• Canenermiut lifeways and worldview and western fish and wildlife management

      Jack, Carl T. (2002-12)
      The Canenermiut inter-generational worldview embodies the proper use and conservation of the resources necessary to sustain life from time immemorial. The classical Yupiaq conservation ethics in the utilization of subsistence resources are well established and practiced to this day by Canenermiut that is geared to the survival of their culture and community. When western fish and wildlife managers promulgate regulations from urban areas of Alaska on the taking of subsistence resources in rural Alaska they often find out that rural residents such as the Canenermiut ... are unwilling to follow the regulations. Caneneq is a coastal area between Kusquqvak (Kuskokwim) Bay up to Qaluyaaq (Nelson Island). Canenermiut is made up of two Yupiaq words, Caneneq as defined earlier and the suffix miut is a Yup'ik word defined as occupant of that geographic area or a place. The people from these villages see the imposition of the western precepts of fish and wildlife management systems as efforts by outsiders to control their way of life. They see this effort as inconsistent with their worldview of how a human should fit within the creation of a higher being. These people do not participate in the formulation of public policies or the promulgation of the regulations that affect their lives and as a consequence do not have a sense of ownership of them. The Canenermiut worldviews are fundamentally different from the worldview of the people of European origin who brought with them concepts of lifeways foreign to Alaska's indigenous people. The author of this thesis is one of Canenermiut from the Native Village of Kipnuk, who was raised by his parents the traditional Yupiaq way of life and taught by his uncle the art of hunting and fishing. He is also one who was also educated in schools of the dominant western society. As one of many other Alaska Native children who were subjected to the assimilation effort of the United States government in the image of the Other, the author is very cognizant of both the Other's lifeways and the classical Yupiaq lifeways ... The author having lived in both worlds, the world of Canenermiut in the Native Village of Kipnuk and in Anchorage will attempt to articulate the major components of Canenermiut worldview. This is a worldview that western fish and wildlife managers do not understand but ones that may help in enhancing the conservation and utilization of these subsistence resources. Secondly, the author will attempt to articulate the degree of the paradigm shift in the Canenermiut indigenous value system that has occurred among this generation. The desire of the Canenermiut to retain their cultural value system and to control their destiny is affirmed by the author. In addition, as the precepts of fish and wildlife management systems are accepted over time by Alaska Native people outside of the geographic area of Caneneq, the Canenermiut do not want to be left behind and have a strong desire to- participate in these management systems.
    • Changing Winds: National Politics And Its Role In Funding For Rural Development In Alaska

      Langenberg-Miller, Edwina C.; Pullar, Gordon; Knecht, Rick (2010)
      The combination of the election of Senator Mark Begich in 2008, an increased emphasis on transparency, and a growing movement away from congressionally-directed spending (earmarks) and toward competitively-awarded and formula-based funding has the potential to drastically reduce federal funding for rural development in Alaska. Alaska's basic needs for infrastructure remain equivalent to those of some of the least developed nations of the world. Rural development projects in Alaska, however, fight an uphill battle for federal funding because rural populations are low in numbers and remote, costs of rural development in Alaska far exceed similar projects in the "lower 48," and changes in the U.S. Congress have drastically reduced Alaskans' ability to circumvent formula-based and competitively-awarded funding avenues. This thesis is an analysis of recent changes that affect rural development funding in Alaska, and it hypothesizes how rural development funding for Alaska may continue to change.
    • Colonization experiences of Alaskan Iñupiat and model for decolonization

      Okleasik, Ukallaysaaq Thomas R. (2016-12)
      This project explores a potential method for examining American, Alaskan and Iñupiaq colonization with a process for decolonization to help restore authentic community self governance that addresses modern socioeconomic challenges and opportunities on terms that will best work in indigenous villages sustainably and effectively. The focus is on Iñupiaq peoples; however, it can be adapted for use by other indigenous peoples. The six-step decolonization process begins with building awareness and understanding the many layers of colonization - both from the colonizer’s perspective and perspective of those subjected to colonization. The decolonization process continues by encompassing healing, revitalization, vision, strategy and action, and leads to sustainability and growth. Decolonization is an individual and group choice that involves questioning, examining and analyzing political and economic relationships. Overall it can offer a contemporary paradigm shift that empowers cultural revitalization and restoring modern Iñupiatun self-determination. The social-cultural-economic costs of colonization to Iñupiat are significant historically, today and in the future. Examining the impacts of colonization puts an honest discussion on the table to identify and assess the damages, realize the ongoing costs to society, and build awareness of the systems for effective change. It could also help to create new decolonized political-economic responses that could aid in achieving equitable lives today to authentically achieve democracy, liberty and justice. Keywords: decolonization, colonization, self-governance.
    • A comparative analysis of legislative and policy support of indigenous cultural transmission in Alaska, Canada, and Azerbaijan

      Tobin, Löki Gale (2011-05)
      Does federal recognition of indigenous self-determination lead to federal support of indigenous cultural transmission? This thesis used a multiple-case analysis to answer this question. Research assessed the impact federal and non-federal legislation has had on indigenous cultural transmission in Alaska, Canada, and Azerbaijan respectively. Findings demonstrated that after federal recognition of indigenous self-determination, cultural transmission programs increased in Alaska and Canada. In Azerbaijan, where no such recognition exists, indigenous groups continue to face discrimination and national policies that negatively impact cultural transmission activities. Without federal recognition of indigenous self-determination, indigenous groups worldwide face situations hostile to their cultural survival.
    • Cultural Significance Of The 14(H) (1) Historic Sites Of Southeast Alaska

      Debaluz, Gail Marie; Wright, Miranda; Pullar, Gordon; Dayo, Dixie (2010)
      The study provides a literary review of first person accounts regarding section 14 (h) (1) of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA). This subsection is the legal mechanism for Alaska Native Corporations (ANC's) to obtain title to historic sites. Historic sites include villages, seasonal camps and cemeteries. The 14 (h) (1) collection is a nationally unique library and invaluable resource for tribal members to enhance the understanding of indigenous knowledge. It offers a profound appreciation of our ancestor's fortitude in challenging circumstances, instilling strength toward maintaining our identity as a dynamic, living, culture. The dissertation imparts the conceptual framework for tribal members to utilize the repository at their regional corporate office. The study seeks to understand Tlingit philosophy, inter-generational concepts, indigenous land stewardship, resource management, customary food practices, and cultural mores. It is complimented with an examination of local, state and national policy resulting from implementing ANCSA.
    • Effective and meaningful collaboration to improve community health

      Hammerschlag, Esther; Koskey, Micheal; Jones, Jenny Bell; Stern, Charlene; Hopkins, Scarlett; Chess, Mary Kay (2015-12)
      This research project set out to identify those factors that are likely to lead to effective and meaningful collaboration among a broad range of stakeholders wishing to collaborate to improve health in rural communities. By studying two different collaborative efforts in rural Alaska that have succeeded in collaboration but have also faced many challenges, benefits of collaboration, challenges to collaboration, factors that contribute to benefits and challenges of collaboration, and important areas for development in collaboration were identified. Through the research study and a literature review conducted within the context of the researcher's professional experience, frameworks and tools were identified that can be used to help facilitate and support collaboration that is effective and meaningful in a community.
    • The effects transportation planning, infrastructure, and outcomes on the Kenai Peninsula

      Williams, Darrel; Stern, Charlene; Bluehorse, Byron; Brooks, Catherine (2020-05)
      In this research, I explored qualitative and quantitative authentic data that documented evidence of transportation and community expressions to explain the relationships identified and to help understand common traits that present a connection with the human aspects of transportation. The primary intent of the research was to determine if comments provided by rural and urban communities about transportation conditions shared common traits such as safety, property value, and personal interests. This study explored the long-term value of transportation infrastructure, where the value was determined by the people who used the infrastructure from their expressions presented in public meetings. Rural and urban communities have different preferences, yet the findings of this study suggested that identifiable attributes are shared. The data identified a set of common attributes that are associated with measurable qualitative data, including safety, development, personal interests, basic needs, property issues, economic changes, and requests for information as coded values. These values come from the roads driven on, vehicles driving on them, and the people who use them. The study focused on one development entity, the Kenai Peninsula Borough, which did document public input and decisions made as an advisory opinion about transportation recommendations in meeting minutes. A review of 15 years of records from the Kenai Peninsula Borough demonstrated that the relationship between transportation infrastructure and community 1) has common identifiable attributes, 2) is measurable, and 3) provides information about transportation value as well as the rates of change that a community experiences. The data analysis demonstrated that the comments were 45% were urban, and 55% rural, suggesting that the relationship is balanced between the populations on the Kenai Peninsula. The analysis utilized an emergent method that found common traits as well as temporal and spatial variations iv between common themes expressed by community members, the amounts of transportation work performed, and measurable comparisons of the data. The results demonstrated that there are common measurable traits that exist in transportation information that can be evaluated using mixed methods. There are also limiting factors associated with the research.
    • Growing Rhodiola rosea in Unalakleet, Alaska

      Reza, Mosaddeque; Koskey, Michael; Jones, Jenny Bell; Nakazawa, Anthony (2016-05)
      Rhodiola rosea is a medicinal herbal plant that grows naturally in higher altitudes and colder regions in the world including mountainous regions of southwest China and the Himalayas, and the circumpolar North, including Siberia, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, some parts of Canada, and Alaska. People use its dry roots as tea, put its extract in capsules, and eat it as a vegetable. It helps reduce mild to moderate depression and general anxiety disorder, and it enhances work performance in adverse conditions. It is an adaptogen, that is, it works in the body without affecting any biological function. Because of this, it does not have any side effects like many industrial medicines. Since it reduces depression, it could be helpful to suicidal patients, but more research and studies are needed. Demand for Rhodiola rosea around the world has been increasing steadily. It is relatively inexpensive. It used to be collected from the wild. To meet increasing demands, some countries are growing Rhodiola rosea as an agricultural crop. Alaska has preferred weather and ecosystems to grow Rhodiola rosea commercially. Growing Rhodiola rosea in rural Alaska could bring new sources of income and economic independence. Since the rural Alaskan lands in Unalakleet under consideration have never been used for agriculture, rural Alaskan grown Rhodiola rosea could be certified as organic. This might create a special market. This paper looks at the possibility of growing Rhodiola rosea at Unalakleet, a rural Alaskan village in western Alaska.
    • Guidance for Sustainable Tourism in Kotzebue, Alaska

      Alvite, Annabelle C.; Ducharme, JoAnne; Pullar, Gordon; Knecht, Richard A. (2008-12)
      Tourism once thrived in Kotzebue, a rural largely Iñupiat Eskimo community in Northwest Alaska. Today there is very little evidence of the summer tourism that once characterized this remote Arctic town. Trends suggest a revival of tourism in Kotzebue, though little is being done to prepare for an almost inevitable rebirth. This research is intended to identify local concerns about tourism, the current state of tourism and offer guidance for sustainable tourism. Qualitative and inductive research was conducted to understand local feelings about tourism and possible reasons past tourism levels could not be sustained. Suggestions are given for a new direction for tourism. Secondary research examined the concept of sustainable tourism, profiles of current and potential visitors to the region, and tools and strategies to manage tourism and its impacts. The study concludes past tourism did not have major detrimental effects on the community, and there are both lingering resentment and caution about future tourism, as well as definite local interest in its development.
    • The Igiugig Community Cultural Center: an indigenous plan in process

      Salmon, AlexAnna; Black, Jessica C.; Sekaquaptewa, Patricia S.; Stern, Charlene B.; Carothers, Courteny L. (2020-05)
      Indigenous planning practices of the Village of Igiugig have long identified the need for a community cultural center. This research project used a community-based participatory approach to explore the type of cultural center that will best serve residents and visitors alike. Through various community meetings, semi-structured interviews of key informants, and surveys of area businesses, Igiugig was able to articulate the main functionality of the center, as well as inform a design process for and by an Indigenous community in rural Alaska. One outcome of this process is a resource guide for the Igiugig Village Council, for the remainder of the planning and implementation of the community cultural center.
    • Indigenized self: a healing journey

      Dayo, Masak Dixie (2003-08)
      'Indigenized Self: A Healing Journey' is a major segment of my personal life story. I have not revealed every detail of my life story as I have not dealt with all aspects of my healing and some remain too painful to write about or discuss in such public detail. However, this is a detailed account of many traumatic and wonderful events in my life that have lead up to my embarking on a healing journey. I explore the history of education in Alaska as it was introduced to Alaska Natives. I try to comprehend why my Inupiaq mother never taught me her first language and why she gave up so much of her fine heritage. Being a part of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act as an enrolled Alaska Native and member of a board of directors for a village corporation has been an educational experience. While it has been rewarding and full of political decisions, it has not always been compatible with traditional Alaska Native values. It is said that people must share their healing experiences with others to maintain their gift of healing. 'Indigenized Self: A Healing Journey' is a way of sharing my gift of healing.
    • Japanese winter tourism in rural Alaska: Bettles Lodge

      Kojima, Mie (2000-12)
      Japanese tourists increasingly visit the Arctic in wintertime because of their interest in northern lights. Some rural communities in Alaska see this as an opportunity to enter winter tourism by targeting the Japanese market. The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the interests of these Japanese visitors and to explore potentials for tourism development in rural Alaska. A Japanese visitor survey was conducted in the spring of 2000 at Bettles Lodge in Interior Alaska. The data reveal that the average visitor to Bettles Lodge was female, over 61 years of age, an urban dweller, employed full-time, and college educated. Results show that Bettles Lodge receives a mixture of younger individual travelers and older group travelers, who have very different needs and expectations. The study suggests that sustainable tourism development may be best achieved through cooperation involving all local interests and stakeholders.
    • Kitkut ukua Siļaliñiġmiut? Grassroots land, air, and water coalition-building on Alaska's Arctic Slope

      Thomas, Sara K. Siqiñiq; Brooks, Catherine; Stern, Charlene; Brower, Pearl (2020-05)
      Arctic communities are experiencing dramatic effects of climate change and bioaccumulation of contamination and are also on the front line of expansion via the fossil fuel extraction industry. The Inupiaq culture provides a strong and clear example of harmonious living with one’s surroundings on Alaska’s Arctic Slope (hereafter referred to as Arctic Slope), yet recent community efforts to reduce waste or pollution or come together to address our role in this time of climate change have been short-lived. This applied community development project addresses the need for grassroots organizing within the Arctic Slope to address and react to issues of land, air, and water on a community level. The title of this research is: Kitkut ukua Siļaliñiġmiut? Who are the people of the land, air, and sea (of the Arctic Slope)? This is a self-reflective inquiry from within the community that aims to uplift Inupiat history and cultural perspectives and develop more effective strategies to collaborate to be better stewards of the environment. This project was guided by the Indigenous consciousness-raising theory and an Iñupiaqatigiigñiq framework, inspired by Topkok’s Inupiat Ilitqusiat (2015). The literature/narrative review comprises an overview of Iñupiaqatigiigñiq, or the Iñupiaq value system, as it relates to Indigenous knowledge. It also includes current and historical perceptions of ecological stewardship and environmentalism on the Arctic Slope, and barriers to social change in contemporary institutional representation. Community-based participatory research and strength-based methodology were utilized to inform data collection, which included a survey as well as a series of community dialogues with a variety of Arctic Slope stakeholders. Community perspectives regarding ecological sustainability were elicited using talking circles and group visioning around these questions: Sumik iļisimavisa Iñupiaqatigiigñiq suli nunalu, siļalu, taġiuglu? What do we know about Iñupiaqatigiigñiq and land, air, and water? Suniaqsimaavisa atusiullaaluta nakka qatilluta? What more can we do (to be better stewards) today as individuals and as communities? Data was analyzed using triangulation and thematic analysis techniques. The themes that emerged from the data were shared and then reshared to the larger community via social media, one-on-one outreach to smaller groups, and a community presentation. This project has resulted in both a data set and a framework for continued community-building and information-sharing around land, air, and water stewardship initiatives. The foundation for a regional grassroots coalition has been established via the collaborative development of a website and social media presence. It is my hope that this project will also inform the development of an after-school youth engagement program that could propel a grassroots network of people working together to foster greater stewardship of the land, air, and water.
    • Methodology paper transmitting Yup'ik knowledge through the art of skin sewing

      Fritze, Annie; Davis, Michael E.; Ducharme, JoAnn; Koskey, Michael (2014-04)
    • Moose (Alces alces) browse enhancement and sustainable forestry as a rural development tool in the sub-Arctic boreal forest region of Alaska

      Cain, Bruce David (2014-05)
      This project studies indigenous and western moose browse management issues in the sub-arctic boreal forest and how this topic relates to rural development. Chapter one explains the methodology of the project. Chapter two describes how moose browse and biomass management support rural development and investigates productivity potential of combining moose browse management with sustainable forestry and biomass production. Chapter three investigates landscape and habitat management principles from a customary and traditional practice versus a scientific approach. It looks at management models in the following territories: Alaska, Canada, Continental US, Mongolia/Russia and Scandinavia. Chapter four investigates indigenous wildlife management systems and other indigenous wildlife policy issues. Chapter five is a selected annotated bibliography. The project has a focus on the Ahtna region of central Alaska and recognizes the implications of these issues for this region.
    • More than a shelter: a study of indigenous dwellings and contemporary, affordable housing in rural Alaska

      Combs, Esther Marcell (2003-05)
      The purpose of this study was to pursue an innovative idea to address the need for safe, affordable housing in the rural, subarctic area of the State of Alaska. A three pronged approach for data gathering included an extensive historical review of early indigenous cultures and dwelling design; a review of the roles of federal and state governments and their impact on the political economy and lifestyles of rural indigenous people; and interviews of homeowners to obtain their comments, preferences, and suggestions for design features in a home. The conclusions drawn from the findings indicated that the most important feature for a modern house in rural, subarctic Alaska is an enlarged Arctic entry way which was a feature of nearly all of the early indigenous dwellings albeit the simplistic, tunneled entry. Secondly, installation of a standby heat source or a backup, wood stove in homes; and, finally that planning, design and construction of a smaller, simplified house be pursued.
    • Nome Eskimo Community Tribal Council Resource Guide

      Nichols-Takak, Kendra Kookruk; Brooks, Cathy; Stern, Charlene; Topkok, Megan (2020-12)
      The Nome Eskimo Community Tribal Council Resource is a digital manual composed of information for newly elected tribal leaders so they can provide the best guidance to the Tribe, develop leadership skills, and serve the community. The purpose of this project is to ensure that current and future tribal council members and presidents have access to information necessary to make decisions on important issues using best practices for governance and leadership. The resource guide includes roles and responsibilities as well as local and statewide resources in various areas of governance including child welfare, land, natural resources, and education. It is intended to provide a starting point for newly elected tribal members. Additionally, Nome Eskimo Community (NEC) bylaws, program information, photos and recorded interviews of current and former tribal leaders will provide newly elected officials with important NEC history. The different subjects contained within the guide are specific to the programs the Council is governing. Leaders have access to the digital resource guide via downloadable files which can be viewed on a tablet. The resource guide will include the roles and responsibilities of the tribal council and the president and will cover governance, leadership practices, and program resources. The resource guide can be further developed to include advanced information for experienced leaders in the following areas: child welfare, land, natural resources, and education.