoughts or experiences but are inexact replications of the same convictions. Contradiction in voice is then a more accurate portrayal of the evolution of opinion into meaning, the personal into the national. In Investigations in the Funhouse the attempts of the speaker to make meaning, or at the very least arrive at an understanding of the personal/national interest story, are a response to the descent, from exuberance to outrage and further down, into the political, and deeper still, into the heaven of the hell of self.
    • Iñupiat Ilitqusiat: inner views of our Iñupiaq values

      Topkok, Charles Sean Asiqłuq; Leonard, Beth; John, Theresa; Lewis, Jordan; Counceller, April (2015-12)
      Iñupiat Ilitqusiat: Inner Views of Our Iñupiaq Values examines how Iñupiat pass down elements of our cultural heritage to future generations. The research is community-driven by the Pavva Iñupiaq Dancers of Fairbanks, families with Iñupiaq children in their household, and other Iñupiat worldwide. My doctoral research addresses how we view each Iñupiat Ilitqusiat (Iñupiaq Values), how our Iñupiat Ilitqusiat have been passed down, and how we pass down our Iñupiaq cultural heritage to our future cultural-bearers. Participants talk about our Iñupiat Ilitqusiat to acknowledge that we are Iñupiat wherever we live. I assert that in order to conduct culturally appropriate research with Iñupiaq people, it is imperative to observe cultural protocols and values, to equally include Indigenous narrative history and Western literature in the review process, and to observe Iñupiaq methods and methodology when gathering data. I examined and applied the ways my ancestors have gathered and presented data, formalizing for academia an Iñupiaq way of conducting research. I have conducted 17 group interviews corresponding to the 17 Iñupiat Ilitqusiat. In my findings, I acknowledge that our Iñupiaq values help define our heritage. They are embedded in our lives and in our stories. They are in our spirit, passed down to us through our ancestors. Each Iñupiat Ilitqusiat converges with each other when we examine how each cultural value applies to our lives. We need to continue talking about our cultural values in every village to ensure our descendants live their cultural heritage.
    • 'It's a magnifying glass': the communication of power in a remote field station

      McDermott, Victoria; May, Amy; Taylor, Karen; Richey, Jean (2019-05)
      Remote field stations play a critical role in advancing our understanding of the world and how humans cause environmental change. Remote field stations are sentinels of Earth's climate, environment, and biodiversity that provide scientists with the infrastructure to collect data in inaccessible areas of the globe. These research stations are considered isolated, confined and extreme (ICE) environments which provide people with unique opportunities and intensely stressful potentially life-threatening situations to overcome. Traditionally, remote field stations have been considered harassment hell for men and women, alike. There is little research on the impact of remote field stations on communication and factors that influence power communication within remote field stations. In the present study, the researcher traveled 10 hours north of Fairbanks, Alaska to Toolik Field Station in the Brooks Range of the Alaskan Mountains. The researcher interviewed 20 participants, 15 males and 5 females, willing to talk about their experiences in remote field stations and especially their experiences at Toolik. Using theories of power construction, standpoint theory, and contrapower harassment this study sought to understand how remote field stations impact communication dynamics and the influence of gender on communication within a remote field station. Findings in the present study suggest that gender is a crucial factor that impacts power dynamics in remote field station. Through the data collected in this study, three areas of opportunity were identified for overall camp improvement, including group cohesion, reintegration coping strategies and overcoming gender barriers.