• Regulating Hunting: Subsistence And Governmentality In The Central Kuskowkim Region, Alaska

      Vanek, Susan B.; Koester, David (2010)
      This paper explores the expansion of the state into formerly ungoverned aspects of life through an examination of one particular episode of intervention, that of moose hunting regulation in the Central Kuskokwim region of Alaska. As in most struggles over wild resources in the state, subsistence is a central organizing template. Local hunters residing in the villages of Aniak and Crooked Creek, interviewed for this work, identify themselves under the label of subsistence in opposition to others, often called "sport hunters". The felt presence of the state in this and other rural areas of Alaska has increased throughout the 20th century and the prevalence of the word subsistence in these disputes is tied to its status as a legal term, dictating how individuals must identify their practices and thus themselves, at the expense of other identifications. The persistence of subsistence indicates governmentality in discourse but not in meaning.
    • Reindeer, dogs, and horses among the Tozhu reindeer herder-hunters in the Siberian taiga

      Arakchaa, Tayana; Plattet, Patrick; Koester, David; Schweitzer, Peter; Koskey, Michael (2018-12)
      Anthropological studies have typically represented reindeer as the uniquely key domesticated animal species for Siberian people. For Tozhu reindeer herder-hunters, however, such a perspective ignores the important roles of dogs and horses. These species are equally vital and interdependent partners of daily life in the mountainous areas of Tuva where Tozhu people live. Each animal comes with specific characteristics, challenges and benefits that necessitate a multispecies perspective--the reindeer-dog-horse triad of Tozhu hunting and reindeer herding economies. This research completes the picture of how taiga-dwelling Tozhu and the three important animal species co-exist together. It seeks to portray: 1) how the Tozhu reindeer herder-hunters interrelate the role of these animals in hunting and reindeer herding; 2) how their intense crossbreeding of dogs and horses has in turn influenced human-animal relationships; and 3) how humans and animals cooperate with each other to achieve shared goals. An overview of anthropological studies of human-animal relations is presented in Chapter 1 and has revealed that humans and their animals are bound in mutual relations in which humans and animals have reciprocally influenced each other. In discussions of hunting and herding, the basic social concepts of "trust" and "domination," connected to "captivity" and "freedom," have become prominent social concepts for interpreting human-animal relations. In the case of the animals with which Tozhu herder-hunters interact in the taiga, both principles, "trust" and "domination," can be observed, though the widespread idea that animals give themselves to humans is not shared by the Tozhu. Chapter 2 of this thesis provides necessary background on the history of the Tozhu people. Chapter 3 outlines the social organization of reindeer herding and hunting in the Tozhu district of the Tyva Republic and focuses on the history of reindeer herding and hunting during the Soviet and post-Soviet eras, particularly the transition of Tozhu from small to large scale reindeer herding production. Scholars have described this transition as an abrupt change to meat-oriented production. Close scrutiny of the history of Tozhu reindeer herding and hunting reveals that the particularities of the fur trade dictated a gradual shift from small-scale to large-scale reindeer herding in order to provide reindeer hunters and villagers with reindeer to utilize as a means of transportation. Collective farms reconstructed reindeer herding and hunting by introducing new forms and techniques in their economies. Chapter 4 describes the role of reindeer and the nature of human-reindeer relationships among the Tozhu. Chapter 5 focuses on the role of the indigenous breeds of hunting dog, particularly their role in hunting and on crossbreeding during the Soviet era. The chapter also discusses how dog breed, gender, experience, age, and specialization affects hunting. It also examines the stealing and eating of dogs in the Tozhu district. Chapter 6 describes the role of horses in Tyvan ontology and in Tozhu economies. It also discusses crossbreeding during the Soviet and post-Soviet era and how the Tozhu are interfacing with crossbreeds today. Analysis of changes in hunting and reindeer herding organization and the history of dog and horse crossbreeding sheds light on the balancing of human relationships with their animals and animal relationships with their humans. Hunting with dogs, for example, has actually provided a stimulus to domesticate reindeer for riding. The practice of riding allows humans to keep up with the dogs during the search for prey in winter. Tozhu practice also includes maintaining a balance between animal captivity and freedom in order to manage multiple animals successfully. All three species are essential for herder-hunters, and one species cannot be said to be more or less important than the others.
    • The relationship between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and the horse: deconstructing a Eurocentric myth

      Collin, Yvette Running Horse; Barnhardt, Raymond; Leonard, Beth Ginondidoy; John, Theresa Arevgaq; Oviedo, Marco A. (2017-05)
      This research project seeks to deconstruct the history of the horse in the Americas and its relationship with the Indigenous Peoples of these same lands. Although Western academia admits that the horse originated in the Americas, it claims that the horse became extinct in these continents during the Last Glacial Maximum (between roughly 13,000 and 11,000 years ago). This version of "history" credits Spanish conquistadors and other early European explorers with reintroducing the horse to the Americas and to her Indigenous Peoples. However, many Native Nations state that "they always had the horse" and that they had well established horse cultures long before the arrival of the Spanish. To date, "history" has been written by Western academia to reflect a Eurocentric and colonial paradigm. The traditional knowledge (TK) of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas, and any information that is contrary to the accepted Western academic view, has been generally disregarded, purposefully excluded, or reconfigured to fit the accepted academic paradigm. Although mainstream academia and Western science have not given this Native TK credence to date, this research project shows that there is no reason -- scientific or otherwise -- that this traditional Native claim should not be considered true. The results of this thesis conclude that the Indigenous horse of the Americas survived the "Ice Age" and the original Peoples of these continents had a relationship with them from Pleistocene times to the time of "First-Contact." In this investigation, Critical Indigenous Research Methodologies (CIRM) and Grounded Theory (GT) are utilized in tandem to deconstruct the history of the horse in the Americas and reconstruct it to include cross-cultural translation, the TK of many Indigenous Peoples, Western scientific evidence, and historical records. This dissertation suggests that the latest technology combined with guidance and information from our Indigenous Peoples has the power to reconstruct the history of the horse in the Americas in a way that is unbiased and accurate. This will open new avenues of possibility for academia as a whole, as well as strengthen both Native and non-Native communities.
    • Relationship maintenance, democratic decision making, and decision agreement

      Tucker, Jenna M.; Sager, Kevin L.; Richey, Jean; Taylor, Karen (2012-05)
      Relationship maintenance uses different strategies to maintain a relationship at the desired level of intimacy. Democratic decision making is a practice through which each individual has equal rights in the decision-making process. The present study investigated connections among two areas of research. In particular, this study examined the correlations among relationship maintenance behaviors, democratic decision making, and decision agreement. Both hypotheses in the study were supported, which suggests relationship maintenance promotes democratic decision making, which in turn promotes decision agreement.
    • Representation and marginalization: a case study from contemporary Alaska Native art

      Biddison, Dawn Drake; Lee, Molly; Jonaitis, Aldona; Koester, David (2002-12)
      In Alaska, contemporary Native artists are creating compelling works of art, yet, in the literature and exhibitions about Native North American contemporary art, Alaska Native art receives little if any attention. In this study, I assess how contemporary Alaska Native art is presented to the public to evaluate whether these representations marginalize this artwork. I examine the creation, exhibition and reception of contemporary Alaska Native art based on the perspectives of the artists, exhibit evaluations and viewer responses. My goal in this study is to substantiate the need to address the way Alaska Native art is presented and to analyze current practices. In particular, I seek to emphasize the importance of creating contextualized presentations of contemporary Alaska Native art using multiple perspectives and interpretive media based on collaboration between the exhibitors of public art and Native artists and communities. By creating more inclusive, informative representations of Alaska Native art, presentations can begin to address the differing requirements of a variety of audiences, utilize the critical attention given to Native American and Euro-American art elsewhere and provoke a re-thinking of preconceptions that continue to diminish the accomplishments of Alaska Native artists.
    • The republic for boys

      Hibler, W. David (2004-05)
      This hybrid work of fiction aims to relieve the tension of epiphany from the Short Story while restoring the aura of retelling or re-seeing to the Novel. The book examines a disastrous event at Sam Kinley Republic for Boys, a facility for adjudicated youth in upstate New York. The first six sections each follow a different character, and each is set in the hours leading up to the incident. While some of these stories extend into the night and the subsequent morning, only the final section considers what might be termed 'the aftermath.' The disaster affects the different characters in different ways. Each character is in the midst of some conflict. The conflicts range from relationship troubles, to medical conditions, to career shortcomings, and in all cases these conflicts are foremost in the characters' minds. Each section evolves as these conflicts compete for attention with the disaster itself. Sometimes they win, sometimes they lose. Sometimes the competing conflicts work to resolve each other. These resolutions are not always productive.
    • Rereading identity: the uncanny in Janet Frame's "The Carpathians"

      Slagle, Nancy Elizabeth (2005-05)
      Janet Frame's ultimate novel, The Carpathians, joins the New Zealand tradition of literature of the uncanny, which has addressed the problem of post-colonial identity, though the novel's metafictional and psychological complexity are uniquely Framian. The work gains richness from a psychoanalytic reading with attention to the character John Henry Brecon, who claims authorship of the novel on its final page. As ekphratic author, he employs the uncanny mode, developing motifs and themes of heimlich and unheimlich set forth by Sigmund Freud's 1919 essay, 'The Uncanny.' John Henry's novel evokes uncanny sentiments through suppression and release of his subconscious and through uncertainty as to the location of reality. Literature fulfills John Henry's and New Zealand's needs to be haunted by a parental figure, yet self-sufficient. The novel examines three tensions: the linguistic and cultural self-repression of the Pakeha characters, the emotional barrier between characters; and the freezing of language to stifle emotion and creativity. During a surreal thunderstorm, John Henry breaks social, emotional, and linguistic barriers by converting uncertainty into the liberating emotion of fear. Frame's novel enhances the post-colonial relevance of uncanny literature as John Henry writes to redefine his community, himself, and his role as an author.
    • Resilience to capitalism, resilience through capitalism: indigenous communities, industrialization, and radical resilience in Arctic Alaska

      Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin C.; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren; Eicken, Hajo; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Takahashi-Kelso, Dennis (2016-08)
      A large and expanding body of scientific evidence shows that the Arctic is experiencing rapid social-ecological changes. Arctic stewardship is a framework for governance that is based on the principles of resilience thinking and is gaining prominence in both academic and political settings. However, critical scholars have indicted resilience thinking for failing to adequately comprehend the social dimensions of social-ecological systems. Resilience, therefore, remains a problematic theoretical foundation on which to base governance. The aim of this dissertation is to improve resilience thinking so that it can overcome its demonstrated shortcomings and thereby contribute to improved Arctic governance. I propose a novel theoretical framework called radical resilience, which integrates conventional resilience thinking with key insights from the political economic theories of certain Marxists and post-Marxists – namely that the capitalist mode of production and consumption is a key driver of ecological degradation and social inequity. Focusing on populations who maintain high degrees of non-capitalist modes of economic activity, I use radical resilience to answer the research question: How is the global capitalist system affecting the social-ecological resilience of Indigenous communities in northern Alaska as the Arctic continues to industrialize? Empirical case studies revolving around the three sectors of industrial activity increasing the fastest in the Arctic – tourism, natural resource extraction, and shipping – show that the relationship between capitalism and the resilience of Indigenous communities is complex and conflicted. While engaging in capitalism challenges traditional values, it is also a key strategy for maintaining adaptive capacity. Rather than calling for local places to ‘weather the storm’ of change – as resilience has been critiqued for doing –governance should enable local influence over global processes through enhanced bottom-up democracy, or what the resilience literature calls revolt.
    • Rethinking the Redoubt: Kolmakovskiy Redoubt, a fur trading post on the middle Kuskokwim

      Hilsinger, Erik Deforest (2002-08)
      "Kolmakovskiy Redoubt is a multi-component site in the Middle Kuskokwim River region. It operated from 1840 to 1925 and includes evidence of Russian, Eskimo, Deg Hit'aan, and Euro-American occupations. Dissatisfaction with the report and the availability of the collection at the University of Alaska Museum led to reexamination of the site. The collection of artifacts was examined, identified and recorded. Information about the stratigraphy, details of construction, and function of excavated structures are presented in a clearer fashion. Historical information about the people who lived or traded there and historical information about the material culture left behind was synthesized. New conclusions were reached that differ significantly in some cases from Oswalt's original conclusions. Alaska Natives and Creoles operated the Redoubt, and little material culture evidence separates them. American period occupation results in the advent of vast amounts of manufactured imported goods, dubbed technofacts, which clearly distinguish this occupation"--Leaf iii.
    • Ricochet: poems

      Baram-Blackwell, Inessa (2004-05)
      Before words take on meaning for us, whether we encounter them as youngsters or adults, they are collections of sounds and shapes, more or less mellifluous depending on our personal aesthetics, and what we mean them to describe merely nameless objects, ideas, or actions. The intersection of words and what, or how, they describe is sizable, although in everyday exchanges we tend towards the objects of description rather than the descriptions themselves. The poems comprising Ricochet, and perhaps much of poetry in general, attempt to serve as a corrective to this predisposition. Veering in multifarious directions, the poems in turn encounter nature, science, politics, religion, language, and life cycles. The pith of the collection is the quirky third section, which explores movement as much as it does the stated subjects of the poems. The compilation plays with language, presenting ideas that ricochet, but not necessarily back to their Origins.
    • Risk and crisis communication: coordinating for a northern environment

      Kezer, Patrick S. (2006-05)
      With the destruction of 9-11, and more recently the Asian Tsunami and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, came an urgency for communities across the US to be better prepared for such events. Human-caused and natural disasters are the principal force that crisis managers must face when planning, coordinating, and preparing for a crisis. This research examines the lived experience of crisis managers in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) as they engage in the process of planning coordinated responses to such crises. The study employs conversational interviewing as method and follows a narrative methodology. The results of the study suggest that crisis managers in the FNSB are a cohesive group who depend on mutual aid in the event of crises, and understand that there are boundaries to their response, yet are confident in their abilities. They respond to such events following a hierarchical command structure similar to that of the military. Their coordinated efforts are regulated by outside agencies and include interacting with the media on a routine basis.
    • Risk Society On The Last Frontier: Indigenous Knowledge And The Politics Of Risk In Oil Resource Management At Alaska's North Slope

      Blair, Berill; Lovecraft, Amy L. (2010)
      This thesis assesses the role of modern environmental risks and their institutionalized management in the subpolitics of North Slope stakeholder groups. It draws primarily on the concepts developed by Ulrich Beck and the literature that has grown out of his Risk Society thesis. The purpose of this research is to determine whether the current designs for knowledge production and management inside Alaska's oil management regime are inclusive of the indigenous knowledge (IK) of North Slope residents during the mediation of environmental risks, and whether the extent of inclusion is in proportion with the risk exposures of these communities. The premise of the thesis is that Alaska's oil politics is influenced by risk society conditions, and inclusion of North Slope residents' IK in environmental risk mediation has failed to match the scope of risks imposed upon local communities by negative externalities of oil development policies. Consequently, this trend has resulted in a technocratic hegemony of administrative agencies over risk definitions and disputes over the legitimacy of expert risk-decisions. The thesis is supported by an extensive literature on the politics of science and risk, an examination of the public process at state agencies, and a qualitative analysis of knowledge management initiatives both at the state and at the subpolitical level. The findings of this study support the idea that a new knowledge management model for risk mediation is needed to effectively include stakeholders' cultural rationalities on the acceptability of risks.
    • River of fear

      Taylor, Natalie Elise; Farmer, Daryl; Kamerling, Leonard; Carr, Richard (2015-05)
      River of Fear is a literary nonfiction memoir in which the author, Natalie Taylor, leaves the only home she's ever known in small town east Texas to move to Sabie, South Africa with her parents for her father's new position as COO of a wood products company. Taylor and her parents find home in a house with a tin roof, looking out on hazy green mountains and a carefully groomed garden. In Sabie, Taylor discovers a world that challenges her ideas about safety, control, and fear. The Sabie River overflows with crocodiles, while at school, as the only American, Taylor quietly struggles to find her place in her classmates' insulated world. At home on the banks of the "river of fear," she strives to find herself in a place where AIDS, racism, poverty, and forest fires encroach on paradise, and where her parents each cope with fear in their own way. River of Fear is Taylor's coming-of-age memoir in post-apartheid South Africa in which Taylor attempts to make sense of her relationship to the world, her parents, and herself.
    • Rivers From The Air

      Odden, Mary Elaine; Soos, Frank; Bartlett, D. A.; Morgan, John (1995)
      This is a collection of creative non-fiction essays. They are triggered by events and persons from my life's experiences, but I hope they shed light on experiences I share with others: coming of age, mothering, probing relationships with nature, understanding and misunderstanding strangers and friends. The Anglo-Saxons believed that to see something was to cast a shaping light upon it, rather than passively accepting what "is." I like that, and it follows, for me, that writing is an active kind of seeing that casts itself in stone here and there like children playing "statues." The whole thing is moving and changing, of course, and can't really be seen. But trying to see it is my idea of what we are here for. <p>
    • Rogue bulldozers and other essays

      Marsh, Amy; Brightwell, Gerri; Stanley, Sarah; Farmer, Daryl (2016-05)
    • The role and spirituality in Athabascan recovery and sobriety

      Scoville, Dolores Gregory (2003-05)
      It is well documented that Alaska leads the nation in alcohol dependence and abuse. There are studies that document the high abuse levels among Alaska Natives along with corresponding economic costs and lost productivity. The purpose of this study was: (a) to determine the definition of spirituality of a purposive sample of Athabascan Indians of Interior Alaska and (b) to discover what role spirituality plays in Athabascan recovery and sobriety. Nine life history interviews were examined from the People Awakening Project at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A Grounded Theory Analysis was used to yield culturally relevant results. A definition of spirituality was determined and the role that spirituality plays in Athabascan recovery and sobriety was discovered. Athabascan recovery does not correspond entirely with traditional western treatment methods but there are some similarities in the recovery process common to both. Four of the nine interviews discussed attendance of AA groups or counseling as a help in their recovery. It is recommended that further study with other Alaska Native groups would be beneficial to identify protective and resiliency factors of spirituality and determine how to incorporate these factors for prevention of alcohol dependence.
    • The role of Alaskan missile defense in environmental security

      Fritz, Stacey Anne (2002-12)
      In 2002, the United States abandoned the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and began constructing a missile defense system in Alaska. Questions about how missile defense will contribute to U.S. security remain. Moreover, beliefs about what constitutes security are expanding to include considerations of global environmental stability. According to environmental security theories on arms control, non-proliferation, and environmental degradation, deploying missile defense may make the U.S. and the world less secure. This analysis addresses the issue by exploring the military's role in Alaska and resulting environmental damage, followed by a history of missile defense systems and a description ofthe Alaskan project's components. Arguments for and against missile defense are explained, and the history of Kodiak Island's rocket launch facility illustrates how these issues are evolving in Alaska. The conclusion discusses why pursuing the system is seen by many as a risky policy choice in both traditional and environmental security contexts.
    • Routine outcome monitoring and clinical supervision: do therapists really care about their patients?

      Dexter, Kyle Raymond Kwon; Whipple, Jason; David, Eric John (EJ); Gifford, Valerie; Lardon, Cecile (2017-08)
      Psychotherapy has repeatedly been shown to be an acceptable form of treatment for a variety of psychiatric conditions. However, despite the success of psychotherapy, not all patients improve during a course of treatment. In fact, research has suggested that some patients actually become worse while engaged in psychotherapy. Thus, it becomes important to identify patient deterioration and provide this information back to therapists. Additionally, the ability to detect patient deterioration cannot be solely the result of clinician judgment. Research has shown that utilizing actuarial methods of identifying patient non-responders is superior to that of clinician judgment alone. In turn, the field has moved toward implementing routine outcome monitoring tools/management systems to assist in the process of identifying patients who are failing to respond to treatment. The present study explored potential relationships between routine outcome monitoring, deliberate practice, and routine clinical supervision. Results suggest that the vast majority of practicing therapists do not utilize routine outcome monitoring tools/management systems as part of their daily practices of psychotherapy, and most do not incorporate feedback results into their personal clinical supervision experiences. Additionally, results suggest that therapists who have received formalized training with routine outcome monitoring tools and/or are required to engage in weekly supervision, are more likely to monitor their patient outcome as part of their daily practices of psychotherapy. Moreover, self-assessment bias seems to be present within the sample in regards to identifying patient improvement, non-response, and deterioration. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed, along with limitations and future directions.
    • Russian impact on cultural identity and heritage in the middle Kuskokwim region of Alaska

      Jerabek, Cheryl L.; Barnhardt, Ray; Leonard, Beth; Schneider, William; Gerlach, Craig (2014-05)
      The objective of my research is to document the role that Russian heritage has played in the individual and group identity of Native people in the middle Kuskokwim River region of Alaska. For purposes of this study this area includes the villages of Lower Kalskag, Upper Kalskag, Aniak, Chuathbaluk, Napaimute, Crooked Creek, Red Devil, Georgetown, Sleetmute, and Stony River. The changes and adaptations that occurred in the middle Kuskokwim River area during the Russian era 1790-1867, the changes that occurred with the sale of Alaska to the United States, and the continued changes up to the present time, including the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), all impact the heritage and traditions of today. Today the middle Kuskokwim River region of Alaska includes Yup'ik, several Athabascan groups, Russian, and other European cultures. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Russian exploration, trading activities, and the Russian Orthodox Church changed the daily life of the indigenous population and added to the cultural blending of the region. That blending is evident even today, as Russian heritage has become part of the current Alaska Native cultural identity in the middle Kuskokwim. My study asks the following research questions: What impact did Russian explorers, traders, and Orthodox clergy have on the middle Kuskokwim River region of Alaska? How has Russian influence changed over time, and how has this Russian heritage impacted present-day cultural identity in the middle Kuskokwim region? Included is the broader discussion of how people in the region define their identity and what aspects of that identity are most important to them. Since I am using an ethnohistorical approach, I felt it was important to include an historical summary of the cultural change and indigenous adaptation during the Russian era and the changes brought about by the sale of Alaska, leading into more modern-day impacts. I interviewed 24 community members, focusing on their indigenous and Russian heritage. Interviews with two nonindigenous scholars also provided additional information on the indigenous and Russian history and culture of the region. From the semistructured interview dialogues, key themes and resonant narratives were identified. Those who were interviewed expressed indigenous values as the core of their identity including respect for elders and others, knowledge of family tree, respect for land and nature, practice of Native traditions, honoring ancestors, humility, spirituality, and importance of place. This helped me formulate an indigenous identity framework to illustrate the very complex pieces that influence identity in the middle Kuskokwim River region of Alaska. In the end, Russian heritage has been absorbed into the local culture, especially in the area of religion, and has been indigenized into a deeply rooted sense of place and ways of being and expressing Native culture. It is this indigenous rootedness that is at the core of identity in the middle Kuskokwim.
    • Russian women's experience of friendship: examining the application of American theories

      Dukhovskaya, Elisaveta N. (2002-05)
      This qualitative exploratory study examined Russian women's lived experience of their friendships with other Russian women, and the applicability of American theories of interpersonal relationships and friendship in interpreting that experiencing. The relational dialectic approach to friendship served as the theoretical framework of this study. The capta obtained by means of conversational interviewing of five Russian women were analyzed thematically. Interpreting the women's experience using relational dialectics produced four themes involving three dialectics. Two more dialectics observed in American friendships, certainty/uncertainty and affection/instrumentality, were not evident in interpreting the friendship experiences of these women. Analysis also provided insight on cultural similarities and differences between Russian women and American in the definition of friendship. Implications for future research considering the culture and the relational dialectics of friendship were noted.