• Alaska Village Police Training: An Assessment and Recommendations

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-12)
      The nature and effectiveness of such traditional social control methods in Alaska Native cultures is difficult to evaluate because of their displacement by methods introduced by fur traders, the Revenue Cutter Service, and U.S. Marshals. Territorial and state police continued the practice of establishing in Native communities the justice models with which they were familiar. The Alaska State Police began to organize formal training programs for Alaska Native people who would serve as police officers in Fairbanks (1964) and Juneau (1965), with more extensive police training programs financed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Nome in 1966 and the U.S. Department of Labor in 1968 (conducted by the Alaska State Troopers). Beginning in 1971, the Alaska Department of Public Safety received action grants from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) for the initiation of a broadly conceived program for developing crminal justice services in Alaska Native villages statewide — the Alaska Village Police Training program. A total of approximately $542,000 of LEAA was ultimately invested in continuing the program over a period of seven years (1971–1978). The present study evaluates the Alaska Village Police Training program over the seven-year period on program purpose and goals, program achievements and impacts, and program costs. A final section contains recommendations for future programs to improve training for Alaska police in rural villages. Of 292 people trained since the program's inception, only 70 were still serving in their villages as of late 1978.
    • Alaskan Village Justice: An Exploratory Study

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-02)
      Initiated by the Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency, this is the first comprehensive study of public safety and the administration of justice in the predominately Alaska Native villages of rural or "bush" Alaska. Researchers visited 56 communities within seven of the twelve Alaska Native corporation regions in the state as part of an exploratory effort to collect crime and justice information for use by the State of Alaska in criminal justice policy development in rural areas of the state. Information was gathered in three ways: (1) review of available documents related to each of the communities; (2) direct observations of the communities and justice operations within them; and (3) structured interviews with community residents to elict both object and subjective information about operation of public safety and social control systems. The 175 interviewees included community officials, village police officers, health aides, and magistrates. The report addresses customs, law, and crime in village Alaska; context on justice services in Native communities; police services; legal and judicial services; prisoner detention and corrections; and recommendations for improving the delivery of justice services to rural communities. The study concluded that bush residents do not receive equal protection regarding public safety and justice services in comparison with their counterparts in larger Alaska communities; that the State of Alaska does not have have adequate data needed to identify and address public safety and justice problems in bush areas; and that bush villages and rural Natives are not homogeneous entities and hence require varied and particularized responses by the state.