• Performance of shallow anchor in ice-rich silt

      Lin, Chuang; 林闯; Zhang, Xiong; Shur, Yuri; Liu, Jenny; Connor, Billy (2014-12)
      Shallow anchor systems have been widely used for decades due to their time and cost efficiency. Yet when it comes to cold regions like Alaska, new challenges caused by the harsh environment need to be resolved before they are used extensively in cold regions. One challenge associated with anchor installation could be the potential thawing of warm permafrost due to the grout mortar hydration, which might undermine the capacity of the anchor. Another challenge is that due to low temperature the grout may cure slower or not cure at all, which will also result in a significant decrease in the ultimate strength of the anchor. Field tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of shallow anchors including duckbill anchors and grouted anchors with three types of different grouting materials, including Microsil Anchor Grout, Bentonite Clay and a newly-developed Antifreeze Grout Mortar. Constant-load creep test and pullout test were conducted to evaluate the performance of the anchors. Test results indicated that the anchors grouted with Antifreeze Grout Mortar caused the least permafrost disturbance and degradation, gained the largest tensile strength, exhibited the least creep displacement, and showed relatively large pullout capacity, and thus achieved the best performance among all types of shallow anchors.