• Gis-Based Approaches To Slope Stability Analysis And Earthquake -Induced Landslide Hazard Zonation

      Luo, Huayang; Zhou, Wendy (2006)
      This dissertation presents newly developed GIS-based deterministic and probabilistic approaches for slope stability analysis and earthquake-induced landslide hazard zonation. The described approaches combine numerical slope stability analysis with GIS spatial analysis to evaluate earthquake-induced slope failures, both shallow and deep-seated. The study has four major research components. The first component is a GIS-based procedure which was developed based on one-, two-, and three-dimensional (1D, 2D, and 3D) deterministic approaches to slope stability analysis and landslide hazard zonation. Slope stability methods in the GIS-based procedure included the infinite slope model, the block sliding model, the ordinary method of slices, the Bishop simplified method, and the Hovland's column method. The second component focuses on causative factors analysis of earthquake-induced landslide hazards. This component also discusses the determination of peak ground acceleration for slope stability analysis. The third component consists of an evaluation of the topographic effect of ground motion and the seismic response in the Balsamo Ridge area in Nueva San Salvador. The fourth component is concerned with the regional and site-specific landslide hazard zonation, using newly developed models for landslide hazard assessment in Nueva San Salvador. The slope stability and landslide susceptibility were mapped in terms of slope stability index (factor of safety, critical acceleration, Newmark displacement, failure probability, and reliability index). The landslides triggered by an earthquake on January 13, 2001 in El Salvador provide a setting for the calibration of results from GIS-based approaches. The procedures developed in this research proved to be feasible and cost-effective for slope stability analysis and earthquake-induced landslide hazard zonation.
    • The Influence Of Soil Cryostructure On The Creep And Long Term Strength Properties Of Frozen Soils

      Bray, Matthew Thomas (2008)
      The time dependent mechanical properties of ice-rich frozen soils were studied in relation to their cryostructure. The CRREL permafrost tunnel was the primary source of the studied ice-rich soils. Mapping of the permafrost geology of the main adit of the CRREL permafrost tunnel was performed and reinterpreted in the context of a cryofacial approach. The cryofacial approach in based on the concept that cryostructure is dependent on how a soil was deposited and subsequently frozen. Three main soil cryostructures were determined to represent the main aspects of the permafrost geology. Soils with micro-lenticular cryostructure represent the original ice-rich syngenetic permafrost formed during the Pleistocene. Reworked sediment due to fluvial-thermal erosion resulted in soils with massive cryostructure and soils with reticulate-chaotic cryostructure. Ice bodies within the tunnel include syngenetic wedge ice and secondary thermokarst cave ice deposits. A testing program for determining the time dependent mechanical properties, including the creep and long term strength characteristics of permafrost in relation to soil cryostructure, was performed. Undisturbed frozen soils include silty soil containing micro-lenticular, reticulate-chaotic, and massive cryostructure. Remolded silt from the tunnel was used to create artificial samples with massive cryostructure for comparison to the undisturbed frozen soils. In addition to frozen silt, undisturbed ice facies were tested. These included syngenetic wedge ice, Matanuska basal glacial ice, and Matanuska glacial ice. Testing methods include uniaxial constant stress creep (CSC) tests and uniaxial relaxation tests. It was shown that soil cryostructure and ice facies influences the creep and long term strength properties of frozen soils. It was shown that remolded soils provide non-conservative creep and long term strength estimates when extrapolated to undisturbed frozen soils. Minimum strain rate flow laws show that at low stresses, undisturbed soils creep at a faster rate than remolded soils. At high stresses, frozen soils creep at a faster rate than ice. It was also shown that the unfrozen water content influences the mechanical properties of frozen soils and that the unfrozen water content is influenced by soil cryostructure. Through cryostructure, the permafrost geology is related to the time dependent mechanical properties of frozen soils.