• The response of juvenile coho and chinook salmon stocks to salmon spawner abundance: marine nutrients as drivers of productivity

      Joy, Philip J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Adkison, Milo D.; McPhee, Megan V.; Stricker, Craig A.; Rinella, Danial J. (2019-08)
      Resource subsidies from spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the form of marine-derived nutrients (MDN) benefit juvenile salmonids while they rear in fresh water, but it remains unclear if the abundance of spawners in a watershed affects the productivity of salmon stocks that rear in those riverine systems. This dissertation aimed to provide a better understanding of these dynamics by evaluating whether the response of juvenile salmon to MDN is sufficient to enhance overall stock productivity. In Chapter 1, I examined correlative relationships in the abundance of Pink (O. gorbuscha) and Coho (O. kisutch) salmon and simulated spawner-recruit dynamics to determine if those correlations were produced by a Coho Salmon response to marine subsidies from Pink Salmon, a shared response to marine conditions, and/or autocorrelations in the returns of both species. Results demonstrated that observed correlative patterns most closely resembled simulated freshwater effects, providing evidence that marine subsidies from Pink Salmon influence Coho Salmon productivity. In Chapter 2, I examined the relationship between spawner abundance and MDN assimilation by juvenile Coho and Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon in the Unalakleet River watershed. Stable isotope analysis demonstrated that after salmon spawned, MDN assimilation by juvenile salmon in the fall was a function of adult Pink and Chinook salmon spawner abundance, regardless of the habitat occupied by rearing juveniles. However, by the following summer, high retention of MDN in complex habitat masked seasonality of MDN assimilation in sloughs and river sections with abundant lentic-lotic exchanges. As such, MDN assimilation in the summer (prior to arrival of spawners) bore only a faint relationship to spawner abundance and distribution from the previous year. In chapter 3 I examined the relationship between MDN assimilation (Chapter 2) and juvenile salmon growth, size, body condition, and abundance. Prior to salmon spawning, residual MDN from past years offered little advantage to juvenile salmon. However, after the arrival of spawning salmon, MDN enhanced juvenile salmon size, growth, and condition in fall and winter. The collective results from this dissertation thus provides compelling evidence that MDN from spawning Pink Salmon may enhance the productivity of Coho and Chinook salmon. Management agencies should explore modified spawner-recruit models that incorporate MDN relationships to determine if they more accurately describe population dynamics. Where they do, such models may be used to forecast salmon returns and possibly adjust escapement goals (the number of spawners desired on the spawing grounds) to improve maximum-sustained yields (MSY).