• Defining genetic population structure and historical connectivity of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio)

      Albrecht, Gregory T.; Hardy, Sarah M.; Lopez, J. Andres; Hundertmark, Kris J. (2011-08)
      The snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) is a valuable commercial resource within the Bering Sea, as well as other areas in the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Large populations are known to exist within the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, including recently discovered commercial sized individuals (Beaufort). However, genetic connectivity throughout these regions has not been examined until now. Based on seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, relatively low population genetic structuring occurs throughout the Alaskan region (Gst = 0.001). This homogeneity is likely due to long-distance larval dispersal, adult migrations, and a possible recent population expansion following the last glacial maximum. Furthermore, meta-population analysis was conducted for Alaskan and Northwest Atlantic stocks. Although significant genetic divergence characterizes the West Greenland stock in relation to all other populations, low divergence (Gst = 0.005) was found between Atlantic Canada crabs and those from the Alaska region. Larval dispersal between regions is highly unlikely due to the transit distance. Therefore, low divergence is likely the result of a recent population expansion into the Northwest Atlantic <5000 years ago.
    • Harmothoe imbricata: species complex or complex species?

      Gastaldi, Angela; Lopez, J. Andres; Hardy, Sarah; Kelley, Amanda; Sikes, Derek (2019-05)
      Accurate estimates of species diversity are constrained by cryptic species complexes, in which multiple closely related species are grouped under a single species name due to the absence of clear morphological differences. Cryptic diversity is known to be prevalent in polychaete worms, a mostly marine group commonly known as bristle worms. A recent survey of polychaete diversity discovered that the widespread scale-worm Harmothoe imbricata comprises multiple distinct mitochondrial lineages based on analysis of the Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene, which is often referred to as the 'barcoding' gene. Analyses based solely on DNA sequences from COI may overestimate the number of lineages comprising a cryptic species complex, so it has been recommended that cryptic species investigations incorporate nuclear gene sequences. The goal of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of DNA sequences from the nuclear genome corroborates the designation of H. imbricata as a cryptic species complex. I sequenced segments of COI and five nuclear genes: ITS1, ITS2, H3, and portions of the 18S and 28S genes of H. imbricata and analyzed them using distance measures, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. I compared phylogenetic trees produced from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, as well as from a combined mitochondrial/nuclear dataset. Harmothoe imbricata was found to include five mitochondrial lineages, whereas the nuclear sequences only supported four well-defined lineages. These results corroborate previous reports showing COIbased cryptic species investigations find more lineages than nuclear DNA based investigations. These results provide additional lines of evidence that H. imbricata is a cryptic species complex. These divergent lineages likely arose after being separated during the last glacial maximum but they are now found in sympatry. A thorough morphological study of H. imbricata populations may reveal phenotypic differences correlated with the genetic lineages identified here.