• The Economics of University Research

      Cravez, Pamela; Goldsmith, Scott (2004)
      Alaska ranks near the bottom among the states in the total amount of R&D activity. Most research in Alaska is conducted by the University of Alaska and directly by the federal government, and very little is done by industry. Alaska ranks 47th among the states in total research, 50th in industry research, and 42nd in University research (Table 2). Alaska’s performance is better in per capita terms, but spending on R&D per person is only half the U.S. average. Only federal R&D is above the per capita U.S. average. In terms of the “intensity” of R&D spending (R&D/Gross Product), Alaska is ranked number 41. About 1 percent of Alaska Gross State Product is devoted to R&D spending. The small amount of private industry spending on R&D in Alaska is due to several factors. The first is the absence of manufacturing industry within the state, except for seafood processing. Second is the dominance of the public sector within the economy both in terms of jobs and resource ownership. Third is the absence of Alaska based resource businesses large enough to financially support investments in R&D. Finally, Alaska has not been an attractive location for private research facilities due to cost and distance from clients and customers. "
    • University of Alaska Research: An Economic Enterprise (2007 Update)

      Goldsmith, Scott (2007)
      Nearly $50 billion of the $312 billion of total U.S. research and development expenditures in 2004 (preliminary) consisted of university research. Excluding federally funded research and development centers administered by universities, like the Los Alamos National Laboratory, total research-related revenues of U.S. universities were $43 billion in FY 2004, continuing a positive trend stretching back at least to the early 1950s. The federal government is the largest source of funding for university research, accounting for 64 percent in 2004. Internal university funding (institutional funding) is next in order of importance, contributing 18 percent of the total. State and local governments account for nearly 7 percent, as does the category of other (including nonprofit organizations). Private industry is the smallest category of contributor, providing less than 5 percent. Total research and development spending (including not only academic but also government and private research) in Alaska in 2003, the most recent year for which complete information is available, was $321 million. Alaska ranked 48th among the states, consistent with the size of its economy, measured by gross state product. Academic research was a higher share of total research and development, as reflected by Alaska’s rank of 43rd among the states. This paper updates the June 2004 ISER analysis entitled The Economics of University Research.