• Pitch and voice quality: acoustic evidence for tone in lower Koyukon

      Alden, McKinley R.; Tuttle, Siri; Cooper, Burns; Shoaps, Robin (2019-05)
      This thesis addresses the acoustic realization of tone in the Lower dialect of the Koyukon language. The Lower dialect is the only one of the three Koyukon dialects attested to have tone. Its exact nature, however, remains unclear. This study seeks to corroborate previous attestations of low tone in Lower Koyukon by providing acoustic evidence of its realization. Therefore, there are three primary objectives: a) to determine how tone is produced in Lower Koyukon with respect to pitch; b) to examine any interactions between tone and potential pitch-altering phenomena; and c) to determine the realization of creaky phonation during tone production, if such exists. All of the data for this study was gathered from a single consultant, a fluent Lower Koyukon speaker. Three elicitation strategies were employed. First, a game of bingo was developed from a list of words predicted to carry a tonal syllable. Second, the consultant was asked to teach the researcher how to pronounce a series of short phrases and sentences that contained a word with a tonal syllable. Finally, the researcher selected a story written in Koyukon for the consultant to read aloud. During the analytical process, each word predicted to carry tone was compared to both a control set of non-tonal words and a set of words that may or may not carry tone. The only statistically significant difference was that the set of tokens predicted to carry tone had higher measures of creak than the control set. As creaky voice is inherently linked to tone production, this finding supports previous attestations of tone. However, both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed for this study, and several examples are cited which show both that there is a significant pitch change on syllables predicted to carry tone. Moreover, it appears that that this pitch rises. The implications of this study are therefore that tone is present in modern Lower Koyukon, and that this tone may by high, rather than low, as has been previously claimed.
    • A place for the birds: the legacy of Creamer's Field Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

      Ryan, Jessica A. (2003-12)
      This thesis details the farming history and current importance of the Creamer's Field Migratory Waterfowl Refuge in Fairbanks, Alaska. More significantly, it is the story of a grassroots effort by the community of Fairbanks, working with a kindly old farmer, to preserve open land in the heart of a rapidly expanding city for the benefit of the thousands of migrating cranes, geese and ducks that rely upon the grain fields each spring and fall. Because of their vision, Creamer's Field has become a center for environmental education, outdoor recreation, and biological research while actively providing for the needs of wildlife.
    • Plastic Alaska

      Namey, Jason; Brightwell, Gerri; Mellen, Kyle; Carr, Rich (2018-05)
      The stories in Plastic Alaska depict characters losing--often literally--their own identities. Whether it be a young boy who believes that an Alaskan theme park ride transformed him into a different person, or a woman who finds herself compulsively imagining murdering her husband after watching a Terrence Malick film, or a desperate man who assumes the identity of his former best friend so he can get a job on a reality TV show, these characters find themselves thrown--sometimes reluctantly, sometimes willingly--into situations where they must leave their former selves behind just to survive the unwelcome intrusions of an absurd, demanding reality. Plastic Alaska shows--in worlds that range from the real to the fantastical--the dread, uneasiness, and occasional joy that accompanies metamorphosis.
    • Playacting happiness: tragicomedy in Jane Austen's Mansfield Park and Elizabeth Gaskell's Cranford

      Udden, Meryem A.; Carr, Rich; Heyne, Eric; Reilly, Terence (2020-05)
      This thesis examines tragicomedy in two 19th Century British novels, Jane Austen's Mansfield Park and Elizabeth Gaskell's Cranford. Both narratives have perceived happy endings; however, tragedy lies underneath the surface. With Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream as a starting point, playacting becomes the vehicle through which tragedy can be discovered by the reader. Throughout, I find examples in which playacting begins as a comedic act, but acquires tragic potential when parents enter the scene. Here, I define tragedy not as a dramatic experience, but rather seemingly small injustices that, over time, cause more harm than good. In Mansfield Park, the tragedy is parental neglect and control. In Cranford, the tragedy is parental abuse. For both narratives, characters are unable to experience life fully, and past parental injuries cannot be redeemed. While all the children in the narratives experience some form of parental neglect, the marginalized children are harmed more than the others. In addition, I find that lifelong loneliness is a common theme in both narratives, showing that tragedy can lead to grief experienced in isolation.
    • Polishing The Mirror: A Multiple Methods Study Of The Relationship Between Teaching Style And The Application Of Technology In Alaska's Rural One To One Digital Classrooms

      Ledoux, Larry S.; Monahan, John; Covey, Jerry; Richey, Jean; Smiley, Scott (2012)
      This mixed method survey study examined the inter-relationships between teaching styles and the depth of classroom-based technology applications used by teachers participating in 1:1 digitally enhanced classrooms in thirteen of Alaska's rural school districts. The promise of technology to catalyze the transformation of schools into learner centric environments preparing students to be 21st century learners has not been realized. Significant first order barriers have limited the digital learning resources necessary to systemically affect pedagogical change. During the last six years, various entities have sponsored digitally enhanced learning environments to stimulate the process of education reform. These initiatives, labeled as one-to-one (1:1), brought teachers face-to-face with the challenges related to second order education reform while creating an opportunity to study changes in instructional philosophy and practice as a result of teaching in an environment rich in technology. This study explored three questions formulated to probe the relationship between pedagogical philosophy and the application of 1:1 technology to support learning: • "What is the relationship between instructional philosophy and the way teachers use technology to support learning in Alaskan high school 1:1 laptop programs?" • "How does access to a 1:1 classroom affect a teacher's instructional philosophy or practice?" • "Does access to a 1:1 digitally enhanced teaching environment facilitate the use of instructional practices consistent with Alaska Native and 21st century learner outcomes?" Ninety-four rural high school teachers responded to a survey that assessed teaching styles on a continuum from transmission to constructivist. The level of technology adoption was examined using three indices that respectively measure the professional, personal and classroom use of technology by teachers. Information derived from open ended questions was triangulated with quantitative data to develop a meaningful understanding of the study questions. Quantitative and qualitative data suggested that the majority of responding teachers identified with constructivist beliefs over traditional transmission. Teachers noted a strong positive relationship between teaching and the application of technology, yet analysis showed that constructivist beliefs were attenuated by several challenges related to management of technology. While teachers were generally aware of the potential for digital learning technologies to support Alaska Native and 21st century methods, they were outweighed by operational concerns related to the integration of technology. These study questions are significant. Digitally enhanced instructional practices help to equip students with the skills expected of 21st century learners. Perhaps even more significant is the congruence between the teaching styles traditionally used by Alaska Natives and the digitally enhanced constructivist practices made possible when using technology to augment processes for acquiring knowledge.
    • Polygamists in love: a screenplay

      Carter, Stephen; Kamerling, Len; Soos, Frank; Bird, Roy (2004-05)
      This screenplay sets out to clear the path for a more interesting, nuanced treatment of polygamists. I chose the romantic comedy form because polygamy always brings up strong emotions in people. Writing a hard hitting drama about the subject, therefore, would probably merely alienate me from a wider audience, and leave me preaching to a very small choir. The romantic comedy has the advantage of being able to approach a difficult subject with grace and light-heartedness. The story does not have to take a hard stand on an issue, it is left free to explore. The action of the story takes place in Utah, 1879, and centers on a convict at the Utah State Penitentiary who falls in love with the youngest wife of his polygamist cell mate. Each character starts the story pretty much stuck in his or her beliefs, but finds them challenged by the events of the story. Each character must perform a decisive act by the end of the film in order to reconcile these challenges.
    • Population continuity or replacement at ancient Lachish? A dental affinity analysis in the Levant

      Dicke-Toupin, Clarissa R. (2012-05)
      Are material culture changes between late Bronze and early Iron Age inhabitants of Lachish, in modern day Israel, the result of immigrants settling the region, or an in situ evolution of practices by the same indigenous peoples? The research objectives are to: 1) assess dental affinity of an Iron Age Lachish sample relative to its Bronze Age predecessor, and 2) compare data in both groups with European and North African comparative samples to estimate biological affinity within the Mediterranean area. In the process, two competing hypotheses are tested; one postulates continuity and the other population replacement between the Bronze and Iron Age. Using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, dental trait frequencies were compared to determine inter-sample phonetic affinities. The results suggest: 1) biological continuity between the Lachish Bronze and Iron Ages, and 2) a marked level of heterogeneity with closer affinity to some Egyptian and Phoenician groups within the Mediterranean Diaspora. These findings lend support to one of many competing theories identifying the ancient Lachish peoples, while providing an increased understanding of the Bronze and Iron Age transition in the Levant, which is often considered one of the most intriguing and volatile periods in the Near East.
    • Porcelain curtains

      Bush, Megan Rahija; Farmer, Daryl; Kamerling, Len; Stanley, Sarah (2015-05)
      My grandmother was a paranoid schizophrenic who lived without medication for over fifty years. Her first mental breakdown happened at age 36. My grandmother was an immigrant's daughter and WWII Japanese code breaker turned 1950s housewife. She received her bachelor's and master's degree before settling down to raise five kids. One day she woke up hearing voices. She lived with these voices for the rest of her life, building physical and mental boundaries between herself and the world. In some ways, her life unraveled little by little. In other ways, she lived happily to 89-years-old. I'm 28. As I trudge towards the age when my grandmother first heard voices, I grapple with the elaborate façade of normalcy she constructed to protect herself and her family. In doing so, my grandmother shut out even those she was closest to. This memoir is my journey to understand this woman, first through my own experience with her, then through my mother's and aunts' experience, and finally through my grandmother's own experience. I wrestle with themes of isolation, mental illness, intimacy, protection, inheritance, family, success, and acceptance. Ultimately, I search for what it is about her life that terrifies me.
    • Portrayal vs. reality: images of African Americans in magazine advertisements

      Davis, Catherine Elizabeth (2001-08)
      The images of African Americans in magazine advertisements are changing. As these images change, researchers question whether or not African American socioeconomic and familial status are being accurately represented. George Gerbner's cultivation theory suggests that media play a role in shaping people's perceptions of minority groups. Using content analysis, this study compares the portrayal of African American socioeconomic and familial status in magazine advertisements with 1999 United States Census Bureau socioeconomic statistics of African Americans in the United States. This study found that a discrepancy exists between the portrayal and the reality of African American socioeconomic and familial status than United States Census Bureau statistics show. These results provide a basis for further research into the social ramifications of African American misrepresentation in media.
    • Post stroke interpersonal communication: an intimate exploration of stroke survivors' lived experiences

      Hendley, Lora L.; Richey, Jean; Taylor, Karen; Jarrett, Brian (2015-12)
      This qualitative study explores the personal and intimate lived experiences of stroke survivors who suffer the comorbid emotional sequelae of Post Stroke Depression (PSD) and how it affects their rehabilitation and interpersonal relationships post stroke. By using Uncertainty Reduction Theory (URT), the idea of Social Construction of Identity, the epistemology of Narrative Inquiry (NI), and conversational interviews (CI), with stroke survivors, their spouses/significant others, friends, and other family members, the aim of this body of research has been to take on the difficult task of observing how stroke survivors navigate the difficult and sometimes daunting path that all stroke survivors must travel as they attempt the reconstruction of their self post stroke. They face every new day with the knowledge of who they once were and who they are now. The person that they are now has become their reality. Many stroke survivors regardless of the hemisphere in which the brain lesion occurs, suffer from some degree of the post stroke emotional sequelae, or a condition following and resulting from a disease, of post stroke depression (PSD). With the comorbid occurrence of PSD comes yet another challenge to their reconstruction process. The findings of this research study have remained consistent with the current research data and literature on stroke, stroke recovery, PSD, and aphasia.
    • Postwar reconciliation: parental attitudes towards Sri Lanka's trilingual education policy

      Malalasekera, Nimasha S.; Marlow, Patrick; Siekmann, Sabine; Martelle, Wendy (2019-08)
      After 26 years, the ethnic-based civil war in Sri Lanka ended in 2009. The Trilingual Education Policy seeks to reconcile the estranged Sinhalese and Tamil communities by teaching each community the other's language in this postwar context. Scholars argue that national reconciliation through Trilingual Education is unlikely to succeed because of the continued mistrust and prejudice between the two communities and the demand for English as key to social mobility and economic prosperity. Since these claims are not supported by empirical evidence, this study seeks to find empirical data to support or counter these claims. The study investigates parental attitudes to their second languages, Sinhala, Tamil, and English, the three languages of the Trilingual Education Policy to understand its likely success. Twenty-one parents whose children receive Sinhala, Tamil, and English L2 tuition in Colombo 5 were selected through convenience sampling. The study uses the constructivist grounded theory, mentalist approach to language attitudes, and concepts of capital and linguicism for data analysis. The study found that Sinhala has capital for the Tamils and is valued and glorified by them, whereas Tamil has no capital for the Sinhalese and is devalued and stigmatized by them. Both groups valorize and glorify English, for it has more capital than Sinhala/Tamil both locally and translocally. Concluding that the Trilingual Education Policy is unlikely to succeed because of linguicism, the study recommends providing incentives for learning Sinhala and Tamil and advocating dual language education for reconciling the two communities.
    • post~conscious

      Moser, Nicklaus O.; Hill, Sean; Cooper, Burns; Farmer, Daryl; Hirsch, Alex (2017-05)
      post~conscious is a collection of poems that attempts to explore the potential of what may be described as a fractal rhetoric. As anyone can know or find out, the term fractal does not only describe pretty, self-similar shapes, like snowflakes, but at its mathematical core describes a set of values which are derived from convoluting and reiterating an algorithm, so that if A2+B=A and A=0 and B=1, then A=1. At this point one simply drops the new value for A (1) back into the equation and solves for yet another, new value for A (2). Of course, in reality, B is not a real number, but an imaginary one, such as 1i, so that every iteration of A is confined to a complex number plane and will, as, for instance, in the case of the very well-known Mandelbrot Set, never exceed 2. But, of course, there is an infinite number of numbers between 1 and 2. However, the importance of fractal geometry for post~conscious is not that the fractal provides a formula for understanding human thought (though it may) or for creating poetry. The importance rests in the more symbolic, parallel induction that utterances which are limited to an imaginary plane or environment or subject, may, after numerous iterations, begin to cohere into a thing that resembles the imagination proper. Of course, one has no image for the imagination other than every image. This paradox is post~conscious' raison d'être. As has been stated, yet not explained, post~conscious attempts to make use of a fractal rhetoric. Yet because a rhetoric does not rely upon somatic phenomena, such as images, sounds, or touches, to exist, but may exist in a purely semiotic form/nonform, yet can be simulated structurally with language, yet not with just any aspect of language, but predominantly with syntactical cleverness, post~conscious may attempt to delineate the form of the fractal rhetoric which may be supposed to resemble the imagination proper, if such a nonity can be said to exist anywhere, or at any time, outside of itself. Thus, post~conscious:
    • Praxis and insider-outsider relationships: the role of non-indigenous teachers in promoting indigenous language and culture in educational spaces

      Kealy, Kelly; Marlow, Patrick; Siekmann, Sabine; Webster, Joan Parker (2014-12)
      In many places throughout Alaska, non-Alaska Native certified teachers are working in communities that foster (or seek to foster) Alaska Native language and culture revitalization in the schools. Often, this means teachers with limited knowledge of the target language need to figure out how to support that content in their classrooms. This qualitative thesis examines interview and field note data collected from five non-Alaska Native teachers (working in Southwest schools) while they took summer classes at an Alaskan university. The teachers shared reflections on their struggles and successes in seeking to facilitate the integration of local Indigenous Knowledges into their schools and classrooms. Several common themes were identified, including Positioning Self as Co-Learner, Transforming Attitude towards Village English (VE)/Yugtun, Promoting VE/Yugtun in the Classroom, and Valuing Linguistic Affordances to Transform Self. When viewed through the lens of critical pedagogy, these themes indicate that participants are engaging in praxis -- or reflecting critically and acting -- in order to move towards supporting Indigenous knowledges in beneficial, non-appropriative ways.
    • Predictors of success at a rural juvenile offender facility

      Ebbesson, Gunnar Sven Ebbe (2002-08)
      Although risk factors contributing to failure in treatment of young offenders have been studied extensively, little is written about what effects success. This study on the latter takes advantage of data obtained at a local treatment facility. This study uses statistical strategies to compare 7 different variables from a set of archival data with the outcome variable, which is 'success in treatment'. The seven independent variables are ethnicity, age at entry to treatment, pre-release pass (PRP), days in treatment, FAS/FAE, sexual offender, and psychiatric diagnosis. This data has been accumulated by a clinician at the facility and offered to the investigator for the purpose of this project. The first stage of the analysis was to correlate all of the 7 variables with the outcome variable (success/no success). The variables with the strongest association were selected, and then correlated with each other. Variables shown to be correlated with success were further studied using a Logistic Regression analysis. The results of the statistical analysis showed that non-minority status was the only variable to be clearly associated with success.
    • Prehistoric toolstone procurement and land use in the Tangle Lakes Region, central Alaska

      Lawler, Brooks A.; Potter, Ben A.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Newberry, Rainer; Hemphill, Brian (2019-05)
      This project explores prehistoric human mobility and landscape use in the Tangle Lakes region, central Alaska through analyses of toolstone procurement and manufacture conditioned by site function. Early Holocene Denali and middle Holocene Northern Archaic traditions are hypothesized to have different tool typologies, subsistence economies, and land use strategies. However, few large, systematic studies of toolstone procurement and use have been conducted. At a methodological level, archaeologists have struggled to quantitatively source non-igneous cryptocrystalline toolstone which often makes up the largest proportion of archaeological lithic assemblages. These problems were addressed by developing rigorous chemical methods for statistically assigning lithic from Tangle Lakes assemblages to (a) two known local toolstone quarries, (b) materials within the Tangle Lakes region, and (c) non-local materials. Lithic technological and geospatial analyses were used to evaluate toolstone procurement, manufacture, and use within sites. Lithic samples from four archaeological components located at different distances from their nearest known quarry sources were used to address the research problems. The archaeological samples were derived from a Denali complex hunting site (Whitmore Ridge Component 1) and three Northern Archaic assemblages: a residential site (XMH-35), a tool production site (Landmark Gap Trail) and a hunting camp (Whitmore Ridge Component 2). Chemical results indicate that cryptocrystalline material in Tangle Lakes assemblages can be statistically assigned to primary sources locations, and visual sourcing of this material is entirely unreliable. Lithic analytical results indicate that despite slight changes in mobility strategies for Denali and Northern Archaic populations, site function is the strongest conditioning factor for material selection and procurement strategies local to the Tangle Lakes region. Thus, this research provides (a) best practice methods for sourcing abundance cryptocrystalline material that has been precluded from most lithic sourcing studies, and (b) the data necessary to incorporate technological organization strategies of Tangle Lakes populations into the broader context of Denali and Northern Archaic behavioral patterns in Alaska.
    • Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers Of Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math Using The Geophysical Institute Framework For Professional Development In Alaska

      Berry Bertram, Kathryn; Barnhardt, Raymond; McMillan, Claude III; Kramm, Gerhard; Smith, Roger (2011)
      The Geophysical Institute (GI) Framework for Professional Development was designed to prepare culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Professional development programs based on the framework are created for rural Alaskan teachers who instruct diverse classrooms that include indigenous students. This dissertation was written in response to the question, "Under what circumstances is the GI Framework for Professional Development effective in preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math?" Research was conducted on two professional development programs based on the GI Framework: the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) and the Science Teacher Education Program (STEP). Both programs were created by backward design to student learning goals aligned with Alaska standards and rooted in principles of indigenous ideology. Both were created with input from Alaska Native cultural knowledge bearers, Arctic scientists, education researchers, school administrators, and master teachers with extensive instructional experience. Both provide integrated instruction reflective of authentic Arctic research practices, and training in diverse methods shown to increase indigenous student STEM engagement. While based on the same framework, these programs were chosen for research because they offer distinctly different training venues for K-12 teachers. STEP offered two-week summer institutes on the UAF campus for more than 175 teachers from 33 Alaska school districts. By contrast, ACMP served 165 teachers from one rural Alaska school district along the Bering Strait. Due to challenges in making professional development opportunities accessible to all teachers in this geographically isolated district, ACMP offered a year-round mix of in-person, long-distance, online, and local training. Discussion centers on a comparison of the strategies used by each program to address GI Framework cornerstones, on methodologies used to conduct program research, and on findings obtained. Research indicates that in both situations the GI Framework for Professional Development was effective in preparing culturally responsive STEM teachers. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed in the conclusion.
    • The President's Commission on Pornography

      Vorro, Amy E. (2006-05)
      The poems in this collection reflect various forms of maturation and their parallels with historic cultural shifts, specifically those typified in pop culture by the perceived climate of the 1970's. The poems contained in the first section, Deep Throat, focus on moments, taking the variables of place and sexuality heavily into account so as to explore 'the unmentionable' and their resonances for both the specifically female and generally human conditions, while simultaneously examining the personal implications. Debbie Does Dallas, the second section, continues along this vein, yet branches out to contemplate more imagined encounters and more specific taboos, sometimes through the use of traditional poetic forms. The third and final section, Behind the Green Door, steps through a doorway into the past: applying the same topics of maturation, taboos and sexuality to family structure, childhood and memory. The President's Commission on Pornography relies heavily on eccentric juxtaposition so as to stretch and investigate the amorphous boundaries of taboos, language and sexuality
    • The problem with waking

      Reid, Steven John (2002-05)
      'The problem with waking' investigates the human struggle of coming to an awareness of self and the self's place among those who make up key relationships throughout life. The emphasis of the text is on locating moments in which the human essence is revealed against a variety of landscapes including forests, lakeshores, ice rinks, urban streets, and an international array of bars, from Chinese nightclubs to Alaskan pubs. Within the poems there is always an awareness of the poem on the page, on striking a visual balance in stanza length and white space. Line lengths are determined fundamentally on the belief that the strength of a poem is based on the creation and resolution of tensions and on a sensitivity to sound. Within the landscapes, representative moments are sought out and made lyric. Simple actions, often fragments of larger events, take on microcosmic, even mythical importance.
    • Projecting absence: a decade of US Arctic intelligence, policy, and perceptions of Russia

      Raymond, Vanessa Lee; Boylan, Brandon; Hirsch, Alexander; Ehrlander, Mary (2016-05)
      The U.S. government engaged in Arctic security and politics at a low level throughout early 2000s, while the Russian government was quite active in it Arctic region during this timeframe. Using text, data and visual analysis tools, this research conducts content analysis, sentiment analysis and mapping on U.S. Arctic intelligence documents released through Wikileaks. It compares patterns found in the content of intelligence documents with content and sentiment patterns found in U.S. Arctic policy to correlate a shared perception of Russian Arctic engagement. Research findings indicate that the dialogue about Russian engagement in the Arctic in the early 2000s in both the intelligence community (IC) and policy-making communities attribute a low level of threat to U.S. national security with regard to Arctic issues. These findings may contribute to the lack of U.S. engagement in the Arctic leading up to the Crimean/Ukraine conflict.
    • Qik'rtam Litnauwistai (island's teachers)

      Deal, Kitty L.; Leonard, Beth; Renes, Susan; Drabek, Alisha; Montague, Caitlin (2019-05)
      Qik'rtam Litnauwistai (Island's Teachers) was a multi-tiered, community-based, participatory action research project initiated as a direct response to both community and institutional recommendations to "grow our own" Alutiiq educators. The study (a) examined current departmental practices in teacher education at Kodiak College, (b) sought community feedback through interviews regarding recruiting and retaining Alaska Native pre-service teachers on Kodiak Island, and (c) analyzed successful eLearning course completion data, based on synchronicity. The examination and focus of improvement was on the educational system and program delivery model to meet the needs of all teacher candidates, especially our future Alutiiq educators. Interview participants overwhelmingly felt it was important to "grow our own" Kodiak teachers who could (a) provide a role model, (b) have teachers who possessed and could share a high level of cultural understanding, (c) who could understand the local environment in which they worked, and (d) provide a way to strengthen the community in which they live. Based on a review of literature, interviews, and data from UAA, recommendations or considerations for changes are suggested for (a) the Kodiak College Education faculty, (b) Kodiak College, (c) the University of Alaska Anchorage, and (d) Kodiak Island Borough School District.