• NUNIVAK ISLAND SUBSISTENCE COD, RED SALMON AND GRAYLING FISHERIES – PAST AND PRESENT

      Drozda, Robert M. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Subsistence Management, Fisheries Resource Monitoring Program, 2010-12)
      Nunivak Islanders (Nuniwarmiut) report Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus; atgiiyar) was a significant and consistent subsistence resource during the first half of the 20th century. Following an absence of at least 30 years, Pacific cod returned to Nunivak waters in the mid-1980s and were once again incorporated into the Nuniwarmiut subsistence round. This report presents an overview of traditional and contemporary Pacific cod fishing primarily collected as “traditional knowledge” from Nunivak elders, as well as from literature and archival sources. The report also summarizes the current state of the Nunivak Pacific cod fishery with results of subsistence fish surveys and documentation of fishing grounds. Secondarily, historical and contemporary use and availability of Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka; cayag), Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus; culugpaugar) and other subsistence fish resources are presented. Ten Nuniwarmiut elders were interviewed and each provided detailed information on previously undocumented aspects of Pacific cod fishing at Nunivak Island, including locations, availability, methods, gear, processing and storage techniques.