Formerly known as the Northern Studies Program

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  • King on ice: history of the Alaska Gold Kings and the transformation of Fairbanks into a hockeytown

    Urban, Samuel Fox; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Boylan, Brandon M.; Speight, Jeremy S. (2020-05)
    Wanting a higher level of hockey for local youth to aspire to, city hockey officials created the semi-professional Teamsters hockey team in 1975. The team was initially comprised of the best local recreational players, many of whom relocated to Fairbanks to work on the TransAlaska Pipeline from the upper Midwest and Seattle. Two years later the team took on the name Fairbanks Gold Kings (later changed to the Alaska Gold Kings), and quickly began proving itself against teams from Anchorage and the Pacific Northwest. From 1975 to 1995 the Gold Kings were an amateur senior men’s team, and from 1995-1997 they spent their last two Fairbanks years in the professional minor league West Coast Hockey League. Between its inception in 1975 as the Teamsters, and in spite of its relocation to Colorado Springs in 1998 as the Alaska Gold Kings, Fairbanks’ team was a huge success. The Gold Kings won five national championships, played 16 different international and Olympic teams, played overseas in Asia and Europe on multiple occasions, and laid the foundation for the level of hockey found in Fairbanks today.
  • Letters as literature: semantic and discursive features of irony in "Letters to Howard"

    Cook, Corinna Jo; Schneider, William; Koester, David; Ruppert, James (2011-12)
    This thesis examines the literary features of the Letters to Howard, a series of letters to the editor of the Alaskan newspaper, the Tundra Times. Published over the course of several months in 1973, the letters were signed by two semi-fictional characters: an old Eskimo man, Naugga Ciunerput, and a lost VISTA volunteer, Wally Morton, the two lone inhabitants of the imagined Land's End Village, Alaska. Naugga and Wally had a pointed agenda: they were addressing editor Howard Rock and his readership with their concerns regarding the newly-passed Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, or ANCSA. In truth, Naugga and Wally's letters were written by two graduate students, Fred Bigjim (an Inupiaq from Nome studying education) and James Ito-Adler (a law student who had switched to anthropology). The use of irony in these letters is the subject of my analysis here; I focus first on the semantic layers of irony and second on its discursive dimensions. This thesis' ultimate goal is to illuminate the ways in which these letters contest history, frame the nature and distribution of power, and examine the myriad tensions at play between Native peoples' historic, cultural, and political ties to the land.
  • A comparative analysis of fish and wildlife enforcement in Alaska from the passage of the 1902 Alaska game law to 2011

    Woldstad, Kenneth J.; McBeath, Gerald; Cole, Terrence; Klein, David R. (2011-08)
    This study examines the institutional evolution of wildlife enforcement in the context of Alaskan history and politics from 1902 to the present. Balancing competing demands for expertise in fish and wildlife matters on one hand, with a technical knowledge of law enforcement on the other, has long been the central institutional challenge facing those protecting Alaska's living resources. Following enactment of the first Alaska Game Law in 1902, responsibility for enforcement was initially left to already over-burdened law enforcement officials, with ultimate authority remaining under the U.S. Agriculture Department. Passage of the 1925 "Alaska Game Law" and establishment of the Alaska Game Commission saw the creation of professional wardens. Following statehood the Department of Fish and Game assumed the enforcement responsibility from 1960 to 1972, until Governor William Egan shifted the protection personnel to the Department of Public Safety (DPS), thereby transforming them into state troopers, although in a separate division. As a result of the transfer to DPS, conservation of fish and wildlife was in the hands of professional law enforcement. Many resource users opposed the transfer, certain that the emphasis on general law enforcement came at the expense of wildlife expertise, a tension that continues to persist today.
  • Uninhabited and free from work: an environmental and federal land-use policy history of Glacial Lake Atna wilderness, Alaska

    McLaughlin, Marley M.; Coen, Ross; Meek, Chanda; Ehrlander, Mary F. (2020-05)
    The Glacial Lake Atna area, a valley between the southern Alaska and Wrangell mountain ranges in Southcentral Alaska, despite its appearance today as remote, thickly forested, and seemingly "wild" in character, has a 10,000-year history of human habitation. The first peoples in Alaska made encampments and harvested subsistence resources on the shores of the glacial lake and its margins, while today residents and visitors to the region continue to inhabit, hunt, fish, gather berries, cut firewood, and generally subsist from the land in ways remarkably similar to their prehistoric forebears. Humans and nature have a long, shared history in the thirteen million-acre Glacial Lake Atna region, and yet, since the mid-1980s, amid the modern-day conservation movement to protect so-called wild places, the region has been bordered and patrolled in ways that separate humans from nature. Wilderness policies under the National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management suggest that wilderness areas are inherently pristine, devoid of human inhabitation, and without the imprint of human work. Alaska lands acts, most specifically the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980, while allowing for subsistence, did not adequately address work and inhabitation. This thesis questions such policies and, through archaeological, historical, and policy analyses of humans and nature in the region, argues wilderness has never been truly uninhabited and free from work. The idea of "wilderness" lacks introspection as these areas contain quite a lot of human history, and indeed wilderness is a construct of romanticism and post-frontier ideologies.
  • Lower Tanana flashcards

    Dougherty, Summer; Holton, Gary; Ehrlander, Mary E.; McCartney, Leslie (2019-05)
    As part of a study of Lower Tanana, I found it expedient to create a learning tool to help myself gain familiarity with Lower Tanana. I chose to employ Anki, an open-source tool for creating digital flashcard based learning tools. With Anki, I created cards for individual Lower Tanana words and phrases. In producing the computer flashcards for Lower Tanana, I realized that they could serve as a highly flexible system for both preserving and learning Lower Tanana. Further, because of the built-in system flexibility, such systems can be created to aid in preserving and teaching other endangered languages.
  • Indigenous-crown relations in Canada and the Yukon: the Peel Watershed case, 2017

    Baranik, Lauren Alexandra; Ehrlander, Mary F.; McCartney, Leslie; Castillo, Victoria; Hirsch, Alexander (2019-08)
    The history of Indigenous-Crown relations in Canada has varied regionally and temporally. With the Constitution Act of 1982, however, Canada entered a new era. Section 35 of the Constitution recognized Indigenous treaty and land rights, and the Supreme Court of Canada has consistently interpreted this section liberally in favor of Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The Court has upheld the honour of the Crown in emphasizing the national and subnational governments' duty to consult diligently when engaging in development on the traditional territories of First Nations, Metis, and Inuit. The "citizens-plus" model of asserting and protecting Indigenous rights, first coined in the Hawthorn Report of 1966, has proved effective in these court cases, most recently in the Yukon's Peel Watershed case from 2014 to 2017. Yet, engaging with the state to pursue and to invoke treaty rights has forced socioeconomic and political changes among Yukon First Nations that some scholars have argued are harmful to the spiritual and physical wellbeing of Indigenous communities, mainly through alienation from their homelands. The Peel Watershed case demonstrates the unique historical development of Yukon First Nations rights and the costs and benefits of treaty negotiations and asserting Indigenous rights.
  • "The most multi-ethnic country in the world": indigenous peoples in Russia's Eurasianist political narrative

    Trienen, Lex; Boylan, Brandon; Ehrlander, Mary; Hirsch, Alex (2019-05)
    Since 2012, scholars have taken a renewed look at the philosophical and political ideas of Eurasianism within Russia to explain President Vladimir Putin's conduct and the Russian public's response to it. Eurasianism in its current form posits that the Russian state plays a unique role in the history of the world in opposing the avaricious, agnostic, and culturally oppressive "West," while uniting and elevating the peoples of the Eurasian continent in a peaceful, organic and spiritual "Eurasia." Indigenous peoples play a distinctive role in this narrative. Both the United States and Russia have Indigenous populations that have been subjected to both passive neglect and active violence over the past several centuries and currently suffer from poor social conditions compared to the dominant ethnic groups of their respective countries. This thesis addresses the question of how the Russian media's portrayal of Native Americans diverges from that of its own Indigenous peoples in order to perpetuate this Eurasian narrative. Articles were collected from various news outlets in Russia, coded for Eurasianist themes using the Atlas.ti program, and analyzed by news outlet, date published, and topic. The analysis finds that the Russian media portrays Indigenous peoples in Russia as largely having constructive working relationships with the Kremlin, while they depict Native Americans as striving towards secession and mired in constant conflict with the U.S. government, but having surreptitious affinities towards the Eurasian civilizational model.
  • Germany's interests in the Arctic, as exemplifeid by its Arctic Council engagement

    Schley, Kerstin A.; Ehrlander, Mary; Boylan, Brandon; Hirsch, Alexander (2019-05)
    This thesis is a qualitative research exercise, which tests the explanatory value of the international relations theory of neoliberal institutionalism in explaining Germany's engagement in the Arctic and in the Arctic Council. The research question further attempts to clarify Germany's economic and environmental interests pursued through its engagement with the AC. This thesis analyzes Germany's engagement in the Arctic from a historical point of view up to Germany's contemporary interests. Germany's first Arctic engagement started with the period of whaling, continued through the age of polar heroes, up to the weather war of World War II. After the two World Wars, Germany struggled to restart its Arctic engagement, but nowadays enjoys a high reputation as an Arctic player. This is due to the well-known German polar research institute, the Alfred Wegener Institut Helholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, but also due to Germany's engagement in the Arctic Council. As a result of Germany's long history of polar, especially Arctic endeavors, the country became an Observer in the Arctic Council at its founding. As global warming has caused significant melting in the Arctic, Germany's interest has shifted from environmental concerns in the region to a dual emphasis of protecting the environment while pursuing economic opportunities. Today Germany pursues several interests in the Arctic, including economic, political, and environmental interests. Neoliberal institutionalism argues that cooperation can emerge through mutual trust and the building of norms, regimes and institutions. Realism on the other hand emphasizes security competition among great powers within anarchy of the international system, with the main aim to survive. The results of the analysis suggest that the theory of neoliberal institutionalism has better explanatory power for interpreting Germany's motivations for engaging in the Arctic Council than the theory of realism.
  • Quality of life for Alaskan individuals with FASD and their families

    Dow, Brenda S.; Ehrlander, Mary; Boylan, Brandon; Anahita, Sine; Rivkin, Inna (2019-05)
    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong disability caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The effects of FASD include a range of physical, mental, behavioral, and learning disabilities. These disabilities impact quality of life, not only for the affected individual, but for family members. The effects from FASD ripple into schools, the correctional system, and throughout rural and urban communities. Although there are no reliable statistics available on FASD in Alaska, many professionals in the field believe Alaska to have the highest rate of FASD in the United States. This research has explored the ways in which prenatal exposure to alcohol affects quality of life for Alaskan individuals and their families. For this study, I have defined quality of life as the multi-faceted evaluation of the individual's personal experiences and life satisfaction, including health, psychological and social indicators. Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and FASD, many studies have analyzed the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as possible interventions. Few studies have investigated how prenatal alcohol exposure affects the individual's quality of life and even fewer studies have analyzed how raising one or more children with FASD affects the family. To address the gap in the literature, this research applied social constructivist theory and employed a qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews to explore individuals' and parents' life stories and perceptions on how FASD has affected their lives. I interviewed eight individuals with FASD and 14 adoptive or long-term foster parents. Findings indicate that FASD impacts almost every facet of the lives of both the individuals affected and their families. All individuals with FASD interviewed for this project suffered serious adverse childhood experiences in addition to their prenatal exposure to alcohol. All encountered academic and social difficulties at school. Individuals struggled in their transitions to adulthood, with some individuals needing assistance from parents or social services throughout their lifespan. Parents expressed their ongoing need for structure within the home and the continual need to advocate for suitable services for their children. They described how the ongoing stress of raising their child(ren) with FASD affected their social lives, employment and even their marriages. The perspectives and insight of these individuals with FASD and their parents can provide other family members, service providers and legislators a better understanding of how FASD affects quality of life and assist decision makers in making informed choices on how to best provide expanded or improved supportive services to these individuals and families whose everyday struggles go largely unrecognized by the general public.
  • Improving the renovation, repair and painting training course to eliminate childhood lead poisonings: Wisconsin observations

    Hildebrandt, Anke M.; McBeath, Gerald; Meek, Chanda; Greenberg, Joshua (2013-12)
    In 2011, I worked briefly with the Asbestos and Lead Program for the State of Wisconsin. It was my job to conduct audits of our training providers as well as on-site inspections of work sites. During my time there I discovered a real disconnect between what I saw in the field and what is taught in class. Wisconsin has its own lead rules that are more stringent than the EPA's. After taking a critical look at the EPA's Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule (RRP) curriculum, I saw where the problems lay. The required hands-on training does not present the skills in a logical order and the demonstration is not similar enough to reality to be retained and transferred to a worksite consistently. Instead of contractors and homeowners learning how to conduct a job safely from start to finish, they are presented specific skills broken down into 11 skill sets. Over a four month time span I took the EPA curriculum and wrote scripts, videotaped, edited and narrated training videos with the assistance of Department of Health Service staff to eliminate the disconnect between the classroom learning and the real world. The videos demonstrate lead-safe work practices in a manner intended to increase retention rates. The videos were released in July 2012, and since then inspection statistics show a 13 percent decrease in offenses from certified workers and a 31 percent decrease in violations overall. Data for the first half of 2013 also indicated a positive trend; violations by certified contracts are down an additional percent. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation conducted a study in 1996, finding that 62 percent of Alaska private homes were built prior to 1979. This means approximately 49 percent of all Alaskan homes contain lead-based paint, 14 percent higher than the national average. The use of lead-based paint in colder regions is not uncommon. Lead-based paint was praised for its durability and longevity, making it ideal for regions in the circumpolar north. Americans spend nearly 90 percent of their time indoors. In cold climates, such as the Arctic, people tend to spend even more time indoors (EPA, 2012). Increased time indoors allows for increased wear on friction surfaces in the home. For children, deteriorating lead-based paint and lead in house dust are the primary and often most concentrated sources of lead (CDC, 2012). The Center for Disease Control reports that in 2004 there were 143,000 deaths and a loss of 8,977,000 disability-adjusted life years attributed to lead exposure worldwide. The primary cause was lead-associated adult cardiovascular disease and mild intellectual disability in children. Children represent approximately 80 percent of the disease impact attributed to lead, with an estimated 600,000 new cases of childhood intellectual disabilities resulting from blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 10 υg/dL(CDC, 2012).
  • Equitable co-management on the Kuskokwim River

    McDevitt, Chris; Anahita, Sine; Ehrlander, Mary; Racina, Kris (2018-08)
    A legally empowered equitable co-management system of the Kuskokwim River salmon fishery between subsistence users and state and federal managers does not exist. Despite federal legislation Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) (Section 8) calling for a "meaningful role" for subsistence users in managing fish and game on federal lands, some rural subsistence users believe that they have yet to assume a "meaningful role" in the policy-making process. The absolute maximum capacity that subsistence users can fulfill in terms of participating in the management of the resources they depend on comes in the form of one of many advisory boards. Ultimately, management regimes and policymakers do not have to consider advisory council member recommendations, suggestions and/or group proposals. On the Kuskokwim River, the decline of king salmon, perceived mismanagement, general mistrust of management agencies, inter-river conflict, and lack of authority and accountability felt by local users, has prompted some subsistence salmon fishermen to press for a stronger role in salmon management. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Kuskokwim River Inter Tribal Fish Commission (KRITFC) have developed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) pertaining to the management of the fishery. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) has not entered into negotiations with the KRITFC and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) regarding management. This thesis explores the history of the Kuskokwim salmon fishery and options available to Alaska Native subsistence salmon users who seek an equitable role in managing the fishery.
  • Arctic paradox: polar bears, climate change and American environmentalism

    Loeffler, Carolyn Kozak; Ehrlander, Mary; Cole, Terrence; Boylan, Brandon; Woodward, Kesler; Hirsch, Alexander (2018-08)
    By virtually any standard of measurement, the Arctic is hotter than ever before, physically, politically and emotionally. Rising ocean temperatures, opening sea lanes, disappearing pack ice and global fear of environmental devastation have combined to make the Arctic Ocean the great question mark about the future of the human species with ursus maritimus, the "sea bear," standing as perhaps the most evocative symbol of our global responsibility and fate. In human eyes the polar bear has long been a paradoxical creature, mirroring a dilemma at the center of America's relationship to the Arctic today. The region's stretches of uninterrupted ecosystems and wilderness areas inspire strikingly disparate visions: a resource warehouse to some, and a sacred environmental preserve to others, pitting historical frontier identities against moral obligations to future generations. These conflicting visions of the Arctic ice pack and the bears who live there also symbolize the tension between the realities of consumerism and the ideals of global citizenship. In the last 150 years, our understanding of the polar bear has transitioned from ferocious to vulnerable, from a symbol of cold to a symbol of melt. An analysis of this change illuminates shifting historical perspectives and the roots of this ideological divide. This thesis demonstrates how polar bears first entered the American public consciousness as ferocious and sublime Arctic predators, before being commercialized, commodified, and eventually codified into the symbols they are today. Applied discourse analysis deconstructs how industrialization mediated the cultural shift of the polar bear from feared predator to vulnerable and politically contentious climate victim. Images and image analysis support the historical narrative, and act as entry points to our historic and contemporary understandings of American environmentalism.
  • Communities' reflections on oil companies' corporate social responsibility activities in Utqiagvik, Alaska

    Cao, Yu; Hirsch, Alexander; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Jeremy, Speight (2018-08)
    This thesis explores the reflections of Utqiaġvik community members on British Petroleum's Corporate social responsibility activities within the region of North Slope, Alaska. The term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) refers to actions taken by corporations to improve the quality of life for its employees, local community members, and the environment, while also contributing to its own economic development. The thesis is driven by a guiding research question: how have the people of Utqiaġvik responded to the CSR activities of oil companies whose oil extractive industry operations impact the region's social, economic, and environmental welfare? In particular, this thesis seeks to understand why CSR activities sometimes fail to achieve their purported goals. By interviewing residents from the community of Utqiaġvik, I obtained perspectives on the impacts of oil development on the local environment and community, bringing to light the limits of current CSR activities, such that I might provide recommendations for rectifying CSR shortfalls. I argue that while oil companies' profit motives tend to restrict the potential of CSR activities, local people should be able to influence the types of CSR activities corporations pursue, given that they experience the local impacts of the industry. Based on my respondents' perspectives, I suggest that oil companies improve their risk-management approaches and communicate and discuss more effectively with local communities their current and planned developments and their intentions to minimize impacts, respect local culture and hire more local employees. The thesis concludes by offering recommendations to the oil companies regarding the nature and desired impacts of their CSR activities.
  • Demographic and social consequences of oil and gas development in Siberia, 1960s-early 1990s

    Logunov, Eugene V.; Black, Lydia (1999)
    The main goal of this thesis is to study the demographic and social consequences of rapid oil and gas development in Siberia, to show the experience of solving or failing to solve of wide range of social and cultural issues, and to sum up the results of both the economic impact on the social-cultural processes and the social impact on industrial production. In three decades, the number of new settlers in the Tyumen province was no less than 2,000,000 people. Such a pace of settling previously uninhabited territories with extreme environmental conditions had never occurred before in world practice. This explosive growth of population, dominated by young single males, has resulted in a distorted demographic structure which is hardly capable of reproduction. The birth rate declined sharply, whereas the death rate grew because of accidents, diseases, alcoholism, narcotics addiction, etc. The situation has been aggravated by complete neglect of the development of a social infrastructure. Nearly half of population live in conditions conducive to the degradation of family, morals, health and cultural values. Oil and gas development had numerous negative effects on indigenous peoples of the North. Destruction of the environment has undermined the natural base and functioning of their traditional occupations. They were unable to adapt to the new kinds of economic activity, and social and physical problems have become aggravated. There has been growth of the disease rate and of alcoholism. The descent into poverty has been rapid, and they find themselves under threat of ethnic degeneration and extinction. It was the initial orientation toward creation of a new but permanent population, the politics of "development through settlement," that proved to be one of the main causes of the deep crisis which has affected the region. The formation of a large, heterogeneous, unstable population, taken together with all its problems, accompanied by the inability to create a favorable social environment, mismanagement of manpower resources and an inadequate social infrastructure, have become the leading causes of production failures in the oil and gas industry.
  • The Scandinavian Immigrant Experience In Utah, 1850--1920: Using Material Culture To Interpret Cultural Adaptation

    Abbott, Rachel Gianni; Ehrlander, Mary; Gold, Carol; Henrichsen, Lynn; Koester, David (2013)
    From 1850 to 1920, over 25,000 Scandinavians who had joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints emigrated to Utah to unite themselves with fellow Church members (Mormons) and build their Zion. These Scandinavian immigrants brought distinctive cultural heritages and traditions that contributed to the collective identity in Utah. The majority of literature on Scandinavian immigration to America and Scandinavian immigrants in America, however, neglects to consider the Mormon Scandinavian immigrants in the larger discourse. In addition, many historians of Utah history have concluded that Scandinavian immigrants assimilated culturally and left no trace of their Danish, Norwegian and Swedish traditions. To understand the Scandinavian immigrant experience in Utah, this study examines the material culture emigrants took and produced in their new home. These objects reveal that rather than totally jettisoning homeland heritage, Scandinavian immigrants and their descendants maintained and modified their traditional folkways, skills, and crafts while comingling them with new cultural traditions. The work presented here is the product of four years of fieldwork throughout areas in Utah that were predominantly settled by Scandinavians in the nineteenth century. The study concentrates on furniture, pottery, folk painting, textiles, embroidery, tools and implements. Each object was compared to similar objects in Scandinavia to verify their validity as Scandinavian, then the history of each object was investigated though archival research. Objects and contextual material were examined to elicit their reflection of the immigrant experience and cultural adaptation, especially to understand the evolving identities of Scandinavian Mormons in their new land. This dissertation analyzes material culture to explore the concepts of acculturation and identity. The artifacts suggest that while immigrants adapted to Utah's desert landscape and adjusted to gendered Church expectations, they retained core aspects of their homeland identities. The findings thus illustrate complexity of identity; that it evolves and that certain threads are perhaps more resilient than others. The findings of this study contribute to the broader discourse on Scandinavians in America and assert that Scandinavians in Utah maintained and perpetuated skills and traditions acquired in their homelands as they adjusted to the culture and environment of their new home.
  • M.D. Snodgrass: The Founder Of The Alaska State Fair

    Colberg, Talis James (2008)
    This dissertation presents the life of M.D. Snodgrass as an example of how the Alaskan frontier transformed an unremarkable middle aged migrant into a socially prominent civic leader. The life of M.D. Snodgrass exemplifies how American frontier society provides ordinary people with exceptional opportunities to flourish and prosper. One of the end results of Snodgrass's taking advantage of Alaskan frontier opportunity was the Alaska State Fair. The dissertation divides the life of Snodgrass into four phases with the following findings: (1) The first thirty-one years of Snodgrass's life was spent outside of Alaska. His early life in Kansas demonstrates: the forces which formed Snodgrass, the absence of noteworthy activities and the habits he embraced that would remain constant in his long life. (2) The second thesis section documents: how upon arrival in Alaska he was immediately confronted with challenges and opportunities in the wilderness that built his self-confidence, and how he devoted most of the last six decades of his life to advancement of agriculture in Alaska. (3) The third part addresses his political career, with the following observations: the unsettled frontier society had no established upper class and he became socially mobile; being present at the creation of a political system allowed him to attain extraordinary prominence rapidly; and he learned to take risks, to lose and yet keep trying. (4) The final phase demonstrates that by definition a frontier society lacks institutions, and Snodgrass seized the opportunity to be a participant in the creation of two colleges and became the founding figure of the Alaska State Fair. The author concludes that had M.D. Snodgrass never left Kansas he probably would never have been a representative, senator, college trustee, founder of experiment stations, state presidential elector, or the founder of a state fair. A normal individual can accomplish exceptional feats in a frontier setting where the open environment encourages the development of human potential.
  • Constitutional Change In The Circumpolar Periphery: A Comparative Case Study

    Smyth, Steven Eric Ronald; McBeath, Gerald (2005)
    This dissertation probes the origins of intercultural conflict and regional disparity in the circumpolar North. The dissertation asserts that the national governments of Denmark, the United States and Canada have utilized policies of internal colonialism in Alaska, Greenland and the Yukon Territory, and that those policies have shaped inter-cultural relations and contributed to regional disparities in their northern jurisdictions. Michael Hecther's and Dale Johnson's definitions of internal colonialism are utilized for the purposes of this study. The dissertation uses a comparative case study approach, reviewing how national government policies evolved and were applied in Alaska, Yukon and Greenland. It treats Alaska and the Yukon as similar cases, while Greenland is examined in a separate chapter as a dissimilar case. The dissertation provides an historical analysis and comparison of national policies towards aboriginal peoples, and shows how those policies were applied differently in Alaska and the Yukon than they were in the southern United States and Canada. These policies exacerbated conflict between the aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations due to the cultural division of labor that was created. The dissertation then examines the impact of federal policies on the economic development of Alaska and the Yukon. Thirdly, the dissertation examines the history of constitutional change, and compares the struggle for Alaska statehood with efforts to achieve provincial status for the Yukon. The dissertation concludes that policies of internal colonialism have been detrimental to the social and economic well-being northern peoples, but that responses to these policies have generated creative new approaches and agreements.

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