• Anatomical And Mechanical Characteristics Of Woods Used To Manufacture Bassoons

      Levings, Carolyn K.; Barber, Valerie; Alix, Claire; Hulsey, Leroy; Keating, Richard; Rydlinski, George (2012)
      The purpose of this dissertation was three-fold -- 1) to determine if anatomical characteristics and mechanical characteristics derived from tapping (the act of striking an object lightly) can be used to more accurately describe bassoon resonant wood than the characters in use now, 2) to determine if any Alaska hardwoods can be used to construct bassoons, and 3) to produce lists of potential North American hardwoods and resonant bassoon wood characters. The bassoon resonant woods (Acer spp., Dalbergia melanoxylon, and Pyrus spp.) were compared to a known non-resonant bassoon wood (Juglans nigra). Vessel length and width, fiber length, and axial parenchyma width were measured in sectioned and macerated wood slides, along with the ratios of crystalline cellulose, lignin, pectin, and other aromatics in the cell wall. Partial frequencies created from tapping specimens on each longitudinal face were measured from melodic and peak partial spectrograms, as well as the spectrum obtained from the beginning of the sound. MANOVA and univariate ANOVA showed the resonant woods were significantly different from the non-resonant Juglans nigra using the characters measured. These characters were then used to compare two Alaska hardwoods (Alnus rubra and Betula neoalaskana) to the temperate resonant woods (Acer spp. and Pyrus spp.) and the non-resonant Juglans nigra using k-means clustering, MANOVA, and univariate ANOVA. Both Alaska hardwoods grouped with the non-resonant Juglans nigra. Lastly a list of potential North American hardwoods to be checked anatomically was compiled, as well as a list of characters that combine those used now as well as characters found in this study.