• TAPS at 35: Accounting for the Oil Revenues

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-07)
      Thirty-five years ago, on June 20, 1977, oil from state-owned land on the North Slope began flowing through the trans-Alaska pipeline. Since then, the state has collected $170 billion in oil revenues, in today’s dollars.i Petroleum (both oil and gas) still in the ground might generate another $100 billion for the state.ii What has Alaska done with its oil wealth so far?
    • Task 1 and 2 Reports to the Regulatory Commission of Alaska: Affordability Factors and Affordability Standards

      Tuck, Bradford; Schwartzberg, Lisa (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2006)
      Because affordability is essentially an issue of fairness, or equity, it is ultimately the task of the public policymaker to define “affordability” and to indicate factors to be considered in measuring “affordability.” We look first at factors that might be considered in discussing affordability. The FCC has addressed the issue of affordable universal service in some detail and has suggested principles that should be taken into account when policymakers attempt to determine affordable rates for telephone service. Major portions of that discussion are incorporated into Section II of the Task 1 report. Identification of potential variables that might be used to measure the factors influencing affordability is contained in Section III, and is organized around identified factors. Additional material is included in the appendix. Consideration of alternative affordability standards is incorporated in the present report, as well as suggestions we received from carriers in Section IV. Summary comments and observations are presented in Section V. Task 2 collected and analyzed a broad range of data, including extensive information from the 2000 U.S. Decennial Census and other U.S. sources, data from the Regulatory Commission of Alaska, survey results from Alaska Local Exchange Carriers, and other state sources.
    • Tax Cap 2000: Five Economic Studies

      Goldsmith, Scott; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      Passage of the tax cap would result in a substantial shift in purchasing power away from local government toward households, the federal government, state government, certain businesses, and non-residents. It would reduce the cost of owning property and impact the price of real estate. It would change the way local government finances public services. It would change the quality of life. Whether one views these economic changes as positive or negative depends on them perspective of the viewer. Clearly the tax cap would have far reaching economic effects that should be carefully considered before deciding whether it would be good or bad for the economy.
    • Teaching Economics to Russian Students: Some Preliminary Observations

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1993)
      In February 1993, I taught a one-week intensive course in "Fundamentals of Market Economics" to thirty-four first and second-year students at Magadan International Pedagogical University in Magadan, Russia. The students, who were enrolled in a new degree program in "Economics and Management," had had only limited previous exposure to the topics usually covered in introductory economics courses in America. My preliminary conclusion from this brief experience in teaching economics to Russian students is that basic principles of economic theory can be taught to Russian students in much the same way as they are taught to American students. Russian students were very interested in concepts of market economics, and seemed able to learn and apply them no less well than American students. Their attitudes towards market mechanisms appear to be generally positive, if slightly less so than for American students. However, their experience with market economics is much more limited than that of American students, at both the macroeconomic and microeconomic levels. In particular, it is difficult to teach about fiscal and monetary policy and institutions to students in a country where both policy and institutions are highly unstable or nonexistent. Nevertheless, Russian students are able to recognize the market forces which are increasingly becoming part of Russian life. Asked to suggest a new product or service which had come into existence in Russia as a result of market signals, one student answered: "Now you can telephone for home delivery of vodka."
    • Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport: Economic Significance 2000

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      Employment at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in 2000 is estimated at 9,119 ( annual average), generating an annual payroll of $367 million. This represents about 7% of all the wage and salary jobs in Anchorage and 8% of total payroll. Adding the offsite jobs generated by airport businesses making purchases and workers spending their earnings within the community, the total economic significance of the airport grows to 14,750 jobs with a payroll of $515 million. If the airp01i were a separate community it would be the 5th largest economy in the state. The airport is about 5 times the size one would expect for a community of 260 thousand, but only partly because most of the travel between Anchorage and the rest of the US is by air. Most of the activity at the airport is associated with international air cargo, nonAlaska visitors, and non-Anchorage residents of Alaska. Together these activities at the airport, which bring new money into the economy and contribute directly to the economic base of Anchorage, account for 6,443 jobs and $259 million of payroll. Adding the off site activity generated by these onsite jobs results in a total impact of these basic activities of 10,352 jobs and $361 million of payroll. By way of comparison, the headquarters activity of the oil and gas industry in Anchorage directly employed 3,515 in 1999 with a payroll of $316 million. Viewed this way it is clear that the basic activities at the airport are an important part of the economic base of the community.
    • Telehealth Business Models: An Assessment Tool for Telehealth Business Opportunities in Remote Rural Communities

      Berman, Matthew; Foster, Mark; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2006)
      The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of when the potentially offsetting considerations favor telehealth investments. To that end, we provide users with a financial template to assist them with the business model question of “how is value delivered to my customer and at what cost?” – assuming that the customer(s) may include a primary care provider, a specialist, an insurance company, a health care system, the entity paying for travel, and patients. The financial template allows users to enter their site specific estimates regarding changes in referral patterns with and without telehealth and the revenues and costs that result from the changes in referral patterns. In addition, we provide a spreadsheet to enable the user to estimate the potential value of patients’ time saved by avoiding travel and the value to patients of reduced wait time in the queue for specialty care. In addition, we provide a number of illustrative business cases primarily designed to show the potential complexity of the inter-relationship of parameters and assist users with understanding how they might use the template to build business cases for their particular circumstance. We also provide several examples of sensitivity analysis to assist users with understanding how they might use the template to develop “break-even” analyses and identify when the changes in referral patterns and case mix might trigger a need for increased staff or result in longer queues.
    • Testimony on SJR 38 "The Cremo Plan"

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1994)
      This document was submitted as testimony to the Alaska Senate State Affairs Committee by Professor Scott Goldsmith on January 28, 1994. The Cremo proposal would establish, by constitutional amendment, a system under which all natural resource revenues would be deposited into the Alaska Permanent Fund and each year a fixed percentage of the fund assets, equal to the long run average real return on the Fund would be withdrawn for appropriation by the legislature. Based upon the analysis provided by Mr. Cremo, the amount available for appropriation (income budget) would be $3.079 billion in 1996, the first year of the transition phase, and $2.860 billion in 2005, the last year of the transition phase. In evaluating this plan the potential risks and costs should be identified and the plan should be compared to alternative methods of addressing the problems targeted in the plan. In this testimony, the potential problems and alternative policies are discussed, particularly specific problems associated with dependence on oil revenues.
    • Testing a Methodology for Estimating the Economic Significance of Saltwater Charter Fishing in Southeast Alaska

      Wilson, Meghan; Fay, Ginny; Dugan, Darcy; Fay-Hiltner, Ian; Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      In May 2004, the Alaska legislature established new licensing requirement for sport fishing guide business owners and sport fishing guides on a statewide basis. As part of this new registration process, a registered guide vessel must display an ADF&G guide decal on both sides of the vessel along with a current year tag provided when the logbook is issued. The vessel registration portion of the logbook distribution does not collect all the information that CFEC previously collect; the primary mission at Sport Fish Division is monitor fishing pressure on fish stocks by tracking the number of vessels used in the guide industry including the number of vessels used by an individual business. Since a logbook is issued to a unique business, it is possible to determine how many vessels are being used by that given business. The new licensing requirements initiated in 2005, require that a business maintain current Occupational License and Liability Insurance. A guide is also required to have a current sport fish license, first aid certificate and a Coast Guard license if they plan to operate a motorized vessel with clients on board.The purposes of this study are 1) to estimate the economic significance of saltwater charter sport fishing in Southeast Alaska and 2) to test a new methodology for developing these estimates. In addition, this study lays the groundwork for additional spatial analysis relating fishing activity to spawning habitat and to local economies. By making these spatial associations we hope to generate a clearer picture of the economic values generated by riparian ecosystems and captured by anglers and captains from specific communities. "
    • Timber Harvest and Wood Products Manufacture in Alaska - 1995 and 1996 Update

      Hull, Teresa; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      This report provides information about the timber and wood products industry gathered from a variety of sources. It includes data for the entire state and for three regions within the state, and brings together previously available data on timber harvests and wood products exports, as well as new data derived from information ISER collected in surveys of loggers and wood processors. We hope the data will be useful for both public and private planning efforts, as well as informed policy debate over timber management and development of the forest products industry.
    • Toward Universal Broadband in Rural Alaska

      Hudson, Heather E.; Hanna, Virgene; Hill, Alexandra; Parker, Khristy; Sharp, Suzanne; Spiers, Kent; Wark, Kyle (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-11)
      The TERRA-Southwest project is extending broadband service to 65 communities in the Bristol Bay, Bethel and Yukon-Kuskokwim regions. A stimulus project funded by a combination of grants and loans from the Rural Utilities Service (RUS), TERRA-Southwest has installed a middle-mile network using optical fiber and terrestrial microwave. Last-mile service will be through fixed wireless or interconnection with local telephone networks. The State of Alaska, through its designee Connect Alaska, also received federal stimulus funding from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for tasks that include support for an Alaska Broadband Task Force “to both formalize a strategic broadband plan for the state of Alaska and coordinate broadband activities across relevant agencies and organizations.” Thus, a study of the impact of the TERRA project in southwest Alaska is both relevant and timely. This first phase provides baseline data on current access to and use of ICTs and Internet connectivity in rural Alaska, and some insights about perceived benefits and potential barriers to adoption of broadband. It is also intended to provide guidance to the State Broadband Task Force in determining how the extension of broadband throughout the state could contribute to education, social services, and economic activities that would enhance Alaska’s future. Results of the research could also be used proactively to develop strategies to encourage broadband adoption, and to identify applications and support needed by users with limited ICT skills.
    • Toward Universal Broadband in Rural Alaska

      Parker, Khristy; Sharp, Suzanne; Hudson, Heather; Spiers, Kent; Wark, Kyle; Hill, Alexandra; Hanna, Virgene (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 11/1/12)
    • Tracking the Structure of the Alaska Economy: The ISER MAP Database

      Goldsmith, Scott; Hull, Teresa (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      This document is predominantly tabulated data with no interpretive or contextual information.
    • Traditional Knowledge and Contaminants Project and Resource Guide Project, Final Report

      Cochran, Patricia; Kruse, Jack; Merculieff, Larry (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2004)
      The goal of these projects has been to build capacity among Alaska federally recognized tribes to address their concerns about adverse changes in the environment. The University of Alaska’s Institute of Social and Economic Research and the Alaska Native Science Commission collaborated on both projects. Since the projects are complementary, we have combined the two final reports. There were seven components to the combined projects (component number five reflects the entire scope of work of the Resource Guide project): 1. Develop a traditional knowledge base 2. Develop a science knowledge base 3. Develop an integrated database 4. Develop a web-based resource guide for tribes wishing to act on their concerns 5. Design and implement a pilot program of mini-grants to tribes 6. Based on the mini-grant experience, recommend ways to support tribal actions Unlike many large scale testing projects where the testing laboratory is selected through requests for proposals, in this project several laboratories were integral to the design and implementation of the testing program. A major focus of the team’s activities in the Resource Guide grant was to identify laboratory resources that could meet the needs of Tribes in Alaska. Following consultations with a number of experts, the team decided that the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Mammal Quality Assurance Program and the US Fish and Wildlife Service Patuxent Laboratory offer two ongoing methods of identifying laboratories that meet rigorous standards for testing of the types most likely sought by tribes in Alaska. The team visited the NIST and USFWS laboratories and established ongoing relationships with both labs.
    • Treatment of Petroleum Refining and Other Energy-Intensive and Trade-Sensitive Industries in Pending National Climate Legislation

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-02-03)
      One of the major issues confronting Congress as it deliberates about legislation to limit carbon dioxide and other greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions is the effect on international trade. If the U.S. implements a cap and trade program, the cost of emissions rights becomes a new business cost for domestic establishments that foreign establishments do not face. This puts domestic industry at a competitive disadvantage in export markets as well as against imported goods. Over time, investments in U.S. industries decline, taking jobs oversees and undermining progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The concern, often called “carbon leakage,” is most acutely felt in trade-sensitive, energy-intensive manufacturing industries. The main climate bills that Congress is currently considering include H.R. 2454 and S. 1733, commonly termed the Waxman-Markey and Kerry-Boxer bills, respectively, in reference to their original sponsors. H.R. 2454 passed the House on June 26, 2009 with a recorded vote of 219-212. The companion Senate bill was filed on September 30, 2009, and is at this writing (11/06/09) under markup in the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. S.1733 incorporates many sections of HR 2454 verbatim, but differs in some respects in the way it treats energy-intensive and tradesensitive industries. This policy brief analyzes the way that both bills approach the issue of carbon leakage, with particular attention to the petroleum processing industry. The next section outlines the general treatment of energy-intensive and trade-sensitive industries that is common to both bills. Then, the brief discusses the specific treatment of refined petroleum products. Following that comes an analysis of the limitations and deficiencies in the approach that Congress is taking. The brief concludes with a discussion of potential modifications -- an outline of proposed amendments -- that could address the deficiencies consistent with the overall approach of H.R. 2454 and S. 1733.
    • Trends in Age, Gender, and Ethnicity Among Children in Foster Care in Alaska

      Vadapalli, Diwakar; Hanna, Virgene; Passini, Jessica (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-11-01)
      In Alaska, as in every other state, people who suspect children are being abused or neglected can contact the designated child protection agency. In Alaska, that agency is the Office of Children Services (OCS). It is responsible for investigating all reported incidents and determining the level of risk to the health, safety, and welfare of children. In a number of instances, children will be removed from their families and homes due to unsafe conditions, and they are often placed in foster care. 1 Being taken away from their families is of course traumatizing for children. The number of American children in foster care at any time, and the length of time they spend in foster care, has been closely watched over the last several decades. Several changes in policy and practice were introduced in the last 20 years, at national and state levels, to reduce both the number of children in foster care and the length of time they stay in foster care. These changes caused some dramatic trends at the national level: the number of children in foster care in the U.S. declined by almost a quarter (23.7%) between 2002 and 2012, with the decline being most pronounced among AfricanAmerican children (47.1%). As of 2012, African-American children made up 26% of all children in foster care nationwide, down from 37% a decade earlier. But during the same period, the proportion of children in foster care classified as belonging to two or more races almost doubled. And American Indian/Alaska Native children are the highest represented ethnic group among foster children—13 of every 1,000 American Indian/Alaska Native children in the U.S. were in foster care in 2012. In contrast, no such dramatic changes happened in Alaska in recent years. This paper reports on foster children in Alaska by age, gender, race, and region over the period 2006-2013. This information is important for state policymakers working to better protect abused and neglected children. At the end of the paper we discuss questions the data raise and describe additional data needed to better help children in foster care in Alaska. We compiled data for this analysis from monthly reports of key indicators on foster children in the state. OCS publishes monthly data on select indicators (Alaska State Statutes 2011, Monthly reports concerning children, AK. Stat. § 47.05.100), in PDF format on its website (http://dhss.alaska.gov/ocs/Pages/statistics/default.aspx). Data presented here are snapshots in time and do not follow unique children over time.
    • Trends in Alaska's Health-Care Spending

      Frazier, Rosyland; Guettabi, Mouhcine; Passini, Jessica (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska, 2018)
      All Americans spend a lot to get health care—but Alaskans spend the most per resident, face the highest insurance premiums, and have seen overall spending grow much faster. Here we highlight some trends in Alaska’s health-care spending since the 1990s, based on existing publicly available data that allow us to compare changes in Alaska and nationwide. A chart book with much more detail is available on ISER’s website. We hope this broad information on trends in health-care spending will help Alaskans better understand what happened, consider possible reasons why, and think about potential ways to change the upward spiral.
    • Trends in Alaska's People and Economy

      Martin, Stephanie; Killorin, Mary; Leask, Linda (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      This 16 page document outlines expected trends for Alaska's people and economy between 2001 and 2020. It was prepared for the Alaska Humanities Forum in October 2001 under the theme of "Alaska 20/20 Partnership - Bringing Alaskans Together to Chart Our Future".
    • Trends in Allegations and Investigations of Child Abuse and Neglect in Alaska

      Vadapalli, Diwakar; Hanna, Virgene (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2013-08)
      Rates of child abuse and neglect in Alaska have been high for years, compared with national averages and under various measures. To find ways of better protecting children in our state, it’s important for Alaskans to understand more about child maltreatment —which includes neglect, mental injury, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Neglect is by far the most common type of maltreatment, in Alaska and across the country. This is the first in a series of papers that will examine child abuse and neglect in Alaska, to focus more attention on this very serious problem and uncover potential reasons why rates are so high. Here we discuss trends in allegations of child abuse and neglect and subsequent investigations, from 2006 through 2012. We use publically available data from the Office of Children’s Services (OCS), the state agency that deals with most reported child maltreatment in Alaska.
    • True Cost of Electricity in Rural Alaska and True Cost of Bulk Fuel in Rural Alaska

      Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-10-26)
      In this analysis, we compile data from several sources to estimate the true cost of electricity in rural Alaska. The true cost includes expenses listed on the utilities’ books plus costs paid by other entities in the form of explicit and implicit subsidies. Our focus is on the nonfuel costs of power. Fuel costs are quite volatile and are tracked carefully by AEA on a monthly basis. The concept of “Fuel cost” typically includes the price paid at the point of delivery into a bulk storage tank. We do include here as contributed resources the estimated subsidies to the fuel delivery system for electricity due to provision of bulk fuel storage by, for example, the Denali Commission.
    • Turnover Among Alaska Teachers: Is It Changing?

      Hill, Alexandra; Hirshberg, Diane (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-07)
      Turnover among Alaska’s teachers was roughly the same in 2007 as it had been in 1999, with about 14% leaving their school districts (Figure 1). Turnover also remained twice as high in rural as in urban districts—about 22%, compared with 10%. That lack of broad change comes after years of efforts by Alaska’s state government, universities, and school districts to reduce teacher turnover, especially in rural areas. The Institute of Social and Economic Research has been tracking Alaska’s progress in reducing teacher turnover since 2004, in partnership with the Alaska Teacher Placement program, the Department of Education and Early Development, and university teacher training programs.