• The Alaska Division of Corrections: An Institutional Population and Space Utilization Study

      Endell, Roger V. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-04-15)
      The Legislative Interim Committee on Corrections, Alaska State Legislature, requested identification and assessment of the differing segments of institutional populations and their relationships to present space utilization practices of the Alaska Division of Corrections (later Department of Corrections). The basic questions for which solutions were sought related to development of reasonable options for relief of overcrowding in some institutions, to ensure more effective use of bed space in others, and to provide interim short-term solutions to system-wide overcrowding through modifications to existing facilities and through policy changes. The Committee emphasized that long-term facility planning should be properly left to the correctional master plan to be completed by early 1979. This report surveys correctional populations and space utilization practices within the eleven principal correctional centers managed by the Alaska Division of Corrections as of 1977–1978.
    • Justice Higher Education at the University of Alaska: A Curriculum Study

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-06)
      The University of Alaska has been offering courses in police and correctional subjects since the mid-1960s. The University's entrance into this justice field was to take advantaqe of program opportunities rather than to develop comprehensive academic programs, and consequently the curriculum has developed incrementally — a course at a time. The Criminal Justice Center [later the Justice Center] was established in 1975 to oversee and coordinate the University's efforts in the field of justice. One of the top priorities identified by the Center was the reorganization of undergraduate curriculum offered by the University in justice fields. This document contains the materials developed as a basis for the curriculum planning. Original drafts of each of the chapters of this report were reviewed by a Curriculum Advisory Committee comprising all full-time faculty in the University of Alaska's justice programs during the 1976–1977 acacdemic year, representatives of UA faculty from related fields, and experts on justice higher education from outside the state. This group endorsed (1) philosophy and goals for University of Alaska justice programs, (2) a justice curriculum design for the University, and (3) the essentials of the basic standards for University's justice programs. The goals and curriculum prepared as a result of this project were processed through the University's academic system and approved by the University's Committee on Academic Policy in May of 1977, making these goals and curriculum models officially the basic policy of the University in the area of Justice academic programs. Proposed standards awaited statewide University of Alaska approval at the time of the report.
    • Commentary on the Alaska Revised Criminal Code (Ch. 166, SLA 1978) and Errata to the Commentary

      Alaska Criminal Code Revision Subcommission (Alaska Legislative Affairs Agency, 1978-07)
      This pamphlet contains the Commentary on the Alaska Revised Criminal Code, which was passed by the Alaska State Legislature in June 1978 with an effective date of January 1, 1980. The revision followed four years of work by the Alaska Criminal Code Commission and Subcommission from 1975 to 1978. The Revised Criminal Code represents the first comprehensive revision of Alaska's criminal laws, which from 1899 to 1979 were primarily based on Oregon criminal statutes as they existed at the close of the nineteenth century. Earlier drafts of the commentary on the Revised Criminal Code may be found in the six-part Tentative Draft of the Code prepared by the Alaska Criminal Law Revision Subcommission during 1977 and 1978.
    • Alaska Village Police Training: An Assessment and Recommendations

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-12)
      The nature and effectiveness of such traditional social control methods in Alaska Native cultures is difficult to evaluate because of their displacement by methods introduced by fur traders, the Revenue Cutter Service, and U.S. Marshals. Territorial and state police continued the practice of establishing in Native communities the justice models with which they were familiar. The Alaska State Police began to organize formal training programs for Alaska Native people who would serve as police officers in Fairbanks (1964) and Juneau (1965), with more extensive police training programs financed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Nome in 1966 and the U.S. Department of Labor in 1968 (conducted by the Alaska State Troopers). Beginning in 1971, the Alaska Department of Public Safety received action grants from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) for the initiation of a broadly conceived program for developing crminal justice services in Alaska Native villages statewide — the Alaska Village Police Training program. A total of approximately $542,000 of LEAA was ultimately invested in continuing the program over a period of seven years (1971–1978). The present study evaluates the Alaska Village Police Training program over the seven-year period on program purpose and goals, program achievements and impacts, and program costs. A final section contains recommendations for future programs to improve training for Alaska police in rural villages. Of 292 people trained since the program's inception, only 70 were still serving in their villages as of late 1978.
    • Alaskan Village Justice: An Exploratory Study

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-02)
      Initiated by the Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency, this is the first comprehensive study of public safety and the administration of justice in the predominately Alaska Native villages of rural or "bush" Alaska. Researchers visited 56 communities within seven of the twelve Alaska Native corporation regions in the state as part of an exploratory effort to collect crime and justice information for use by the State of Alaska in criminal justice policy development in rural areas of the state. Information was gathered in three ways: (1) review of available documents related to each of the communities; (2) direct observations of the communities and justice operations within them; and (3) structured interviews with community residents to elict both object and subjective information about operation of public safety and social control systems. The 175 interviewees included community officials, village police officers, health aides, and magistrates. The report addresses customs, law, and crime in village Alaska; context on justice services in Native communities; police services; legal and judicial services; prisoner detention and corrections; and recommendations for improving the delivery of justice services to rural communities. The study concluded that bush residents do not receive equal protection regarding public safety and justice services in comparison with their counterparts in larger Alaska communities; that the State of Alaska does not have have adequate data needed to identify and address public safety and justice problems in bush areas; and that bush villages and rural Natives are not homogeneous entities and hence require varied and particularized responses by the state.
    • Manual of Criminal Law and Procedure

      Ring, Peter Smith; Havelock, John E.; HIckey, Daniel W.; Stern, Barry J. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-07)
      Intended to aid to Alaska law enforcement officers in the performance of their duties in the field, this manual was designed to provide brief, quick access to major points of substantive and procedural criminal law. The manual contained discussion and procedural guidelines for investigatory stops, identification procedures including line-ups, arrest, search and seizure, interrogation, as well as discussion of justification for the use of nondeadly and deadly force whether by peace officers or civilians, culpability, entrapment, trial preparation, and media relations. The section on substantive criminal law deals with a selection of crimes most likely to be encountered by "street" officers as defined with the recently enacted Revised Alaska Criminal Code (effective January 1, 1980), desribing elements of each crime, investigative hints, and differences with previous provisions of the criminal code, where relevant.
    • Alaska Corrections Master Plan: A Preliminary Draft Summary

      Endell, Roger V. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-07-11)
      In 1978, the State of Alaska committed itself to the development of a comprehensive master plan for its correctional system based on a philosophy consistent with the mandate of the Alaska Constitution (Article 1, Section 12): "Penal administration shall be based unon the principle of reformation and upon the need for protecting the public." This summary of the Alaska Corrections Master Plan was prepared to facilitate an overview of the various sections of the plan prior to the final meeting of the joint Master Plan Advisory Committee. As the plan itself was not yet in final approved form, this summary reflects the plan as it existed prior to finalization.
    • The Alaska Corrections Master Plan: Legislative Implications

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-11-08)
      This paper provides to members of the Alaska State Legislature a summary of those areas of the Alaska Corrections Master Plan which have obvious legislative implications. It includes recommendations for (1) statutory changes, (2) operational funding (personnel), and (3) capital improvements above and beyond the "normal" correctional budgetary process. It is not an all-inclusive narrative summary of the Master Plan. The summary provides page reference numbers to the Master Plan, general topics, and a brief description of the recommendations under the three major topical headings listed above.
    • Project Evaluation: Tundra Women's Coalition (Bethel), A.W.A.I.C. (Anchorage), Male Awareness Project (Anchorage), Kodiak Women's Resource Center and Kodiak Police Department (Kodiak)

      Conn, Stephen; Barry, Douglas; O'Tierney, Daniel (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-11-30)
      This report presents evaluations of three Alaska agencies that deal with domestic violence: Tundra Women's Coalition in Bethel, through its Family Violence Program; Abused Women's Aid in Crisis (AWAIC) in Anchorage, through its programs for battered women as well as its Male Awareness Program; and Kodiak Women's Resource Center, including its relationship to Kodiak Police Department.
    • The Alcoholic Beverage Control Board in Alaska

      Ring, Peter Smith (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-12)
      Alaska state law provides that Alaska communities may make legal or illegal the local sale of liquor. Further, they may restrict legal liquor sales to community-run liquor stores and may prosecute other sales of liquor or the possession or transportation of alcoholic beverages with the intent to sell them illegally. This study of the Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) Board, conducted in connection with a larger research project dealing with varying legal approaches to the control of alcohol use in rural Alaska, was designed to determine the extent to which statewide legalistic control mechanisms for beverage alcohol helped or hindered local option control efforts.
    • Short Papers Prepared for the Law Reform Commission While in Australia

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980)
      These four brief papers were submitted for the consideration of the Law Review Commission of Australia (later the Australian Law Review Commission) in its inquiry about whether it would be desirable to apply, either in whole or in part, Aboriginal customary law to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The author presents suggestions and information based on his research on traditional law ways among Alaska Native peoples and the relationship between indigenous law and the western law system in Alaska.
    • Alcohol Control and Native Alaskans — from the Russians to Statehood: The Early Years — Alcohol Control in Village Alaska

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980)
      A persistent thread throughout the legal history of Alaska since Russian contact with the Great Land until the present has been deployment of available legal resources to curb drinking by Alaska Indians and Eskimos. The long-held social belief on the part of white colonialists and government agents that Alaska Natives could not drink and became wild persons when intoxicated was translated into an unrelenting legal practice of focusing law and available legal resources on control of Native drinking and prosecution of those who supplied Natives with drink. / Even during four periods of territory-wide prohibition, the prohibition was enforced against Natives and suppliers to Natives, while enforcement was indifferent or nonexistent against territorial whites. / The historical overview confirms the propositions set forth by MacAndrew and Edgerton (1969) that American.Indians can trace current drinking problems to the prior expectations implemented as government policy. It also suggests that dependence on law only as a mechanism to change drinking problems can, in fact, exacerbate drinking problems and create among the impacted group problems with alcohol which may not otherwise have existed. / The dependence on law as a vehicle for social control in Alaska in recent years may relate to an absence of alternatives. However, this singular dependence on law enforcement flows from a "grand tradition" of governmental paternalism which can be interpreted as being as much a cause of drinking problems among Natives as a solution to them.
    • Evaluation of Pre-Trial Diversion Project, State of Alaska, Department of Law

      Ring, Peter Smith; Bruce, Kevin (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-01)
      In February 1978 the Alaska Department of Law initiated a pilot pretrial intervention (PTI) project in Anchorage directed at first-time property offenders with no history of violence and no current drug or alcohol dependency. The project was aimed at reducing recidivism and costs to the criminal justice system, and included a built-in evaluation component. This report explores the PTI project's impact by (1) comparing PTI clients with other defendants; (2) investigating compliance of PTI clients with contracts to which they agree at time of program entry; (3) comparing costs of PTI compared with those generated in ordinary criminal cases; (4) evaluating the program's administration, identifying its deficiencies, and suggesting improvements; and (5) looking at recidivism rates of PTI clients.
    • Legislative Implementation for the Corrections Master Plan, State of Alaska

      Havelock, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-01-01)
      In 1978 and 1979 the State of Alaska committed itself to the development of the first master plan for corrections in the state's history. The Alaska Corrections Master Plan included some 576 pages of recommendations plus appendixes. Faced with the task of implementing this plan, the House Committee on Finance of the Alaska State Legislature requested the Justice Center to (1) extract those elements of the master plan which had legislative implications (see "The Alaska Corrections Master Plan: Legislative Implications" by Roger V. Endell, 1979); and (2) to commit to legislative language those proposals which embodied suggestions for legislative change. This report is the product of that second phase study, providing comments and action recommendations for each of eleven recommendations of the Alaska Corrections Master Plan.
    • Rural Alaska Corrections Plan (A Summary)

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-02-12)
      Efforts to improve correctional services in the rural, predominantly Native communities of Alaska have been going on since before statehood. Complete implementation of plans developed by the Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency during the 1970s have been hampered by a number of factors: (1) the scope of the planning has tended to be confined to correctional facilities; (2) the problems faced by corrections in Alaska are complicated by diversity of communities served; (3) financial requirements have exceeded available resources; (4) the authority and responsibility for achieving the plans' objectives were unclear. This document offers proposals for a rural corrections plan which offers a comprehensive, systemic — rather than purely correctional — approach for improving public safety and corrections in rural Alaska. It describes the existing situation, philosophy, coordination and planning, organizational proposals, financing, and implementation.
    • Alaska Correctional Master Plan: Proposed Funding Strategy

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-03-18)
      In 1978, the State of Alaska committed itself to the development of a comprehensive master plan for its correctional system based on a philosophy consistent with the mandate of the Alaska Constitution (Article 1, Section 12): "Penal administration shall be based upon the principle of reformation and upon the need for protecting the public." A fundamental goal of the recommendations of the Alaska Corrections Master Plan is the provision of the most adequate corrections system for Alaska at the least possible cost. The single most effective means of accomplishing this is to avoid unnecessary incarceration of offenders, thereby avoiding the capital cost of constructing new facilities to accommodate growing inmate populations. Avoidance of unnecessary incarceration in turn requires development of a full range of community-based corrections programs, including pre-trial release, probation, pre-release, and parole supervision. This report recommends administrative and statutory changes for a proposed funding strategy.
    • Seven Years of Individualized Training: An Examination of Specialized Training Grants Funded by the Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency, 1973 through 1979

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-04-15)
      Prior to the establishment of the Criminal Justice Center at the University of Alaska (renamed the Justice Center in 1979), no program has attempted to train and educate Alaska justice practitioners on a continuing basis and at all agency levels. The Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency, through the Governor's Commission on the Administration of Justice, has attempted to deal with this training problem on an interim basement through the Specialized Training Grant program, which enables "state and local police officers, correctional officers, prosecutors, public defenders, and court personnel [to obtain] specialized training sponsored by other agencies and institutions," often involving travel out-of-state for programs largely unavailable in Alaska. This study examines individualized grants funded for the years 1973–1979 as a means of measuring the effectiveness of the Specialized Training Grant program as on approach to the continuing professionalization of Alaska's criminal justice personnel.
    • Social Services and Corrections: Some Impressions of the North Slope Borough of Alaska

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-06-04)
      Justice services formerly provided by the State of Alaska to residents of the North Slope Borough have been withdrawn in recent years. For example, there is no longer either an Alaska State Trooper or a Divisions of Corrections probation officer based in the borough capital, Barrow. This report presents observations and recommendations addressing the borough government's questions about the planning and development of borough correctional services, relations with the North Slope Borough Department of Public Safety, Alaska Court System, Alaska Division of Corrections, and Inpuiat University (later known as Iḷisaġvik College), issues related to alcohol offenders, probation services, and other issues related to borough correctional services.
    • Criminally Committed Mental Patient Services: A Task Force Report

      Endell, Roger V.; Havelock, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-06-20)
      Until 1980, criminal defendants found incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity were committed under contract, at the discretion of the Alaska Division of Mental Health, to Atascadero State Hospital in California, a facility suitable to longer-term care of persons needing a secure setting. Changes in California state policy foreclosed this option. The most likely facility in Alaska that could accommodate this class of patients was Alaska Psychiatric Institute (API) in Anchorage; however, introduction of a few new patients with special security needs would have impacts on existing programs of the Institute. This report presents recommendations of the Task Force on Criminally Committed Mental Patient Services for placement and treatment of criminal committed mental patients at Alaska Psychiatric Institute.
    • Narrative Report to Law Reform Commission of Australia on Results of Field Trip to the Northern Territory Pursuant to the Reference on Customary Law

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-07)
      This submission to the Law Review Commission of Australia (later the Australian Law Review Commission) makes recommendations regarding to what extent existing courts or Aboriginal communities themselves should be empowered to apply Aboriginal customary law and practices in the trial, punishment, and rehabilitation of Aboriginal offenders. The report is based on field interviews in six Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory of Australia as well police, magistrates, solicitors, legal aid field officers, the Crown Solicitor of the Northern Territory; and community advisors and staff of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs. The report discusses the relationship between indigenous law and the western law system derived from the British common law system as one of legal pluralism — more than on legal process at work in the same environment at the same time — and draws comparisons between legal pluralism as it exists in Australia with the situation in Alaska.