• Molecular Identification And Analysis Of Treponematosis (Syphilis, Bejel, Yaws, Or Pinta) In Ancient Mummified Remains From Northern Chile And Southern Peru

      Kaye, Michelle; Irish, Joel (2008)
      The sequencing of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, and the identification of a family of 12 genes with sequence similarity that allows scientists to distinguish between treponemal subtypes has opened up a new line of inquiry for biological anthropologists. This research contributes genetic evidence of pre-contact treponematosis in the Americas; by combining osteological and molecular evidence with data on environment and cultural practices, it also furthers our knowledge of human-pathogen interaction. This research assessed the presence of treponematosis, a bacterial spirochete, in the DNA of skeletal and mummified human remains from northern Chilean cemeteries dating from 5000 BC to AD 1100. The objectives were to: (1) determine whether treponemal DNA could be successfully recovered, amplified, and identified by subspecies from ancient bone and tissue, (2) compare any ancient sequences generated to the modern strains present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank database, (3) test the null hypothesis that treponematosis was not present in the New World before European contact, and (4) explore which cultural factors may have contributed to the spread of treponematosis in these groups. This research established a foundation for future treponemal studies through the development of primers and protocols for the analysis of ancient treponemes. The results of this study suggest that the inhabitants of this region suffered from a systemic bacterial infection, likely a chronic form of non-venereal treponematosis: yaws or bejel. Potential treponemal DNA was recovered from bone in an individual dated 202 cal BC--cal AD 3 from the Azapa valley. An investigation of Chinchorro artificial mummification suggests that their mortuary practice likely did not result in a higher frequency of treponematosis, as compared to later and inland groups. Rather, status and socioeconomic factors may have played a role in differential infection rates between those mummified in complex styles and those in natural or less complex styles. Further analysis of human remains with suspected treponemal lesions is necessary to reconstruct the history of treponematosis, improve our understanding of their pathogenesis, and guide scientists in developing preventative measures.
    • The moon was for witches

      Malmberg, Chris (2012-05)
      'The Moon was for Witches' examines characters as they respond to their own impulse to turn memory into narrative. One character questions her ability to recount events accurately and wonders if she is more responsible for a tragedy than she has always believed; Another, in the midst of remembering, wonders at the disparity between his past and current feelings concerning a specific event, finding himself unable to decide which feelings are more real. Each of the characters in this collection wants, more than anything, to reconnect with some truth of an experience he or she recalls, but each finds such a connection impossible to make. They doubt even the fidelity of the stories of their cultures, the grand narratives that make self-consciousness possible. In 'The Moon was for Witches, ' memory is a threatening force which people draw upon for answers but receive only questions, from which any gift of understanding is probably an illusion, even as the nostalgia, pain, and revelations are real.
    • More than words: co-constructive dialogue as a strategy for technical, academic language acquisition (TALA) in an indigenous, middle school science classroom

      Ladwig, Joachim H.; Patterson, Leslie; Siekmann, Sabine; Martelle, Wendy (2019-05)
      This teacher action research study investigated how secondary science students respond to small group co-construction activities designed to help them produce collaborative summaries of scientific information. The principle research question guiding this study asks, "How do middle school students engage in content learning and in the use of technical academic language (TAL) during a science writer's workshop?" Building upon the work of previous investigators I studied how emerging bilingual Grade 8 students participated in a science writer's workshop as they co-constructed written summaries in small groups. After initial instruction about the science content, participants worked in table groups to begin their summaries and become comfortable with the process. Participants were regrouped for the final phases of the workshop as they revised their earlier work. Twelve classroom sessions were digitally recorded and from them 25 language-related episodes (LREs) from two small groups were identified for further investigation. LREs were transcribed and analyzed for patterns of student interaction and then correlated with students' written summaries. These deeper interaction patterns became the targeted categories of this investigation: teaming; going beyond the content; and disagreeing. Each of these patterns provide different opportunities for students to learn more about the science content and to use scientific language. The extra time for this collaboration allowed for more TAL usage and seemed to make a meaningful difference in these students' final writings. Further, analysis reveals that TALA is a complex sociocultural process and that the dialogic process inherent in the science writer's workshop is more important than the words alone. In this context, dialogue about science in the context of the science writer's workshop supported both content learning and the acquisition of TAL for these emergent bilingual middle school students.
    • "The most multi-ethnic country in the world": indigenous peoples in Russia's Eurasianist political narrative

      Trienen, Lex; Boylan, Brandon; Ehrlander, Mary; Hirsch, Alex (2019-05)
      Since 2012, scholars have taken a renewed look at the philosophical and political ideas of Eurasianism within Russia to explain President Vladimir Putin's conduct and the Russian public's response to it. Eurasianism in its current form posits that the Russian state plays a unique role in the history of the world in opposing the avaricious, agnostic, and culturally oppressive "West," while uniting and elevating the peoples of the Eurasian continent in a peaceful, organic and spiritual "Eurasia." Indigenous peoples play a distinctive role in this narrative. Both the United States and Russia have Indigenous populations that have been subjected to both passive neglect and active violence over the past several centuries and currently suffer from poor social conditions compared to the dominant ethnic groups of their respective countries. This thesis addresses the question of how the Russian media's portrayal of Native Americans diverges from that of its own Indigenous peoples in order to perpetuate this Eurasian narrative. Articles were collected from various news outlets in Russia, coded for Eurasianist themes using the Atlas.ti program, and analyzed by news outlet, date published, and topic. The analysis finds that the Russian media portrays Indigenous peoples in Russia as largely having constructive working relationships with the Kremlin, while they depict Native Americans as striving towards secession and mired in constant conflict with the U.S. government, but having surreptitious affinities towards the Eurasian civilizational model.
    • Multimodal meaning making with culturally responsive images: designing tasks for 6th - 8th grade special education students

      Surman, Audra Ruth Panigacungaq; Siekmann, Sabine; Martelle, Wendy; Patterson, Leslie; Moses, Catherine (2019-05)
      The following study describes the patterns that emerged from collaborative tasks among middle school students within a special education intervention class in rural Alaska. The study integrated the multiliteracies pedagogy, as well as multimodalities and task-based language teaching. The tasks utilized culturally appropriate illustrations to promote collaborative discussion throughout a structured set of five tasks. The research aims to answer the following question: How do sixth through eighth grade students co-construct meaning when doing tasks that incorporate culturally appropriate images? Three students native to the community participated in this study over a two-month period. The tasks were designed around culturally relevant illustrations allowing students to use their funds of knowledge as they collaborated to complete the tasks. The data collection included field notes, class artifacts, video and audio recordings, and student interviews. The data presented multimodal events where students utilized their semiotic resources and funds of knowledge to make meaning during each task. The analysis revealed telling incidents of multimodal meaning making moments where culturally relevant resources support the application of funds of knowledge. The analysis also uncovered critical insights for the task design variables which can impact the ending outcome and final product of a task. As a result, I encourage the use of open-ended tasks addressing multimodal teaching to encourage culturally relevant meaning making moments, particularly within special education settings.
    • The music of water

      Balvanz, Lisa Ellen; Farmer, Daryl; Burleson, Derick; Carr, Richard (2016-05)
    • Music: a portrait of woman

      Wellman, Amy R.; DeCaro, Peter; Richey, Jean; Anahita, Sine (2012-08)
      Music in today's society is ubiquitous. It is in the car, the cinema, on television, in the doctor's office, in the home, on the other end of the phone; it really is everywhere. Music arguably is a large part of culture and as such, has the ability to construct social realities. In hopes to understand how media constructs the image of the female, a contextual analysis was performed on the lyrics of the top twenty-five country and pop songs according to Billboard.com. This was done using Grounded Theory through the employment of coding. Results showed that although country and pop music depict women in a slightly different manner, they both for the most part depict women in traditional gender roles. Furthermore, the propitiation and adherence to traditional gender roles sustain and conciliate patriarchy. Therefore the depictions of women in the music lyrics were then analyzed as processes of patriarchy.
    • Mute Llama

      Ober, Richard Holmes; Soos, Frank; Bishop, Wendy; Perkins, Leroy (1988-09)
      The novella Mute Llama and the short story "The Keeper of Dogs" "both deal with the role that the imagination plays in the articulation of reality through symbols. At its core, this is an issue which involves the very essence of the creation of fictive worlds. In both pieces, the protagonist is engaged in a second-person, internal soliloquy as he is confronted with the startling fluidity of the "real" world of objects. When the objective world is encountered by an active imagination, as it is by each of us every day, the result is a reality that is created, rather than simply observed. The protagonist of each of these pieces comes to this realization and discovers that it produces both existential despair and self-empowerment. In the end, this paradox is central to the understanding of postmodernist art.
    • My brother's keeper

      Dayton, Shane Monteath (2007-05)
      My thesis is a young adult novel entitled 'My Brother's Keeper.' This novel is written from a first person point of view and fulfills my requirements for a Master of Fine Arts degree in creative writing, fiction emphasis. Gyle, the protagonist, is brought under the wing of Brent in a teacher-student mentor relationship that initially appears altruistic, but to Gyle's despair, he finds himself drawn further and further into the web of a sociopath. Though he tries to walk away peacefully, Brent forces a confrontation from which only one of them can survive. While technically a young adult novel, this work also fits underneath the suspense thriller, action adventure, coming of age, and psychological horror genres.
    • "My language, your language": Thai mothers' expectations for their children's heritage language usage

      Piyamahapong, Janejira (2011-05)
      Immigrant parents who share the same ethnic background usually have high expectations and positive attitudes toward their children's heritage language usage. They are willing to put their time, money, and other effort in order to pass their heritage language on to their second-generation children. This research looked at some of the cross-cultural marriage couples--Thai mother and American father, who together have U.S. born children, and the mothers' expectations for their children's heritage language usage. Specifically, it examined these mothers' lived experience through conversational interviewing. Thematic analysis was utilized as data analysis. Four major themes emerged during the analysis of data: (a) It's my child's future, I want the best for them, (b) I was struggling when I first moved here, (c) This is OUR language, and (d) Embarrassment and resistance. These themes allowed and structured the results of this study. Directions for future research include a study incorporating American fathers and mother's education.
    • Mythic women reborn: Djebar's Scheherazade & Atwood's Penelope

      Frentzko, Brianna Nicole; Brightwell, Geraldine; Harney, Eileen; Carr, Rich; Johnson, Sara Eliza (2019-05)
      This thesis examines how two modern female writers approach the retelling of stories involving mythic heroines. Assia Djebar's A Sister to Scheherazade repurposes Arabian Nights to reclaim a sisterly solidarity rooted in a pre-colonial Algerian female identity rather than merely colonized liberation. In approaching the oppressive harem through the lens of the bond between Scheherazade and her sister Dinarzade, Djebar allows women to transcend superficial competition and find true freedom in each other. Margaret Atwood's The Penelopiad interrogates the idealized wife Penelope from Homer's Odyssey in order to highlight its heroine's complicity in male violence against women. Elevating the disloyal maids whom Odysseus murders, Atwood questions the limitations of sisterhood and the need to provide visibility, voice, and justice for the forgotten victims powerful men have dismissed and destroyed. The two novels signal a shift in feminist philosophy from the need for collective action to the need to recognize individual narratives. Both texts successfully re-appropriate the dominant myths they retell to propose a more nuanced and complicated view of what it means to be "Woman."
    • Natural histories of Yup'ik memoirs

      Crecelius, Caroline R.; Shoaps, Robin; Charles, Walkie; Plattet, Patrick (2017-12)
      This thesis explores how cultural knowledge is committed to textual form and circulated within and outside of linguistically marginalized communities. Working within a Central Yup'ik context, I have focused my research on collections of Yup'ik elders' memoirs housed within the Alaska Native Language Archive. Published Yup'ik elders' memoirs offer rich descriptions of Yup'ik cultural histories, epistemologies and statements about language, the expression and inclusion of which varies based on the interactional contexts, participant frameworks and funding institutions through which they were produced. This study incorporates both Indigenous and non-Indigenous theoretical frameworks related to the process of entextualization, or text creation, and the transmission of cultural knowledge. Drawing from archival materials and interviews with participants involved in their production and circulation, I identify the relevant linguistic ideologies and participant frameworks involved in the creation of these publications or "text artifacts" and frame my analysis with respect to the following research questions: How have published memoirs of Yup'ik elders emerged as a culturally salient genre of text? Who are the primary participants in the production, publication and circulation of Yup'ik memoirs? How do issues of identity, agency, authenticity and essentialism shape the form, thematic content and circulation of Yup'ik memoirs in Alaska? This thesis seeks to identify the primary participants and ideologies contributing to the publication of Yup'ik elders' memoirs, as well as the visibility or erasure of these actors within the published text of the memoirs. I further explore the specific ways in which individual voices, tribal, political and academic institutions and their ideological goals presuppose and contribute to broader cultural processes and shape the linguistic structure and content of textual artifacts produced. Although the documentation, description and analysis of Yup'ik language and culture has received sustained attention both within and outside the academy, this project is the first to investigate the processes and participant frameworks through which traditional Yup'ik cultural knowledge is entextualized and circulated as contemporary published text. This research offers significant insights into the collaborative efforts of Native and non-Native participants in the production of Yup'ik textual materials, while also contributing to a broader understanding of ideological goals and obstacles relative to processes of entextualization within communities facing marginalization or language endangerment within, and outside of, the circumpolar north. An analysis of the participants and ideologies shaping the production and circulation of Yup'ik memoirs provides and empirical framework for understanding the relationship between text artifacts and ongoing cultural processes, and contributes to an increasingly reflexive approach to anthropological and sociolinguistic research concerning identity, authenticity and the entextualization of traditional knowledge.
    • Negotiating the languages of landscape: place naming and language shift in an Inupiaq community

      Marino, Elizabeth K. (2005-12)
      This thesis examines the correlations between language shift, language death, and cultural change through the use of place names in White Mountain, Alaska. Traditionally Inupiaq place names have served as descriptive tools for navigating the landscape and as memory markers for oral histories, taboos, and places of harvest. Local Inupiaq place names have been inscribed in social memory for generations and, according to Inupiaq elders in White Mountain, none are without significance. As English replaces the Inupiaq language, these traditional place names fall out of use, as well as the local histories and other information associated with them. English place names used today continue to inscribe information into the land, but of a different sort. This thesis finds that cultural change and cultural resiliency can be clearly observed through and are related to language shift in White Mountain. Included in this thesis are listings and maps of traditional Inupiaq place names from White Mountain, Alaska.
    • Networks of change: extending Alaska-based communication networks to meet the challenges of the anthropocene

      Hum, Richard E.; Taylor, Karen; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Koskey, Michael; Brower, Pearl Kiyawn Nageak; Carlson, Cameron (2017-08)
      The Anthropocene is a contested term. As I conceptualize it throughout this dissertation, the Anthropocene is defined by an increased coupling of social and environmental systems at the global scale such that the by-products of human processes dominate the global stratigraphic record. Additionally, I connect the term to a worldview that sees this increased coupling as an existential threat to humanity's ability to sustain life on the planet. Awareness that the planet-wide scale of this coupling is fundamentally a new element in earth history is implicit in both understandings. How individuals and communities are impacted by this change varies greatly depending on a host of locally specific cross-scale factors. The range of scales (physical and social) that must be negotiated to manage these impacts places novel demands on the communication networks that shape human agency. Concern for how these demands are being met, and whose interests are being served in doing so, are the primary motivation for my research. My work is grounded in the communication-oriented theoretical traditions of media ecology and the more recent social-ecological system conceptualizations promoted in the study of resilience. I combine these ideas through a mixed methodology of digital ethnography and social network analysis to explore the communication dynamics of four Alaska-based social-ecological systems. The first two examples capture communication networks that formed in response to singular, rapid change environmental events (a coastal storm and river flood). The latter two map communication networks that have formed in response to more diffuse, slower acting environmental changes (a regional webinar series and an international arctic change conference). In each example, individuals or organizations enter and exit the mapped network(s) as they engage in the issue and specific communication channel being observed. Under these parameters a cyclic pattern of network expansion and contraction is identified. Expansion events are heavily influenced by established relationships retained during previous contraction periods. Many organizational outreach efforts are focused on triggering and participating in expansion events, however my observations highlight the role of legacy networks in system change. I suggest that for organizations interested in fostering sustainable socialecological relationships in the Anthropocene, strategic intervention may best be accomplished through careful consideration of how communicative relationships are maintained immediately following and in between expansion events. In the final sections of my dissertation I present a process template to support organizations interested in doing so. I include a complete set of learning activities to facilitate organizational use as well as examples of how the Alaska Native Knowledge Network is currently applying the process to meet their unique organizational needs.
    • New places to burn: stories

      Notaro, Eric; Farmer, Daryl; Mellen, Kyle; Heyne, Eric; Hirsch, Alexander (2014-05)
    • Nietzsche in a train station

      Moore, Steven (2007-05)
      Although Nietzsche in a Train Station is referential, the poems are not written for the scholar with a pen in hand, but are for the average reader with a laptop by his or her side. The "Mr. Everidge" poems attempt to capture the frenetic pace and fragmented consciousness of the information age, while maintaining a core identity. Although some poems directly take the narrative aspect of the short story and compress it as much as possible, using the sound of the language as much as the literal meaning to tell the story, every poem is a self-contained narrative. Many of the poems in this collection follow traditional forms and subjects, such as Shakespearian sonnets that explore kinds of love; however, a majority of the poems explore less traditional forms and rhythms. Stylistically, the poems tend to use long, complex sentences, with the occasional willful rebellion against traditional grammar. The poems drive toward a resolution, and everything structurally serves this purpose. Each poem is in essence a question about the things existing outside of everyday experience, the constructions created for and by the individual, constructions that both sustain and limit a life.
    • Niugneliyukut (We Are Making New Words): A Community Philosophy Of Language Revitalization

      Counceller, April Gale Laktonen; Marlowe, Patrick (2010)
      The Alutiiq language on Kodiak Island (Alaska) is severely threatened, with only 37 resident speakers. The Alutiiq communities of Kodiak are engaged in a multifaceted heritage revitalization movement, which includes cultural education, revitalization of arts, and language revitalization. The language revitalization effort includes education, materials development, documentation, and terminology development (creation of new words) as a means of making the language more viable. The Kodiak Alutiiq New Words Council began in the fall of 2007. This language revitalization strategy is new to the Alutiiq community, and little research has been done on Alaska Native or Indigenous terminology development as a form of heritage revitalization. There is a need to understand the New Words Council in terms of its role in the wider language and heritage revitalization efforts, as well as understanding the value of the council to its members. The Kodiak New Words Council is a contemporary heritage revitalization effort that entails development of new Alutiiq terms, and is part of a broader social movement to revitalize Alutiiq language and culture. Some past research on cultural heritage revitalization movements in Indigenous communities have focused on historical inaccuracies and 'inventedness' of new cultural forms, rather than the value and meaning of these efforts to their participants. Critiques of 'invention' scholarship counter that it denies Indigenous communities' agency and authority over their own cultural forms, and overlooks ongoing efforts for justice, sovereignty and healing. This study focuses attention on the social and historical context of heritage revitalization and its meaning to participants. Benefits of the council go beyond the formal goal of developing new words to modernize the language. Participants put great value on social benefits of the New Words Council, such as empowerment, connection to culture and identity, and healing. They further measure the success of the New Words Council in terms of participation, commitment, and continuity. Ultimately, this language revitalization effort is part of a broader effort of self-determination and community survival.
    • Not just small potatoes: a comparison of four agricultural education models in alaska

      Silverman, Annie; Taylor, Karen; Richey, Jean; Herron, Johanna (2016-08)
      Agricultural education is a means of increasing food security, increasing willingness to try new fruits and vegetables, improving test scores, and increasing community resiliency. School gardens, which are one form of agricultural education, are the primary focus of this thesis. In order to identify barriers to maintaining school garden programs, semi-structured interviews were conducted at four school sites in the Fairbanks area. In order to compare emerging themes from the interview data in the Fairbanks area to school sites throughout the state, a survey was also administered through Survey Monkey to schools that received the Alaska state Farm to School grant between the years 2011-2014. Using Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a theoretical lens to perform qualitative data analyses, several emerging themes are highlighted including: An increase in student’s nutritional awareness, children’s love of dirt, participant empowerment, the need for more time, a decrease in productivity where uncertainty is present, and the need to further develop communication channels between agricultural education practitioners. Recommendations are made based upon findings to further support the creation and maintenance of agricultural education projects throughout the state.
    • Nuniwarmiut Land Use, Settlement History And Socio-Territorial Organization, 1880--1960

      Pratt, Kenneth L. (2009)
      Prior efforts to identify traditional socio-territorial groups among the Central Yup'ik Eskimos of southwestern Alaska have been primarily theoretical in nature, examined the subject from very restricted temporal perspectives, and were heavily reliant on a small body of written historical accounts---none of which were informed by contacts with indigenous populations across the entire region. The collective results are inconsistent and largely unverifiable; hence many basic details about Yup'ik socio-territorial organization remain obscure. This study deviates from its predecessors in geographical focus, temporal scope and methodology. The geographical focus is on the Nuniwarmiut (or Nunivak Eskimos), both the most isolated and best documented of all Central Yup'ik populations. Its temporal scope covers a period of 80 years, the earliest point of which marks the practical limits of reliability of the available ethnographic data. Finally, the study's methodology is ethnohistorical; it employs a rich array of complementary historical, ethnographic and archeological data to produce a far more detailed account of socio-territorial organization than has been compiled for any other population in the region. The findings indicate socio-territorial organization among the Nuniwarmiut took the form of local groups organized around winter villages. The functional stability of each group was susceptible to various natural and cultural factors; in fact, such groups ranged in number from as many as 30 to as few as 7 over the course of the study period. The Nuniwarmiut society was a level of identity above the local group; it was comprised of the totality of local groups that existed at any point in time, but was not itself a socio-territorial unit. Overall, the study demonstrates that socio-territorial organization among the Nuniwarmiut was substantially more complex and dynamic than previously recognized.