Recent Submissions

  • Self Silencing in Children and Adolescents

    Walz, Gena L. (1998-05)
    Self silencing is the theorized tendency to abnormally suppress expression of one’s own needs for the sake of a significant relationship Thought to be a predominately female behavior, self silencing has mainly been empirically studied in adults and has been associated with depression in women. To determine the extent, the approximate age of onset and the gender distribution of self silencing behavior in boys and girls, the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS) (Jack & Dill, 1992) was administered to twelfth grade students, and a modified version of this scale for children (STSS-C) was developed, tested and administered to fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade students. No significant differences in self silencing were observed between genders at any grade level. However significant age related differences in self silencing behavior were demonstrated in both boys and girls. In addition, these age related patterns differed significantly between boys and girls.
  • The effects of volitional laughter on positive and negative affect and depressive symptoms

    Krauss, Gregory W. (1997-05)
    The effects of volitional laughter on positive affect, negative affect, and day-to-day depressive symptoms among college students were investigated utilizing a non-equivalent control group design. The laughter group (n = 23) participated in daily volitional laughter treatments (three treatments of 30 seconds each) while the control group (n = 40) received no treatment. Both groups were pre- and post-tested using the PANAS (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule) and the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies -Depression Inventory). A significant difference was found for the laughter group in negative affect. An additional post-hoc analysis, after eliminating a group of subjects from the control group, indicated a significant difference for the volitional laughter treatment group in increasing positive affect. No significant difference in depressive symptoms was detected.
  • The impact of the use of active imagery on labor and delivery

    Ward, Penelope H.; Geist, Charles (1995)
    This clinical investigation assessed the impact of the use of active imagery during labor and delivery to: assist in pain control, facilitate the physiological processes of labor, reduce anxiety, and improve feelings of control and self worth in the parents. Multiple designs including descriptive, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and ANOVA using the General Linear Model were employed. After approval by monitoring authorities and informed consent, multipara couples responded to the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pregnancy Attitude Index or Levenson's Locus of Control Scales, and the Adjective Checklist. Gender differences in the late third trimester were assessed. Experimental group couples were taught active imagery, given an audiotape for daily practice, and used imagery in labor and delivery. After delivery, tests were readministered, subjective comments recorded, and vividness of imagery assessed in the imagery group mothers. In the 15 couples studied, all were Internally controlled. Men felt more Internally controlled, women more manipulation by Powerful Others. There were no differences on the STAI or ACL. After delivery, no change was found on the STAI, or in Internal control. The eight couples in the Control group and women had greater control by Powerful Others. Control by Chance increased in the Control group, particularly the women. On the ACL, the Experimental group had significant change in Favorable scores with more feelings of internal control, confidence and less need for support and sympathy compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference in time in labor from 7-10 cm. However, Experimental group mothers had shorter labor periods in the hospital. They required less medication, and their babies had higher one minute Apgar scores and significantly higher arterial oxygen concentration in umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Subjectively, mothers voiced greater feelings of control after using imagery, adopting the procedure and generalizing it to other life situations. This study provided an initial look at men's feelings during their wives' pregnancies. The use of active imagery resulted in greater feelings of control and self worth, shorter total labor periods and improved neonatal outcome in this group. Imagery offers a potential for improvement in the birth process which merits further study.
  • Successful Aging Through The Eyes Of Alaska Native Elders: What It Means To Be An Elder In Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Lewis, Jordan Paul (2009)
    Alaska Natives view aging from a holistic perspective, an approach not typically found in the existing literature on successful aging. There is little research on Alaska Native (AN) Elders and how they subjectively define a successful older age. The lack of a culturally specific definition often results in the use of a generic definition that portrays AN Elders as aging less successfully than their non-Native counterparts. This research explores the concept of successful aging from an AN perspective and what it means to age well in AN communities. An Explanatory Model (EM) approach was used and adapted to focus on the health and well-being of AN Elders and to gain a sense of their beliefs about aging. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 Elders in six participating communities to explore the concept of successful aging and the role of their community in the aging process. Focus groups were held in specific communities to present the findings and receive feedback; this ensured the findings and report would be reflective of the unique perspectives of the communities and region. This study highlights four domains of successful aging, or "Eldership": emotion, spirituality, community engagement, and physical health. One aspect of successful aging seen in each of these four domains is optimism, or having a positive outlook on life. These four domains serve as the foundation of how communities define who is an Elder and what is important when considering whether someone has aged successfully or not. Research findings also indicate that aging successfully is based on local understandings about personal responsibility and making the conscious decision to live a clean and healthy life. Most Elders stated that Elder status is not determined by reaching a certain age (e.g., 65 years), but instead is designated when an individual has demonstrated wisdom because of the experiences he or she has gained throughout life. This research seeks to inform future studies on rural aging that will prioritize the perspectives of Elders to impact positively on the delivery of health care services and programs in rural Alaska.
  • The Role Of Social Paradigm In Human Perception And Response To Environmental Change

    Williams, Paula (2009)
    The role of social paradigms in resilience to change is poorly understood. Past research suggests that social paradigms shape human values through socialization, including those for our environment and alter an individual's attentiveness to information. Thus, there is a relationship among personal cognition, the objective environment, social paradigm, and human behavior, which I posit may affect perception of and response to change, hence human adaptive capacity. The western industrialized dominant social paradigm (WISP) is a set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that influence our relationship to the environment. It includes beliefs in continuous economic growth; limited governmental intervention in free market systems; and faith that technology will resolve environmental problems. Past research indicates that the WISP correlates negatively with environmental concern and with belief in the need to change behaviors. In this work, measures for environmental values, the WISP, and environmental behaviors were developed from the General Social Survey and analyzed using mediation. The relationship between WISP, environmental concern and environmental behaviors was tested. Regression analysis suggested that WISP reduces environmental concern, thereby reducing environmental behaviors. The spatial relationship between built environment and environmental values and built environment and the WISP was also investigated. The results suggest that geographic regions with less built environment are significantly more environmentally concerned and have higher values of the WISP. Medium-sized cities exhibited significantly lower values of the WISP. Finally, extensive and diverse literature was reviewed to compare other paradigms affecting the relationship between humans and the biophysical environment. Other paradigms foster links between humans and their environment and also serve the purpose of incorporating ritual, myth and story-telling to conform human behavior to the limits of the biophysical environment rather than conforming the biophysical environment to human desires. Accurate perception of environmental feedback and appropriate responses to change increase resilience. This work suggests that the currently predominant social paradigm may reduce our resilience by impairing our perception of change and our willingness to adapt.
  • The Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale In Asian Indian International Exchange Students: A Qualitative Study Of Meanings Ascribed To Scale Items

    Lower, Timothy A.; Mohatt, Gerald (2008)
    In order to facilitate greater cultural competency, a study regarding the use of the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS) in a sample of Asian Indian exchange students was conducted. The specific research questions to be answered were: (a) what meanings would participants ascribe to key terms and phrases on the OCIS, (b) what meanings would participants apply to differences in categorical placement on the OCIS, and (c) what themes would the participants associate with cultural identification? To answer these questions, 47 participants completed the OCIS and a demographic questionnaire, while 8 of these participants also participated in a semi-structured individual interview and group feedback interview. A phenomenological method and participant feedback were used to analyze and summarize the data. Internal consistency of the OCIS subscales was good, while the White American or Anglo and the Asian Indian subscales correlated positively to a significant extent. The OCIS term, "traditions," was associated with festivals, family, puja, and special foods. The OCIS phrase, "way of life," connoted Hinduism, family-centered, day-to-day activities, gender differences, and intra-cultural variation. Finally, the term, "success," connoted karma, family life, education/knowledge, social life, and practical considerations. Because no previous study has investigated the meanings of key terms or phrases on the OCIS, this study adds to the literature by providing: (a) an initial indication of the meanings ascribed by Asian Indian exchange students to items on the OCIS, and (b) a model for similar investigations in other cultures.
  • Gender Of Perpetrator, Gender Of Victim, And Relationship Between Perpetrator And Victim As Factors Influencing How Adults View Coercive Sexual Behavior In Childhood

    Bosek, Rebecca Lynn; Connor, Bill; Risley, Todd (2002)
    The sexual abuse of children by adults is a serious social problem. Some sexually abused children become sexually abusive toward others. This is sometimes called coercive sexual behavior, and little is known about how adults view these acts. A better understanding of how adults view coercive sexual behavior between children is critical due to the harm it causes victims, perpetrators, and society. Also, parents are typically held legally responsible for their minor children, and it is their responsibility to intervene in this type of behavior. Three hundred and eighty-five college students participated in a study that examined descriptions of coercive sexual behavior between elementary school-aged children. This study used a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design to examine how gender of a child perpetrator, gender of a child victim, and relationship between a child perpetrator and child victim (peer or sibling) influence how adults view coercive sexual behavior in childhood. Participants read one of eight vignettes describing an incident of coercive sexual behavior between two children and answered a twenty-eight-item questionnaire based on it. Data was analyzed using correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings from the present study suggest that the gender of the children and the relationship between them are factors influencing how adults view coercive sexual behavior in childhood.
  • Routine outcome monitoring and clinical supervision: do therapists really care about their patients?

    Dexter, Kyle Raymond Kwon; Whipple, Jason; David, Eric John (EJ); Gifford, Valerie; Lardon, Cecile (2017-08)
    Psychotherapy has repeatedly been shown to be an acceptable form of treatment for a variety of psychiatric conditions. However, despite the success of psychotherapy, not all patients improve during a course of treatment. In fact, research has suggested that some patients actually become worse while engaged in psychotherapy. Thus, it becomes important to identify patient deterioration and provide this information back to therapists. Additionally, the ability to detect patient deterioration cannot be solely the result of clinician judgment. Research has shown that utilizing actuarial methods of identifying patient non-responders is superior to that of clinician judgment alone. In turn, the field has moved toward implementing routine outcome monitoring tools/management systems to assist in the process of identifying patients who are failing to respond to treatment. The present study explored potential relationships between routine outcome monitoring, deliberate practice, and routine clinical supervision. Results suggest that the vast majority of practicing therapists do not utilize routine outcome monitoring tools/management systems as part of their daily practices of psychotherapy, and most do not incorporate feedback results into their personal clinical supervision experiences. Additionally, results suggest that therapists who have received formalized training with routine outcome monitoring tools and/or are required to engage in weekly supervision, are more likely to monitor their patient outcome as part of their daily practices of psychotherapy. Moreover, self-assessment bias seems to be present within the sample in regards to identifying patient improvement, non-response, and deterioration. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed, along with limitations and future directions.
  • We are the safety net: skills for suicide prevention evaluating a training to increase recognition and response to signs of suicide among at-risk peers

    Burket, Rebekah; Campbell, Kendra; Rivkin, Inna; Fitterling, James; Skewes, Monica (2017-05)
    This pilot study evaluated the effects of a brief suicide prevention training. The intervention was efficient and targeted peer intervention for those least likely to engage in proactive help seeking on their own behalf. The results were promising but mixed. The results showed that the intervention can increase suicide literacy and confidence about safety planning and help seeking on behalf of an at-risk peer. Significant differences were found in the small sample with variables most relevant to the ability to recognize peers at risk for suicide and act effectively on their behalf. Variables not directly emphasized in the training and those with high baseline scores did not show change. The brevity of the intervention lends itself to potential dissemination opportunities in educational and healthcare settings such as new student orientations, teacher in-service trainings, hospital staff training and community-based outreach.
  • Steps to freedom: the process of escaping abuse

    Armstrong, Sandra J. (2002-12)
    The purpose of this study was to look at factors involved in the process of women leaving abusive relationships. In two interviews of one to two hours each, each of the three women told the story of her abusive relationship. Study findings indicate that these women began abusive relationships during unstable or chaotic periods of their lives, when they were more vulnerable to manipulation. The abuse caused a distortion of reality for these women, but as soon as they were able to gain a clear view of reality, they immediately left their relationships.
  • Developing treatment fidelity measures in a wraparound program for severely emotionally disturbed children using the child and adolescent needs and strengths tool

    Sliefert, David (2002-08)
    This study utilized the strength-based components of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) assessment as a basis for creating the Treatment Fidelity Indicator (TFI). With a particular focus on strengths, this study initiated the development of a measure to assist agencies in recognizing whether each of the 19 strength-based dimensions were found in the case record. Seven cases were evaluated using two raters. Reliability was examined using the Cohen's kappa and memoing of the process. The growing expectations placed on agencies to provide proven treatment strategies and the limitations of resources available are challenges for quality conscious organizations. Increasing emphasis to integrate individual and family strengths into the assessment process to improve treatment outcomes has been encouraged ... TFI is being developed to build upon the successes of CANS and extend its functionality to include measuring the fidelity of treatment delivery.
  • Perceptions and barriers to welfare reform

    Weaver, Patricia Joan (2003-12)
    The current study examined the barriers and perceptions of Welfare Reform of welfare recipients answering questions through a survey in Alaska's Northern Regional area (Appendix A). The areas covered in the survey concerned family health and well-being, barriers to getting a job, and how they are managing on and off welfare. An area of central concern was to understand how families reported that they were managing after closure. The major problem identified was the ability to pay monthly bills and purchase food. Families were also concerned with finding an appropriate childcare provider and their inability to obtain health care coverage. Most individuals worked part-time jobs with little or no benefits and had problems obtaining health care for their families. Areas for further research were identified. Doubts are raised about how states are administering their welfare programs and how much information clients now about their entitlements. The current study is consistent with other studies that show families lack many of the important resources that are essential for self-sufficiency; i.e., well-paying jobs for low skilled workers, transportation, childcare, health services, support networks, and the financial means to meet basic needs.
  • The role and spirituality in Athabascan recovery and sobriety

    Scoville, Dolores Gregory (2003-05)
    It is well documented that Alaska leads the nation in alcohol dependence and abuse. There are studies that document the high abuse levels among Alaska Natives along with corresponding economic costs and lost productivity. The purpose of this study was: (a) to determine the definition of spirituality of a purposive sample of Athabascan Indians of Interior Alaska and (b) to discover what role spirituality plays in Athabascan recovery and sobriety. Nine life history interviews were examined from the People Awakening Project at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A Grounded Theory Analysis was used to yield culturally relevant results. A definition of spirituality was determined and the role that spirituality plays in Athabascan recovery and sobriety was discovered. Athabascan recovery does not correspond entirely with traditional western treatment methods but there are some similarities in the recovery process common to both. Four of the nine interviews discussed attendance of AA groups or counseling as a help in their recovery. It is recommended that further study with other Alaska Native groups would be beneficial to identify protective and resiliency factors of spirituality and determine how to incorporate these factors for prevention of alcohol dependence.
  • Women, alcohol use disorders, and sexuality: an exploration of beliefs

    Moore, Patricia S. (2002-08)
    Extensive research has been conducted on issues of sexuality for women with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). These issues are relevant both to the development of and recovery from AUD. Little of this research has focused on the importance of women's beliefs about sexuality at the time of drinking and during recovery. This study sought to identify these beliefs and to determine their importance in the development of and recovery from AUD. A qualitative research design was used whereby interviews with four women in long-term recovery (3 or more years) were analyzed. It was found that, overall, beliefs about sexuality became more positive during recovery. Women tended to have less sex during recovery and reported that the sex was better than while drinking. Women's relationships with themselves and others improved improved significantly during recovery. It is within the context of these improved relationships that beliefs about sexuality became more positive.
  • Alaska Native attachment: a qualitative study with four Athabascan participants

    Keller, Lester R. (2003-08)
    Attachment between caregiver and child is an affectional, nurturing bond that develops through the provision of sensitive, constantly available, and responsive care for the child. The attachment bond evolves around diverse interactive experiences that encourage the development of cognitive-emotional schemata and the internalization of a cognitive-emotional working model of relationships. Different cultural experiences encourage the development of different cognitive-emotional schemata. Using a semi-structured interview, behavior, values, and the developmental endpoint associated with attachment was collaboratively explored with four Athabascan research participants, and concepts that emerged were compared and contrasted with those articulated by mainstream attachment theory within Western psychology. Attachment domains that emerged from triangulated interview data were (1) caregiver sensitivity, (2) trust development, (3) exploring, and (4) social competence. In mainstream attachment theory, one caregiver is the primary secure base for a child. Athabascan primary caregivers were a component of a larger community-wide secure base that included important secondary caregivers within a large kinship structure. In mainstream attachment theory, Western cultural values guide a social attachment process toward autonomy and self-direction for the individual. Athabascan community encourages values such as sharing of materials and community solidarity; an endpoint to the attachment process is instead social competence.
  • Predictors of success at a rural juvenile offender facility

    Ebbesson, Gunnar Sven Ebbe (2002-08)
    Although risk factors contributing to failure in treatment of young offenders have been studied extensively, little is written about what effects success. This study on the latter takes advantage of data obtained at a local treatment facility. This study uses statistical strategies to compare 7 different variables from a set of archival data with the outcome variable, which is 'success in treatment'. The seven independent variables are ethnicity, age at entry to treatment, pre-release pass (PRP), days in treatment, FAS/FAE, sexual offender, and psychiatric diagnosis. This data has been accumulated by a clinician at the facility and offered to the investigator for the purpose of this project. The first stage of the analysis was to correlate all of the 7 variables with the outcome variable (success/no success). The variables with the strongest association were selected, and then correlated with each other. Variables shown to be correlated with success were further studied using a Logistic Regression analysis. The results of the statistical analysis showed that non-minority status was the only variable to be clearly associated with success.
  • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity in assessment tools: an adaptation of the drinkers inventory of consequences for Alaska Natives

    Cantil, Tony (2002-12)
    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of a new assessment tool for Alaska Native clients with alcoholism. A sample of 23 Yup'ik clients at a regional treatment center were interviewed using the Drinker Inventory of Consequences for Alaska Natives (DrInC-AN), an adaption of the Drinker Inventory of Consequence (DrInC), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Yup'ik Cultural Practices and Traditions (YCPT). These clients were selected, on a voluntary basis during the intake interview to the treatment center. Historically, assessment tools in alcoholism have not been culturally or linguistically sensitive to Alaska Native and Native American clientele. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the DrInC-AN in the assessment of severity of negative consequences of alcholol use among Alaska Natives.
  • A workshop assessing the effects of social support on the incidence of burnout

    Bates, David Brian (2002-08)
    This research was designed to address the issue of burnout by developing and presenting a workshop to 26 human service providers (primarily educated Caucasian women) to increase their level of social support and address organizational concerns. Two measures were used in a pre-posttest design: the Maslach Burnout Inventory and social support questionnaire developed for this study. The results showed that burnout dropped significantly on the emotional exhaustion subscale. There was a drop in the depersonalization subscale but it only approached significance. There was also a negative correlation of perceived social support satisfaction with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at both pre and posttest. Building social support has implications for reducing burnout. Studies with quasi-experimental designs and larger samples are needed to further validate the findings of this study.
  • Eating disorder symptomatology among Alaska Native/American Indian and caucasian female university students in the extreme North

    Saunders, Miranda R. (2004-05)
    The purpose of this study was to explore differences in eating disorder symptomatology among a matched sample of 100 Alaska Native/American Indian and Caucasian female university students, using a demographic instrument and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Four (8.0%) Native participants and ten (20.0%) Caucasian participants met or exceeded the EAT-26 cutoff score indicative of clinically significant eating disorder symptomatology. There were no significant differences found among the Native and Caucasian participants with regard to eating disorder symptomatology. Rather, eating disorder symptomatology was present in both Native and Caucasian female college students at rates similar to that of previous studies.
  • Culturally-based primary prevention: an Alaskan native dance group

    Culp, Renée Irene (2005-08)
    This study investigated a culturally-based primary prevention program in Alaska. This program is a Native dance group that focuses on increasing the number of developmental assets within each member. Previous research has indicated that involvement in activities, such as the program described, may work to instill developmental assets, decreasing the likeliness of youths engaging in risk behaviors and increasing engagement in healthy behaviors. Findings from this study did not support the notion that youths who participate in a culturally-based primary prevention program demonstrate more assets of clinical significance than those youths who do not participate in such a program. Further, specific internal (self-esteem) and external (positive adult role models) developmental assets did not appear to result in benefits for those youths participating in this culturally-based primary prevention program. While it is evident that, within the scope of the present study, no apparent benefits for increasing developmental assets were found, this research highlights that the youths within this sample were remarkably high functioning. Considering these findings, it may be beneficial to first investigate factors that are contributing to the balance and wellness in the lives of these particular youths. Such factors may indeed encompass the essence of culturally-based primary prevention.

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