• Program Evaluation: Rose Urban Rural Exchange 2003

      McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      " The Rose Urban Rural Exchange is made possible by a partnership between the Alaska Humanities Forum and the Alaska Native Heritage Center. It's intended to build understanding and a state- wide sense of community by bringing urban students to rural Alaska, and rural students to urban Alaska, to learn about each other's cultures. It will continue through 2004. As in the first year. Urban students traveled from Anchorage to 11 villages in southwest and central Alaska. About 20 urban and 20 rural students participated in the second year of the program-twice Alaska-Shungnak, Kiana, Old Harbor, Ruby, King Cove, Alakunuk, Nanwalek, Kaltag, Pilot Station, Quinhagak, and Scammon Bay (see map). Rural students from these same villages traveled to Anchorage. In most cases, parents of students who traveled from Anchorage hosted the visiting rural students, and vice-versa. Parents also typically attended orientation sessions."
    • Program Evaluation: Rose Urban Rural Sister School 2003

      Frazier, Rosyland; McDiarmid, G. Williamson (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      The Sister School Exchange, along with the Student Exchange and Teacher Training programs, make up the Rose Urban Rural Program. The Rose Urban Rural Program is made possible by the Alaska Humanities Forum and with funding from the U.S. Department of Education. It is intended to build understanding and a statewide sense of community by bringing urban students and teachers to rural Alaska, and rural students and teachers to urban Alaska, to learn about each other's cultures. The Sister School Exchange provides urban and rural students with an opportunity to visit each other's classrooms and communities and form a foundation for sustainable relationships. Sponsoring teachers use a curriculum, developed by the program, intended to help students understand their host community's culture and history. Urban and rural teachers and a delegation of students visit each other's schools and communities for one week.
    • Program Evaluation: Rose Urban Rural Sister School 2005

      McDiarmid, Williamson, G.; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2005)
      The Rose Urban-Rural Program has a goal of annually doubling the number of urban and rural schools participating in the Sister School Exchange. In it's third year, the number of schools recruited quadrupled- exceeding the program goal- with eight urban and eight rural schools agreeing to participate in a 2004-2005 school-year exchange. The Sister School program expanded its urban locations to include Juneau, Alaska. This is the first time an urban Southeast Alaska community has been involved with the Rose Urban-Rural Exchange. Spirit Camps in rural Southeast Alaska have previously been a part of the Student and Teacher Training parts of the Rose Urban-Rural Exchange.
    • Program Evaluation: Rose Urban Rural Teacher Training 2004

      Frazier, Rosyland; McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2004)
      Teacher Training, together with the Student Exchange and the Sister School Exchange, make up the Rose Urban Rural Exchange. That broad program is funded by the U.S. Department of Education and administered by the Alaska Humanities Forum. It is intended to build mutual understanding and a statewide sense of community by bringing urban students and teachers to rural Alaska-and rural students and teachers to urban Alaska-to learn about each other's cultures. Under the Teacher Training program, teachers from middle schools and high schools in urban areas participate in cultural camps sponsored by rural communities and Alaska Native organizations. These camps, many of which have been operating for more than a decade, introduce Native young people and adults to their traditions, histories, and cultures. Allowing urban teachers to share this experience is intended to help them develop a greater understanding of and respect for Alaska Native cultures and rural life.
    • Program Evaluation: Rose Urban Rural Teacher Training 2005 (Amended)

      Frazier, Rosyland; McDiarmid, Williamson, G. (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2005)
      Based on successful experiences in the Student Exchange component of the Rose Urban- Rural Exchange, the Alaska Humanities Forum developed Teacher Training to give urban teachers hands-on experience in rural Alaska Native culture. In 2002, the forum began this summer program for teachers, sending middle- and high-school teachers to Alaska Native culture and spirit camps in rural Alaska. At these camps, urban teachers are exposed to Native arts and crafts, history, subsistence lifestyle, language, and dance. Also at these camps, Alaska Native elders pass on their stories and culture to young people. Teachers go through an orientation before they leave for camp, and after their return they complete lesson plans based on their experiences. These individual lesson plans are compiled in a notebook of lesson plans that are available to all Alaska teachers to help them bridge the urban-rural divide. Also, because a semester of Alaska Studies is now a statewide graduation requirement, these lesson plans constitute a valuable resource for Alaska studies courses.
    • Propane from the North Slope: Could It Reduce Energy Costs in the Interior?

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott; Szymoniak, Nick (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-10)
      Could propane from the North Slope cut energy costs in Fairbanks and other Interior communities that heat buildings or generate electricity with fuel oil or naphtha? The Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority (ANGDA) thinks it could. That’s because a North Slope producer has agreed to sell ANGDA propane for considerably less than what it might otherwise cost, if there were a natural gas pipeline. Propane is a component of North Slope natural gas—and right now there’s no way to get that gas to market.* Naphtha and fuel oil, by comparison, are refined from oil—so their prices are closely tied to the volatile price of crude oil. ANGDA hopes getting a price break on propane could make it cheaper, at least until a pipeline is built—and it asked ISER to analyze the potential effects of one idea.
    • Propane from the North Slope: Could It Reduce Energy Costs in the Interior?

      Goldsmith, Scott; Szymoniak, Nick (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2009)
      Could propane from the North Slope cut energy costs in Fairbanks and other Interior communities that heat buildings or generate electricity with fuel oil or naphtha? The Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority (ANGDA) thinks it could....We analyzed how fuel prices in Fairbanks might compare, under those assumptions and at different crude oil prices. We estimated the price of propane delivered to Fairbanks, the wholesale price of fuel oil in Fairbanks, and the price of the naphtha that Golden Valley Electric Association (the Fairbanks utility) burns to generate electricity. These aren’t prices residential customers would pay. The propane price doesn’t include costs of storing and distributing propane in Fairbanks, and we tried to make the fuel oil price comparable to that. This analysis is intended just to show relative fuel prices, given ANGDA’s assumptions.
    • Public and Private Sector Earnings in Alaska

      Bibler, Andrew; Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-12-01)
      We compare earnings in the Alaska public and private sector labor markets from 2001 -2016. Public sector laborers are older and more likely to be female, suggesting that taking these differences into consideration will be important in our comparisons. We also focus on the public-private sector earnings gaps for men and women separately, as the magnitude and even direction of the gap depends on this distinction. We go about this in three ways: unconditional comparisons, conditional earnings gaps, and comparing the earnings and growth of individuals who remain with the same employer. Below are the main findings: • The unconditional average public-private earnings gaps for men and women are of opposing signs (see Table 1). – Men in the public sector earn about $2,129 less in quarterly wages than men in the private sector, on average. – Women in the public sector earn about $498 more in quarterly wages than women in the private sector, on average. • On average, across all occupations, men and women have higher initial earnings in the private sector at the beginning of a job spell. – For men, the difference is $3113 in quarterly earnings. – For women, the difference is $760 in quarterly earnings. • Among workers who remain with the same employer, earnings growth is 1% and 2% higher in the public sector for men and women, respectively. • For men, despite the faster growth, they don’t catch up to the earnings of private sector employees within 10 years of tenure in most occupations (See Tables 9 and 11, and Figure 12). 1 • Women in the public sector earn more than their private sector counterparts within a few years of tenure, on average. • There is substantial heterogeneity in the earnings gap across occupations (See Tables 10 and 12, and Figure 13).
    • Public School Finance Programs for the United States and Canada: 1998-99

      Berman, Matthew (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001)
      This publication was undertaken by NCES in partnership with two private entities, the The Association for Education Finance and Policy, which contracted for the information collection, and the National Education Association (NEA), which funded the effort. This publication of expert authors' descriptions of each state or province funding system was compiled by education finance researchers from the University of Georgia and the University of Ottawa....The compilers sought to balance the simplicity of the descriptions to make them understandable to a wide audience and, at the same time, technically correct. Some of the terms and concepts might be new to the reader who is unfamiliar with the arcane art of education state aid formulas. To true finance sophisticates, however, these descriptions may lack the abstruse detail to deploy similar formulas in other venues.... The papers in this publication were requested by the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. They are intended to promote the exchange of ideas among researchers and policymakers, no official support by the U.S. Department of Education or NCES is intended or should be inferred.
    • Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Anchorage

      Goldsmith, Scott; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      In the spring of 2001, the Mayor of Anchorage, George Wuerch, tasked a Kitchen Cabinet Task Force with the goal of developing recommendations to help heal racism in Anchorage. The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) of the University of Alaska Anchorage agreed to assist the Task Force by conducting a series of focus groups in the community. The purpose of these focus groups was to obtain an assessment of attitudes and opinions about the quality of life in Anchorage from the perspective different racial groups and to solicit recommendations for improving race relations within the community....A more detailed analysis of the focus groups, based on a review of the focus group transcripts, would add more depth and detail, but we feel the main ideas identified during the focus groups are described in this report.
    • Recreation and Tourism in South-Central Alaska: Patterns and Prospects prepared for the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Station

      Tomeo, Martha; Colt, Steve; Martin, Stephanie; Mieren, Jenna (U.S. Department of Agriculture (Forest Service) - Pacific Northwest Research Station, 2002)
      Based on data from various sources, this report describes the extent and nature of recreation and tourism in south-central Alaska. Current activities, past trends, and prospective developments are presented. Particular attention is given to activities that occur on, or are directly affected by management of, the Chugach National Forest. Recreation and tourism in and around the forest are also placed in a larger context. The Chugach National Forest is heavily used as a scenic resource by motorists and waterborne passengers; road access to the forest supports recreation activities such as fishing, camping, hiking, and wildlife viewing. Although the annual rate of increase in visitors to south-central Alaska seems to have slowed in the late 1990s, evidence indicates that currently both visitors and Alaska residents are increasingly seeking active forms of recreation and ?soft adventure.? These demands, combined with likely capacity constraints at well-known attractions in Alaska and entrepreneurial efforts to provide short-duration recreation and tourism experiences, may lead to increasing use of the Chugach National Forest.
    • Reducing and Recycling Hazardous Materials in Alaska: A Summary of Selected Commercial Hazardous Waste Minimization Programs

      DeRoche, Patricia; Relyea, April; Siver, Darla; Larson, Eric (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1998)
      A wide variety of businesses, manufacturers, institutions, military posts, small businesses, and agencies in Alaska regularly handle hazardous wastes at their facilities. Many of these facilities have chosen voluntarily to provide information about their efforts to minimize hazardous wastes. The information they provide helps to encourage and to expand hazardous waste minimization efforts statewide. Furthermore, the information supports the state's efforts to work cooperatively with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help businesses and agencies comply with federal hazardous waste guidelines.' The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the information provided by facilities in Alaska. Our analysis is based on information reported by facilities in their "Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Supplements to Annual Hazardous Waste Reports" for the last three years. In addition we have conducted in-depth telephone interviews with selected oil and gas and govemment facilities to leam in more detail how they manage hazardous materials. This report expands in several ways on a study we completed last year. In this new study we've looked in more detail at the written responses of the pollution prevention reports; we've compiled data for more than one year; and we've analyzed the results of our telephone interviews with facilities to learn more about the unique characteristics of waste management. In Section II of this report, we describe the most common wastes handled by facilities based on their responses to the pollution prevention reports. InSection III, we describe the characteristics ofhazardous waste minimization assessments and plans based on responses in telephone interviews and the pollution prevention reports.
    • Reflections on the Surplus Economy and the Alaska Permanent Fund

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute for Public Economics (University of Alberta), 2001)
      The Alaska Permanent Fund was created in 1977, shortly after oil form Alaska's North Slope began flowing to market through the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. It was originally envisioned to serve two general purposes - to set aside a share of oil revenues for the benefit of future generations of Alaskans after the depletion of the oil reserves, and to keep a share of oil revenues out of the hands of the current generation of politicians who could be counted to spend it on wasteful government operations and capital expenditures....The issue is how to design a set of public fiscal institutions that, taking this new revenue into account, will maximize long-term social welfare. Paper presented at a conference held at the University of Alberta, Sept. 2001.
    • A Regional Assessment of Borough Government Finances And Employment

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-06-01)
      Alaska’s state budget revenues declined by more than 90% from 2012 to 2016, mainly due to a sharp drop in oil prices: oil revenues have paid for most state government operations since the 1980s. This loss of so much revenue has led to a shortfall of billions of dollars in the state budget and a sluggish economy. The health of a state’s tax revenues is critical to its economic growth and ability to finance public services. Considerable attention has been paid to the state’s fiscal woes, which are still ongoing. But the state also provides considerable support to Alaska’s local governments—and there has been little analysis of how the decline of state revenues might affect local governments. This analysis reports how much Alaska’s 19 borough governments rely on state aid—individually and as a group—and considers how vulnerable they are to cuts in state aid as time goes on. Alaska also has city governments, both within and outside organized boroughs, but here we look only at borough governments —which are essentially regional governments that, unlike cities, all have the same mandatory powers. We want to emphasize that our figures are estimates; boroughs report their revenues quite differently, and sometimes in ways that make it nearly impossible to identify allocations from the state. Alaska provides three main kinds of aid to local governments: aid for general government operating expenses (revenue sharing), grants for public works projects, and aid for schools. It has mostly relied on its oil wealth to fund that aid to local governments. Revenue sharing helps ensure that all areas of the state can pay for basic public services and have reasonably equitable and stable local tax rates. Aid to schools is a major part of the state’s budget, and it pays for a large share of school costs. State grants for local capital projects can vary sharply by year. In the years when oil prices were high—much of the time between 2008 and 2012—those grants were large. Since then, the state capital budget has shrunk to a small fraction of what it was a few years back.
    • The Regional Economy of Southeast Alaska

      Colt, Steve; Fay, Ginny; Dugan, Darcy (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      Southeast Alaska consists of all boroughs and census areas including and east of the Yakutat Borough. (An Alaska borough or census area is the geographic equivalent of a county in the lower 48 states.) The eight boroughs and census areas are listed in Table 1. The “Southeast Region” is one of six longstanding labor market regions defined by the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Following numerous other authors, we will refer to the Juneau City and Borough as “Juneau” and to the remaining seven census areas as “rural Southeast” or “rural Southeast Alaska.” This report provides a broad overview of the regional economy of Southeast Alaska, including trends over time for individual communities and boroughs. It also addresses several specific topics identified by the study team and the project sponsors. The main purpose is to add to the information and knowledge base available to help people make informed decisions. This knowledge base now includes several excellent and recent reports. These will be mentioned, cited, and briefly summarized, but not recapitulated at any length. Readers of this report are strongly encouraged to consult these other reports.
    • Reindeer Markets in the Circumpolar North: An Economic Outlook

      Humphries, John (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      The commercial production of caribou and reindeer meat is relatively small; it is estimated that less than 175,000 animals are harvested annually. Reindeer husbandry or commercial caribou hunts occur in seven circumpolar countries: Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States yet total production is still very low. Properly processed reindeer meat is seen as a high-end luxury or specialty meat in all those countries except Russia. In addition to hide, both male and female reindeer produce horns, which are valuable and can be sold for between 4 and 14 dollars per pound. Overall, reindeer herding and caribou hunting has had wildly varying levels of success, although they seem to be struggling across the globe. This paper provides an economic analysis of the reindeer industry, so we can better understand its challenges, successes, and structure, examine the total size and production of the market, and evaluate the socio-economic tradeoffs between subsistence and commercial harvests. This paper examines the reindeer markets in Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and Alaska, though most emphasis is placed on North America. Russia has been left out of this analysis, due to the scale and complexity of reindeer herding in Russia and the difficulty of obtaining information on the subject. The first part of this paper will estimate total global production and will examine international trade and price discrepancies. Then three forms of herding and two forms of hunting in commercial operations will be reviewed. The current market structures in North American countries will be examined next. The fourth part of this paper will examine the state of the industry and the factors that affect its production choices on a global level. Finally, the choice between subsistence and commercial production will be examined from an economic viewpoint.
    • The Remote Rural Economy of Alaska

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      Statewide descriptions of the Alaska economy are dominated by the much larger urban areas and cannot convey a sense of the unique features of the remote rural part of the state. And although there has been much written about the economy of remote Alaska, much of it is out of date or not well-grounded in the current economic realities of the region. Without a comprehensive description of the economy, discussions of economic development strategies are not possible. This description is a snapshot of the region as a whole, as distinct from the rest of Alaska. At the same time it recognizes the great variations in climate, terrain, culture, economic activity, opportunity, and well-being within the region. The description relies on published economic information about the region, which varies from good to sparse to non-existent, due to the vast size, small population, remote location, and complexity of the economic structure of the region. Consequently, the description is at best an approximation, constructed from all available published sources. No primary data collection was undertaken for this analysis.
    • Renewable Power in Rural Alaska: Improved Opportunities for Economic Deployment

      Crimp, Peter; Colt, Steve; Foster, Mark (2007)
      Sharp increases in the price of distillate fuel have led to wider economic opportunities for local renewable energy resources in the over 180 rural Alaskan communities that are served by electrical microgrids isolated from larger population centers. Between 2002 and 2007 the median price of diesel fuel for utility power generation in rural Alaska increased by 72% to $0.71/l ($2.70/gal). During this period the median unsubsidized residential cost of power increased by 20% to $0.468/kWh. The Alaska Rural Energy Plan, based on 2002 fuel costs, indicated widespread opportunities for cost-saving measures from end use efficiency, diesel generation efficiency, diesel combined heat and power, and wind energy. This paper assesses economics of small hydroelectric, wind-diesel, and biomass-fired combined heat and power under a range of future oil price assumptions.
    • Repeat Maltreatment in Alaska: Assessment and Exploration of Alternative Measures

      Vadapalli, Diwakar; Passini, Jessica (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Most deaths and serious injuries among children who are abused or neglected are preceded by multiple reported instances of maltreatment. The Office of Children Services (OCS), Alaska’s child protection agency, is very concerned about repeat maltreatment. It’s extremely damaging to children and demoralizing to everyone who tries to help prevent it. Over the last several years, Alaska has consistently had among the highest rates in the country of repeat child maltreatment, as reported by the Children’s Bureau of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Those federal figures measure the percentage of children who were the victims of at least two substantiated reports—that is, confirmed reports—of maltreatment within six months. In 2009, nearly 10% of children who were the subjects of investigation by OCS were reported as suffering repeat maltreatment, compared with less than 6% nationwide. By 2013, the share in Alaska was at nearly 13%, compared with a national rate of less than 5.5% (Figure S-1). But even those grim federal statistics don’t provide a complete picture of repeat child maltreatment in Alaska. Many analysts believe that not all cases where maltreatment may have occurred are substantiated, and that maltreatment of a child may be reported a number of times, over a longer period, before it is substantiated. Also, for various reasons, many reports of maltreatment are not investigated at all, in Alaska and other states, and only a small share of those that are investigated are substantiated. For example, in Alaska in 2013, 42% of reports in an average month were not investigated, and only 12% of reports were substantiated
    • Repeat Maltreatment in Alaska: Assessment and Exploration of Alternative Measures

      Passini, Jessica; Vadapalli, Diwakar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 12/1/2015)